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Okul Öncesi Sınıflarında Oyun Zamanı: Öğretmen ve Çocuğun Başlattığı Etkileşimler Bağlamında Öğretmen Rolleri

Yıl 2022, Cilt 18, Sayı 2, 176 - 192, 22.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.17860/mersinefd.1114130

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, oyun zamanında öğretmen ve çocuğun başlattığı etkileşimler bağlamında öğretmenlerin rollerini incelemektir. Amaçlı örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen katılımcılar gönüllü sekiz öğretmenden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden durum çalışması deseni tercih edilmiştir. Araştırmanın veri toplama aracı, araştırmacı tarafından çalışmanın amacına göre oluşturulmuş gözlem kaydı formudur. Bu doğrultuda sekiz öğretmenin her birinin sınıfında üçer kez yapılan gözlemler yoluyla veriler toplanmıştır. Veri toplama süreci sonunda düzenlenen veriler, içerik analizi yoluyla analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, öğretmenlerin en çok çocuğa çalışmaları hakkında geri bildirim verdiği değerlendirme rolüne yöneldiği görülmektedir. Öğretmenlerin benimsemeyi tercih ettiği bir diğer rol ise oyunlarına kayıtsız kaldığı ilgisiz roldür. Öğretmenlerin anlaşmazlık durumlarında çözüm üretmeye yönelik destek verdiği arabulucu rolü bir diğer sık kullanılan rol kapsamındadır. Bu üç rol dışında öğretmenlerin etkileşimlerinde kullandığı yardım, rehberlik ve izin diğer roller kapsamında sıklıkla tercih edilmektedir. Çocuklar öğrenme merkezinde çalışmalarını yaparken etkinliği zenginleştirme gücü sağlayan tasarımcı rolünü öğretmenlerin nadiren kullandığı gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca çocuğun gelişimini değerlendirme ve planlama sürecini etkili hale getirmede öğretmenin kullanması beklenen ve programın açık şekilde vurguladığı gözlemci rolü de yeterince sınıflarda hayat bulamamıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Baines, E., & Blatchford, P. (2011). Children’s games and playground activities in school and their role in development. In A. D. Pellegrini (Ed.) The Oxford handbook of the development of play, (pp. 260-283). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195393002.013.0020
  • Beaty, J. J. (2018). Erken çocuklukta gözlem ve değerlendirme. (M., Boz, Çev.). Anı Yayıncılık. (2014).
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2003). Learning and development of preschool children from the Vygotskian perspective. Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context, (pp. 156-176). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2006). M. Zaslow & I. Martinez-Beck (Edt.), Self-Regulation as a Key to School Readiness: How Early Childhood Teachers Can Promote this Critical Competency, Critical issues in early childhood professional development (pp. 203–224). Paul H Brookes Publishing.
  • Bredekamp, S. (2015). Erken çocukluk Eğitiminde Etkili Uygulamalar (H. Zeynep İnan, T. İnan, Çev.). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
  • Creswell, J.W. (2014). Araştırma deseni niteli nicel ve karma yöntem yaklaşımları. (S.B. Demir, Çev.), Ankara: Eğiten Kitap Yayınevi.
  • Driscol, K. C., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Banking time in Head Start: Early efficacy of an intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Early Education and Development, 21(1), 38–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10409280802657449.
  • Göncü, A. (2019). Oyunda büyümek, çocuk gelişimi ve eğitimine sosyokültürel bakış. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Gray, P. (2013). Definitions of play. Scholarpedia, 8(7), 30578. https://doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.30578
  • Gronlund, G. (2012). Planning for play, observation, and learning in preschool and kindergarten. Redleaf Press.
  • Hancock, R.D. & Algozzine, B. (2006). Doing case study research. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2008). Why play= learning. Encyclopedia on early childhood development, 1, 1-7.
  • Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R., Bryant, D., Early, D., Clifford, R., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Ready to learn? Children's pre-academic achievement in pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(1), 27-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.05.002
  • Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Eğitim araştırmaları (S. B. Demir, Çev.). Ankara: Eğiten Kitap Yayınevi.
  • Johnson, J. E. , Chrisite, J. F. & Yawkey, T. D. (1999). Play and early childhood development (2nd edn). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
  • Johnson, J. E., Christie, J. F., & Wardle, F. (2005). Play, development, and early education. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
