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Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi

Yıl 2020, Cilt 10, Sayı 2, 52 - 59, 28.12.2020

Öz

Bu çalışma, Ordu ili kivi bitkilerinde kök çürüklüğüne neden olan Fusarium türlerini tanımlamak ve onların patojenisitelerini belirlemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Bu amaçla, 2014 yılında, Ordu İli ticari kivi yetiştiriciliğinin yaklaşık %97’sini kapsayan Altınordu, Perşembe, Gülyalı, Fatsa, Ünye, İkizce, Ulubey ve Çaybaşı ilçelerinden toplam 118 bahçede inceleme yapılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda, kivi bahçelerinde hastalıklı bitkilerden toplam 136 Fusarium spp. izolatı elde edilmiştir. İzolatların %57.4 (78 adet)’ünün Fusarium oxysporum’a, %15.4 (21 adet)’ünün F. solani’ye, %7.4 (10 adet)’ünün F. redolens’e, %5.9 (8 adet)’unun F. equiseti’ye, %2.9 (4 adet)’unun F. culmorum’a, %2.2 (3 adet)’sinin F. verticilloides’e, %2.2 (3 adet)’sinin Fusarium sp.’ye, %1.5 (2 adet)’inin F. vetricosum’a, %1.5 (2 adet)’inin F. acuminatum’a, %0.7 (1 adet)’sinin F. bulbicola’ya, %0.7 (1 adet)’sinin F. compactum’a, %0.7 (1 adet)’sinin F. incarnatum’a, %0.7 (1 adet)’sinin F. subglutinans’a ve %0.7 (1 adet)’sinin F. tabacinum’a ait olduğu belirlenmiştir. İzolatların yaklaşık %21 (28 adet)’i kullanılarak kivi fidanları ile yürütülen patojenisite testlerinde, izolatların hastalık şiddeti skalası 0.25-4.0 arasında değiştiği tespit edilmiştir. Patojenisite testinde kullanılan izolatlardan, F. solani’ye ait 65-5-1, 87-1-1, 66-3-2 ve 69-2-2; F. verticilloides’e ait 75-5-1 ve 76-4-1; ve F. oxysporum’a ait 126-2-2, 97-3-2, 105-2-1 ve 51-1-1 en virülent bulunan izolatlardır. Yukarıda belirtilen izolatların virülenslikleri ile F. acuminatum, F. bulbicola, F. compactum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, F. subglutinans, F. tabacinum, F. ventricosum ve Fusarium sp. izolatlarının virülenslikleri arasındaki farklılık istatistiksel olarak önemli bulunmuştur (P < 0.05). Ayrıca, F. solani ve F. verticilloides’in tüm izolatları ve F. oxysporum’un bazı izolat (126-2-2, 97-3-2, 105-2-1 ve 51-1-1)’ları bitki gelişim parametreleri (bitki boyu, kök uzunluğu ve kök ve bitki gövde kuru ağırlıkları)’ni kontrol bitkilerine kıyasla önemli ölçüde azaltmışlardır (P < 0.05).