  • Jones, E., & Reynolds, G. (2015). The play's the thing: Teachers' roles in children's play. Teachers College Press.
  • Korat, O., Bahar, E., & Snapir, M. (2002). Sociodramatic play as opportunity for literacy development: The teacher's role. The Reading Teacher, 56(4), 386-393.
  • Kostelnik M. J., Soderman A. K., Whiren A. P., & Rupiper M. L. (2019). Gelişime Uygun Eğitim Programı - Erken Çocukluk Eğitiminde En İyi Uygulamalar (E. Ahmetoğlu, İ. H. Acar, Çev.), Ankara: Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Kurt, H. (2021). Oyun ve Öğrenme. Dikici Sığırtmaç, A. (Ed.) Erken Çocuklukta Oyun Gelişimi ve Eğitimi, (sf. 123-143). Ankara, İzge Yayıncılık.
  • Lin, X., & Li, H. (2018). Parents’ play beliefs and engagement in young children’s play at home. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 26(2), 161-176. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2018.1441979
  • Logue, M. E., & Harvey, H. (2009). Preschool teachers' views of active play. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24(1), 32-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568540903439375
  • Luckenbill, J., & Nuccitelli, S. (2013). Puppets and problem solving: Circle time techniques (pp. 1-39). http://caeyc.org/main/caeyciproposals/pdfs/Luckenbilpup- pet.pdf
  • Martlew, J., Stephen, C., & Ellis, J. (2011). Play in the primary school classroom? The experience of teachers supporting children’s learning through a new pedagogy. Early Years, 31(1), 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2010.529425
  • McDonald, P. (2018). Observing, planning, guiding: How an intentional teacher meets standards through play. YC Young Children, 73(1), 31-35. https://www.jstor.org/stable/90019476.
  • Morrison, G.S., (2021). Günümüzde Erken Çocukluk Eğitimi, (S. Korkmaz, Çev.), Anakara: Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Moyles, J. (2015). Starting with play: Taking play seriously. The excellence of play, 4, 14-24.
  • Murray, J. (2018). The play’s the thing. International Journal of Early Years Education, 26(4), 335-339. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2018.1527278
  • Patton, M. Q. (2014). Nitel Araştırma ve Değerlendirme Metotları. (M.Bütün, S.B. Demir, Çev.) Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık
  • Porter, L. (2020). Young children’s behaviour: Guidance approaches for early childhood educators, (4th ed.) London: Routledge Publishing. https: //doi.org/10.4324/9781003118510
  • Pyle, A., & Bigelow, A. (2015). Play in kindergarten: An interview and observational study in three Canadian classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(5), 385-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-014-0666-1
  • Rengel, K. (2014). Preschool teachers’ attitudes towards play. Croatian Journal of Education, 16(1), 113-125.
  • Sandseter, E. B. H., Cordovil, R., Hagen, T. L., & Lopes, F. (2019). Barriers for Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Institutions: Perception of Risk in Children’s Play among European Parents and ECEC Practitioners. Child Care in Practice, 1(19), 111-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2019.1685461
  • Silverman, D. (2015). Interpreting qualitative data. Sage Publishing.
  • Trawick-Smith, J., & Dziurgot, T. (2011). ‘Good-fit’teacher–child play interactions and the subsequent autonomous play of preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 110-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.04.005
  • Tsai, C. Y. (2015). Am I Interfering? Preschool Teacher Participation in Children Play. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(12), 1028-1033 https://doi.org/1028-1033. 10.13189/ujer.2015.031212
  • Van Oers, B., ve Duijkers, D. (2013). Teaching in a play-based curriculum: Theory, practice and evidence of developmental education for young children. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45, 511–534. https://doi:10.1080/00220272.2011.637182.
  • Vorkapić, S. T., & Katić, V. (2015). How Students of Preschool Education Perceive Their Play Competences–An Analysis of Their Involvement in Children’s Play. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 5(1), 111-130. https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.162
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in society, the development of higher mental psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Weinstein, C. S., & Mignano, A., Jr. (2011). Elementary class- room management: Lessons from research and practice (Sth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2012). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin.
  • Yin, R. K. (2011). Applications of case study research (3. bs.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Playtime in Preschool Classes: Teacher Roles in the Context of Teacher and Child-Initiated Interactions

Yıl 2022, Cilt 18, Sayı 2, 176 - 192, 22.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.17860/mersinefd.1114130

Öz

The aim of the study is to examine the roles of teachers in the context of teacher-child-initiated interactions during playtime. The participants, determined by the purposeful sampling method, consist of eight volunteer teachers. The case study design, one of the qualitative research methods, was preferred in the study. The data collection tool of the research is the observation record form created by the researcher according to the purpose of the study. Data were collected through observations made three times in the teachers' classroom. Content analysis method was used in data analysis. As a result of the study, it’s seen that teachers mostly tend to the evaluation role. Another role that teachers prefer to adopt is the irrelevant role that they are indifferent to their games. The mediator role that teachers use in conflict situations is another frequently used role. Apart from these three roles, help, guidance and permission used by teachers in their interactions are frequently preferred within the scope of other roles. It has been observed that teachers rarely use the designer role. In addition, the observer role that the teacher is expected to use and clearly emphasized by the program has not been sufficiently implemented in the classrooms.

Kaynakça

  • Baines, E., & Blatchford, P. (2011). Children’s games and playground activities in school and their role in development. In A. D. Pellegrini (Ed.) The Oxford handbook of the development of play, (pp. 260-283). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195393002.013.0020
  • Beaty, J. J. (2018). Erken çocuklukta gözlem ve değerlendirme. (M., Boz, Çev.). Anı Yayıncılık. (2014).
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2003). Learning and development of preschool children from the Vygotskian perspective. Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context, (pp. 156-176). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2006). M. Zaslow & I. Martinez-Beck (Edt.), Self-Regulation as a Key to School Readiness: How Early Childhood Teachers Can Promote this Critical Competency, Critical issues in early childhood professional development (pp. 203–224). Paul H Brookes Publishing.
  • Bredekamp, S. (2015). Erken çocukluk Eğitiminde Etkili Uygulamalar (H. Zeynep İnan, T. İnan, Çev.). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
  • Creswell, J.W. (2014). Araştırma deseni niteli nicel ve karma yöntem yaklaşımları. (S.B. Demir, Çev.), Ankara: Eğiten Kitap Yayınevi.
  • Driscol, K. C., & Pianta, R. C. (2010). Banking time in Head Start: Early efficacy of an intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Early Education and Development, 21(1), 38–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 10409280802657449.
  • Göncü, A. (2019). Oyunda büyümek, çocuk gelişimi ve eğitimine sosyokültürel bakış. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Gray, P. (2013). Definitions of play. Scholarpedia, 8(7), 30578. https://doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.30578
  • Gronlund, G. (2012). Planning for play, observation, and learning in preschool and kindergarten. Redleaf Press.
  • Hancock, R.D. & Algozzine, B. (2006). Doing case study research. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2008). Why play= learning. Encyclopedia on early childhood development, 1, 1-7.
  • Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R., Bryant, D., Early, D., Clifford, R., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Ready to learn? Children's pre-academic achievement in pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(1), 27-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.05.002
  • Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Eğitim araştırmaları (S. B. Demir, Çev.). Ankara: Eğiten Kitap Yayınevi.
  • Johnson, J. E. , Chrisite, J. F. & Yawkey, T. D. (1999). Play and early childhood development (2nd edn). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
  • Johnson, J. E., Christie, J. F., & Wardle, F. (2005). Play, development, and early education. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
  • Jones, E., & Reynolds, G. (2015). The play's the thing: Teachers' roles in children's play. Teachers College Press.
  • Korat, O., Bahar, E., & Snapir, M. (2002). Sociodramatic play as opportunity for literacy development: The teacher's role. The Reading Teacher, 56(4), 386-393.
  • Kostelnik M. J., Soderman A. K., Whiren A. P., & Rupiper M. L. (2019). Gelişime Uygun Eğitim Programı - Erken Çocukluk Eğitiminde En İyi Uygulamalar (E. Ahmetoğlu, İ. H. Acar, Çev.), Ankara: Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Kurt, H. (2021). Oyun ve Öğrenme. Dikici Sığırtmaç, A. (Ed.) Erken Çocuklukta Oyun Gelişimi ve Eğitimi, (sf. 123-143). Ankara, İzge Yayıncılık.