Kaynakça

  • Akıllı, S., Serçe, Ç. U., Katırcıoğlu, Y. K., Karakaya, A., Maden, S. 2011. Involvement of Phytophthora citrophthora in kiwifruit decline in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology, 159:579-581.
  • Asan, A. 2011. Checklist of Fusarium species reported from Turkey. Mycotaxon, 116(1): 479.
  • Baudry, A., Morzieres, J. P., Ellis, R. 1991. Effect of Phytophthora spp. on kiwifruit in France. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 19(4): 395-398.
  • Booth C., 1971. The genus Fusarium, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Kew, Surrey, England, 237.
  • Brook, P. J. 1986. Diseases of kiwifruit. In ‘Kiwifruit: science and management’.(Eds IJ Warrington, GC Weston). New Zealand Ray Richards Publisher pp420-428.
  • Burgess L. W., Summerrell B. A., Bullock S., Gott K. P., Backhouse D. 1994. Laboratory manual for Fusarium research (3rd Edition), USA, 388.
  • Conn, K. E., Gubler, W. D., Mircetich, S. M., Hasey, J. K. 1991. Pathogenicity and relative virulence of nine Phytophthora spp. from kiwifruit. Phytopathology, 81(9): 974-979.
  • Çiftçi, O., Serçe, Ç. U., Türkölmez, Ş., Derviş, S. 2016. First Report of Phytophthora palmivora causing crown and root rot of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(1): 210.
  • Di Marco, S., Calzarano, F., Osti, F., Mazzullo, A. 2004. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with a decay of kiwifruit. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33(3): 337-342.
  • Erper, I., Tunali, B., Agusti-Brisach, C., Armengol, J. 2011. First report of Cylindrocarpon liriodendri on kiwifruit in Turkey. Plant Disease, 95:76.
  • Erper, I., Agustí-Brisach, C., Tunali, B., Armengol, J. 2013. Characterization of root rot disease of kiwifruit in the Black Sea region of Turkey. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 136(2): 291-300.
  • FAO, 2018. http://faostat3.fao.org/download/Q/QC/E (Erişim Tarihi: 10.05.2019).
  • Grigorov, S.P. 1974. Karantina na restaniata, Zemizdat, Sofya, 346p.
  • Güncan, A. 2015. Current status of the kiwifruit pests in Turkey. Acta Hortic. 1096, 371-376 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1096.43.
  • Hawthorne, B.T., Otto, C. 1986. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with leaf spots of kiwifruit. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(3): 533-538.
  • Horner, I. J. 1985. How serious is the Armillaria problem? New Zealand Kiwifruit, December 1985: 20.
  • Kurbetli, İ., Ozan, S. 2013. Occurrence of Phytophthora root and stem rot of kiwifruit in Turkey. Journal Phytopathology, 161(11-12): 887-889.
  • Larue, J. H. 1994. History and commercial development. In: Hasey J.K., Johnson R.S., Grant, J.A., Reil, W.O. (eds). Kiwifruit growing and handling. Oakland, California, USA, ANR Publications pp 1-2.
  • Latorre, B. A., Alvarez, C., Ribeiro, O. K. 1991. Phytophthora root rot of kiwifruit in Chile. Plant Disease, 75(9): 949-952.
  • Latorre, B. A., Perez, G. F., Wilcox, W. F., Torres, R. 1995. Comparative protein electrophoretic and isoenzymic patterns of Phytophthora cryptogea isolates from Chilean kiwifruit and North American deciduous fruits. Plant Disease (USA).
  • Lee, Y. H., Jee, H. J., Cha, K. H., Ko, S. J., Park, K. B. 2001. Occurrence of Phytophthora root rot on kiwifruit in Korea. The Plant Pathology Journal, 17(3): 154-158.
  • Mahdavi, E. 2013. Occurrence of Phytophthora root and collar rot disease of kiwifruit orchards in the west part of the Mazandaran Province. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(8): 331-335.
  • Nipoti, P., Sandalo, S., Prodi, A., Credi, R., Spada, G., Graziani, S. 2013. An unusual wood disease of kiwifruit in Italy. International Society for Horticultural Science, V International Symposium on Kiwifruit.
  • Oyarce Lorca, S.A. 2014. Identificación morfológica y molecular de Fusarium oxysporum asociado a pudrición en frutos de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa). Universidad de Talca (Chile). Escuela de Agronomía. 48p.
  • Polat, Z., Awan, Q. N., Hussain, M., Akgül, D. S. 2017. First report of Phytopythium vexans causing root and collar rot of kiwifruit in Turkey. Plant Disease, 101(6): 1058.
  • Strik, B., Cahn, H., Buller, G., Tiyayon C., Pescie, M. 2005. Growing kiwifruit. pacific northwest extension (The Oregon State University Extension Service, Washington State University Extension, and University of Idaho Extension), USA, 27 pp.
  • Şahin, N., Türkkan, M. 2020. Ordu ili kivi üretim alanlarındaki toprak kökenli fungusların tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 10(1): 58-65.
  • Taheri, H., Beygi, F., Gol Mohammadi, M., Aduli, B. 2007. Etiology of kiwifruit crown and root fungal pathogens in North of Iran. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=IR2012001108.
  • Thomidis, T., Exadaktylou, E., Chen, S. 2013. Diaporthe neotheicola, a new threat for kiwifruit in Greece. Crop Protection, 47: 35-40.
  • TÜİK, 2018. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/medas/?kn=92&locale=tr-(ErişimTarihi: 10.05.2019).
  • Türkkan, M., Erper, I., Kılıçoğlu, M. Ç., Yazıcıoğlu, E., Özcan, M. 2018. Characterization and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from kiwifruit in the Middle and Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology, 166(11-12): 761-774.
  • Türkkan, M., Şahin, N., Özer, G., Evgin, Z., Yaman, M., Erper, I. 2020a. First report of Verticillium dahliae causing Verticillium wilt on kiwifruit in Ordu, Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 102:221-222.
  • Türkkan, M., Benli, H. İ., Yılmaz, Ö., Özer, G., Yaman, M., Şahin, N., Erper, I. 2020b. First report of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on kiwifruit in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 102: 535.
  • Yajun, H., Peikun, Q. 1998. Studies on the cause of root rot of kiwifruit in Guangdong Province. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 19(4):19-22.
  • Ying-Ying, Y., Liang C., Hong-Hai, Z. 2017. The pathogen causing bower kiwifruit Fusarium root rot. Mycosystema, 36(10): 1369-1375.
  • Yonat, H. 2016. Ordu ili kivi bahçelerinde görülen yabancı ot türlerinin ve yoğunluklarının belirlenmesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ordu Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Bitki Koruma Anabilim Dalı, Ordu.