  • Lin, X., & Li, H. (2018). Parents’ play beliefs and engagement in young children’s play at home. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 26(2), 161-176. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2018.1441979
  • Logue, M. E., & Harvey, H. (2009). Preschool teachers' views of active play. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24(1), 32-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568540903439375
  • Luckenbill, J., & Nuccitelli, S. (2013). Puppets and problem solving: Circle time techniques (pp. 1-39). http://caeyc.org/main/caeyciproposals/pdfs/Luckenbilpup- pet.pdf
  • Martlew, J., Stephen, C., & Ellis, J. (2011). Play in the primary school classroom? The experience of teachers supporting children’s learning through a new pedagogy. Early Years, 31(1), 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2010.529425
  • McDonald, P. (2018). Observing, planning, guiding: How an intentional teacher meets standards through play. YC Young Children, 73(1), 31-35. https://www.jstor.org/stable/90019476.
  • Morrison, G.S., (2021). Günümüzde Erken Çocukluk Eğitimi, (S. Korkmaz, Çev.), Anakara: Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Moyles, J. (2015). Starting with play: Taking play seriously. The excellence of play, 4, 14-24.
  • Murray, J. (2018). The play’s the thing. International Journal of Early Years Education, 26(4), 335-339. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2018.1527278
  • Patton, M. Q. (2014). Nitel Araştırma ve Değerlendirme Metotları. (M.Bütün, S.B. Demir, Çev.) Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık
  • Porter, L. (2020). Young children’s behaviour: Guidance approaches for early childhood educators, (4th ed.) London: Routledge Publishing. https: //doi.org/10.4324/9781003118510
  • Pyle, A., & Bigelow, A. (2015). Play in kindergarten: An interview and observational study in three Canadian classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(5), 385-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-014-0666-1
  • Rengel, K. (2014). Preschool teachers’ attitudes towards play. Croatian Journal of Education, 16(1), 113-125.
  • Sandseter, E. B. H., Cordovil, R., Hagen, T. L., & Lopes, F. (2019). Barriers for Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Institutions: Perception of Risk in Children’s Play among European Parents and ECEC Practitioners. Child Care in Practice, 1(19), 111-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2019.1685461
  • Silverman, D. (2015). Interpreting qualitative data. Sage Publishing.
  • Trawick-Smith, J., & Dziurgot, T. (2011). ‘Good-fit’teacher–child play interactions and the subsequent autonomous play of preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 110-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.04.005
  • Tsai, C. Y. (2015). Am I Interfering? Preschool Teacher Participation in Children Play. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(12), 1028-1033 https://doi.org/1028-1033. 10.13189/ujer.2015.031212
  • Van Oers, B., ve Duijkers, D. (2013). Teaching in a play-based curriculum: Theory, practice and evidence of developmental education for young children. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45, 511–534. https://doi:10.1080/00220272.2011.637182.
  • Vorkapić, S. T., & Katić, V. (2015). How Students of Preschool Education Perceive Their Play Competences–An Analysis of Their Involvement in Children’s Play. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 5(1), 111-130. https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.162
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in society, the development of higher mental psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Weinstein, C. S., & Mignano, A., Jr. (2011). Elementary class- room management: Lessons from research and practice (Sth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2012). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin.
  • Yin, R. K. (2011). Applications of case study research (3. bs.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler, Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Şerife Hülya KURT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Tarsus Üniversitesi
0000-0002-0211-1463
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 22 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 18, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Kurt, Ş. H. (2022). Okul Öncesi Sınıflarında Oyun Zamanı: Öğretmen ve Çocuğun Başlattığı Etkileşimler Bağlamında Öğretmen Rolleri . Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 18 (2) , 176-192 . DOI: 10.17860/mersinefd.1114130

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