Identification and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from kiwifruit plants in Ordu

Yıl 2020, Cilt 10, Sayı 2, 52 - 59, 28.12.2020

Öz

This study was carried out in order to identify Fusarium species causing root rot in kiwifruit plants in Ordu province, and to determine their pathogenicity. A total of 118 kiwifruit orchards located in Altınordu, Perşembe, Gülyalı, Fatsa, Ünye, İkizce, Ulubey and Çaybaşı districts were surveyed to collect diseased samples in 2014. Surveyed areas constitute approximately 97% of commercial kiwifruit cultivation of Ordu province. As a result of the study, a total of 136 Fusarium spp. isolates were obtained from the diseased plants samples. It was determined that 57.4% (78) of the isolates belong to Fusarium oxysporum, 15.4% (21) to F. solani, 7.4% (10) to F. redolens, 5.9% (8) to F. equiseti, 2.9% (4) to F. culmorum, 2.2% (3) to F. verticilloides, 2.2% (3) to Fusarium sp., 1.5% (2) to F. vetricosum, 1.5% (2) to F. acuminatum, 0.7% (1) to F. bulbicola, 0.7% (1) to F. compactum, 0.7% (1) to F. incarnatum, 0.7% (1) to F. subglutinans and 0.7% (1) to F. tabacinum. In the pathogenicity tests carried out using approximately 21% (28) of the isolates on kiwifruit seedlings, it was found that the disease severity of the isolates ranged between 0.25 to 4.0. Of the isolates used in this test, 65-5-1, 87-1-1, 66-3-2 and 69-2-2 (F. solani); 75-5-1 and 76-4-1 (F. verticilloides); and 126-2-2, 97-3-2, 105-2-1 and 51-1-1 (F. oxysporum) were the most virulent isolates. The difference between the virulence of the above-mentioned isolates and that of F. acuminatum, F. bulbicola, F. compactum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, F. subglutinans, F. tabacinum, F. ventricosum and Fusarium sp. isolates was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In addition, all isolates of F. solani and F. verticilloides, and some isolates (126-2-2, 97-3-2, 105-2-1 ve 51-1-1) of F. oxysporum significantly reduced plant growth parameters (plant height, root length, and dry weights of shoot and root) compared to control plants (P < 0.05).

Kaynakça

  • Akıllı, S., Serçe, Ç. U., Katırcıoğlu, Y. K., Karakaya, A., Maden, S. 2011. Involvement of Phytophthora citrophthora in kiwifruit decline in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology, 159:579-581.
  • Asan, A. 2011. Checklist of Fusarium species reported from Turkey. Mycotaxon, 116(1): 479.
  • Baudry, A., Morzieres, J. P., Ellis, R. 1991. Effect of Phytophthora spp. on kiwifruit in France. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 19(4): 395-398.
  • Booth C., 1971. The genus Fusarium, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Kew, Surrey, England, 237.
  • Brook, P. J. 1986. Diseases of kiwifruit. In ‘Kiwifruit: science and management’.(Eds IJ Warrington, GC Weston). New Zealand Ray Richards Publisher pp420-428.
  • Burgess L. W., Summerrell B. A., Bullock S., Gott K. P., Backhouse D. 1994. Laboratory manual for Fusarium research (3rd Edition), USA, 388.
  • Conn, K. E., Gubler, W. D., Mircetich, S. M., Hasey, J. K. 1991. Pathogenicity and relative virulence of nine Phytophthora spp. from kiwifruit. Phytopathology, 81(9): 974-979.
  • Çiftçi, O., Serçe, Ç. U., Türkölmez, Ş., Derviş, S. 2016. First Report of Phytophthora palmivora causing crown and root rot of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(1): 210.
  • Di Marco, S., Calzarano, F., Osti, F., Mazzullo, A. 2004. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with a decay of kiwifruit. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33(3): 337-342.
  • Erper, I., Tunali, B., Agusti-Brisach, C., Armengol, J. 2011. First report of Cylindrocarpon liriodendri on kiwifruit in Turkey. Plant Disease, 95:76.
  • Erper, I., Agustí-Brisach, C., Tunali, B., Armengol, J. 2013. Characterization of root rot disease of kiwifruit in the Black Sea region of Turkey. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 136(2): 291-300.
  • FAO, 2018. http://faostat3.fao.org/download/Q/QC/E (Erişim Tarihi: 10.05.2019).
  • Grigorov, S.P. 1974. Karantina na restaniata, Zemizdat, Sofya, 346p.
  • Güncan, A. 2015. Current status of the kiwifruit pests in Turkey. Acta Hortic. 1096, 371-376 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1096.43.
  • Hawthorne, B.T., Otto, C. 1986. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with leaf spots of kiwifruit. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 29(3): 533-538.
  • Horner, I. J. 1985. How serious is the Armillaria problem? New Zealand Kiwifruit, December 1985: 20.
  • Kurbetli, İ., Ozan, S. 2013. Occurrence of Phytophthora root and stem rot of kiwifruit in Turkey. Journal Phytopathology, 161(11-12): 887-889.
  • Larue, J. H. 1994. History and commercial development. In: Hasey J.K., Johnson R.S., Grant, J.A., Reil, W.O. (eds). Kiwifruit growing and handling. Oakland, California, USA, ANR Publications pp 1-2.
  • Latorre, B. A., Alvarez, C., Ribeiro, O. K. 1991. Phytophthora root rot of kiwifruit in Chile. Plant Disease, 75(9): 949-952.
  • Latorre, B. A., Perez, G. F., Wilcox, W. F., Torres, R. 1995. Comparative protein electrophoretic and isoenzymic patterns of Phytophthora cryptogea isolates from Chilean kiwifruit and North American deciduous fruits. Plant Disease (USA).
  • Lee, Y. H., Jee, H. J., Cha, K. H., Ko, S. J., Park, K. B. 2001. Occurrence of Phytophthora root rot on kiwifruit in Korea. The Plant Pathology Journal, 17(3): 154-158.
  • Mahdavi, E. 2013. Occurrence of Phytophthora root and collar rot disease of kiwifruit orchards in the west part of the Mazandaran Province. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(8): 331-335.
  • Nipoti, P., Sandalo, S., Prodi, A., Credi, R., Spada, G., Graziani, S. 2013. An unusual wood disease of kiwifruit in Italy. International Society for Horticultural Science, V International Symposium on Kiwifruit.
  • Oyarce Lorca, S.A. 2014. Identificación morfológica y molecular de Fusarium oxysporum asociado a pudrición en frutos de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa). Universidad de Talca (Chile). Escuela de Agronomía. 48p.
  • Polat, Z., Awan, Q. N., Hussain, M., Akgül, D. S. 2017. First report of Phytopythium vexans causing root and collar rot of kiwifruit in Turkey. Plant Disease, 101(6): 1058.
  • Strik, B., Cahn, H., Buller, G., Tiyayon C., Pescie, M. 2005. Growing kiwifruit. pacific northwest extension (The Oregon State University Extension Service, Washington State University Extension, and University of Idaho Extension), USA, 27 pp.
  • Şahin, N., Türkkan, M. 2020. Ordu ili kivi üretim alanlarındaki toprak kökenli fungusların tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 10(1): 58-65.
  • Taheri, H., Beygi, F., Gol Mohammadi, M., Aduli, B. 2007. Etiology of kiwifruit crown and root fungal pathogens in North of Iran. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=IR2012001108.
  • Thomidis, T., Exadaktylou, E., Chen, S. 2013. Diaporthe neotheicola, a new threat for kiwifruit in Greece. Crop Protection, 47: 35-40.
  • TÜİK, 2018. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/medas/?kn=92&locale=tr-(ErişimTarihi: 10.05.2019).
  • Türkkan, M., Erper, I., Kılıçoğlu, M. Ç., Yazıcıoğlu, E., Özcan, M. 2018. Characterization and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from kiwifruit in the Middle and Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology, 166(11-12): 761-774.
  • Türkkan, M., Şahin, N., Özer, G., Evgin, Z., Yaman, M., Erper, I. 2020a. First report of Verticillium dahliae causing Verticillium wilt on kiwifruit in Ordu, Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 102:221-222.
  • Türkkan, M., Benli, H. İ., Yılmaz, Ö., Özer, G., Yaman, M., Şahin, N., Erper, I. 2020b. First report of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on kiwifruit in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 102: 535.
  • Yajun, H., Peikun, Q. 1998. Studies on the cause of root rot of kiwifruit in Guangdong Province. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 19(4):19-22.
  • Ying-Ying, Y., Liang C., Hong-Hai, Z. 2017. The pathogen causing bower kiwifruit Fusarium root rot. Mycosystema, 36(10): 1369-1375.
  • Yonat, H. 2016. Ordu ili kivi bahçelerinde görülen yabancı ot türlerinin ve yoğunluklarının belirlenmesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ordu Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Bitki Koruma Anabilim Dalı, Ordu.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik, Ziraat
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Zeynep EVGİN
ORDU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8718-7194
Türkiye


Muharrem TÜRKKAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
ORDU ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7779-9365
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 10, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { mjavl757935, journal = {Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences}, issn = {1694-7932}, eissn = {1694-7932}, address = {Kyrgyz -Turkish Manas University Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Science 720044, Bishkek, KYRGYZSTAN Mira Avenue, 56}, publisher = {Kırgızistan Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {10}, pages = {52 - 59}, doi = {}, title = {Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Evgin, Zeynep and Türkkan, Muharrem} }
APA Evgin, Z. & Türkkan, M. (2020). Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi . Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences , 10 (2) , 52-59 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/mjavl/issue/58569/757935
MLA Evgin, Z. , Türkkan, M. "Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi" . Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 10 (2020 ): 52-59 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/mjavl/issue/58569/757935>
Chicago Evgin, Z. , Türkkan, M. "Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi". Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 10 (2020 ): 52-59
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi AU - Zeynep Evgin , Muharrem Türkkan Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 52 EP - 59 VL - 10 IS - 2 SN - 1694-7932-1694-7932 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi %A Zeynep Evgin , Muharrem Türkkan %T Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi %D 2020 %J Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences %P 1694-7932-1694-7932 %V 10 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Evgin, Zeynep , Türkkan, Muharrem . "Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi". Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences 10 / 2 (Aralık 2020): 52-59 .
AMA Evgin Z. , Türkkan M. Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi. MJAVL. 2020; 10(2): 52-59.
Vancouver Evgin Z. , Türkkan M. Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi. Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences. 2020; 10(2): 52-59.
IEEE Z. Evgin ve M. Türkkan , "Ordu’da kivi bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerinin tanımlanması ve patojenisitesi", Manas Journal of Agriculture Veterinary and Life Sciences, c. 10, sayı. 2, ss. 52-59, Ara. 2020