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MASCULINITY IN ADVERTISEMENTS: WHAT DOES THE SPOKEN ANIMATED CHARACTER IN PIZZA ADVERTISEMENTS SIGNIFY ABOUT MASCULINITY?

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 459 - 479, 27.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2021.2.459479

Öz

This study concentrates on discursive construction of masculinity in advertisements. In this context, it was aimed to reveal the discursive construction of masculinity through critical discourse analysis in 12 advertisements of Domino's Pizza, in which the talking animated male character named Domino's Bear appears. Masculinity studies have accepted the masculinity as a form of discursive construction with the concept of hegemonic masculinity, especially after the 1980s. However, social transformations have brought forward the idea that masculinity should be taken out of a hegemonic framework and movedtowards the concept of caring masculinities with a normative approach. Studies that focus on advertisement and masculinity have accepted these two concepts as important tools. In this study, it was aimed to reveal, to what extent the concepts of hegemonic and caring masculinity play a role in the discursive construction of masculinity. As a result of the analysis, ithas been concluded that masculinity is positioned as emotionless and an authority figure in advertisements in accordance with the concept of hegemonic masculinity. It has been seen that the caring masculinity approach does not find a place in the construction of masculinity which is created through the character.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, E., ve McCormack, M. (2018). Inclusive Masculinity Theory: Overview, Reflection And Refinement. Journal of Gender Studies. 27(5), 547-561. doi:10.1080/09589236.2016.1245605
  • Barthes, R. (2014). Göstergebilimsel Serüven (M. Ve S. Rıfat, Çev.). İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Kültür Yayınları.
  • Carrigan, T., Connell, B., ve Lee, J. (1985). Toward a New Sociology of Masculinity. Theory and Society, 14(5), 551-604. Erişim:https://www.jstor.org/stable/657315?seq=1&cid=pdfreference#references_tab_contents
  • Chang, C. T., Chu, X. Y. M., & Kao, S. T. (2020). How Anthropomorphized Brand Spokescharacters Affect Consumer Perceptions and Judgments: Is Being Cute Helpful or Harmful to Brands?. Journal of Advertising Research. 60 (4). doi: 10.2501/JAR-2020-025
  • Connell, R. W., ve Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking The Concept. Gender & Society. 19(6), 829-859. doi: 10.1177/0891243205278639
  • Cook, G. (2001). The Discourse of Advertising. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Danesi, M. (2015). Advertising Discourse. Karen Tracy, Cornelia Ilie, Todd Sandel (Der.). içinde The International Encyclopedia of Language and Social Interaction, (s.1-10). London: John Waley & Sons Publishing.
  • Elliott, K. (2016). Caring Masculinities: Theorizing An Emerging Concept. Men and Masculinities. 19(3), 240-259. doi: 10.1177/1097184X15576203
  • Fairclough, N. (1996). Language and Power. New York: Longman.
  • Fairclough, N. (1998). Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Longman
  • Fairclough, N. ve Wodak, R. (1997). Critical Discourse Analysis. Teun A. Van Dijk (Der.). içinde Discourse as Structure and Process (s.258-284). London: Sage.
  • Fraser, N. (1996). Cinsiyet Eşitliği ve Refah Devleti: Sanayi Sonrası Bir Düşünme Girişimi. Seyla Benhabib (Der.). içinde Demokrasi ve Farklılık. (s.310-344). Demokrasi Kitaplığı: İstanbul.
  • Freitas, E. S. L. (2008). Taboo in Advertising. Amsterdam ve Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Garretson, J. A., ve Niedrich, R. W. (2004). Spokes-Characters: Creating Character Trust And Positive Brand Attitudes. Journal of Advertising. 33(2), 25-36. doi:10.1080/00913367.2004.10639159
  • Gastil, J. (1992). Undemocratic Discourse: A Review Of Theory and Research On Political Discourse. Discourse & Society. 3(4):469-500. doi: 10.1177/0957926592003004003
  • Goldman, R. (2005). Reading Ads Socially. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Hackley, C.E. (1998). Social Constructionism And Research İn Marketing And Advertising. Qualitative Market Research. 1 (3), 125-131. doi:10.1108/13522759810235188
  • Hunter, S. C., Riggs, D. W., & Augoustinos, M. (2017). Hegemonic Masculinity Versus A Caring Masculinity: Implications For Understanding Primary Caregiving Fathers. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 11(3), 123-127. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12307 Liu, Shubo. (2015). Advertising Greenness in China : A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Corporate Online Advertising Discourse. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Üniversitesi
  • Lundstrom, W. J. ve Sciglimpaglia, D. (1977). Sex Role Portrayals in Advertising. Journal of Marketing. 41(3), 72-84. doi: 10.1177/002224297704100308
  • Marshall, D., Davis, T., Hogg, M. K., Schneider, T. ve Petersen, A. (2014). From Overt Provider To İnvisible Presence: Discursive Shifts İn Advertising Portrayals Of The Father İn Good Housekeeping, 1950–2010. Journal of Marketing Management. 30(15-16), 1654-1679. doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2014.945471
  • Paek, H. J., Nelson, M. R. ve Vilela, A. M.(2011). Examination Of Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across Seven Countries. Sex Roles. 64(3), 192–207. Erişim: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-010-9850-y
  • Pateman, C. (1993). Kardeşler Arası Toplumsal Sözleşme. John Keane (Der.). içinde Sivil Toplum ve Devlet Avrupa’da Yeni Yaklaşımlar (s.119-146). İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
  • Peirce, K. (2001). What If The Energizer Bunny Were Female? Importance Of Gender In Perceptions Of Advertising Spokes-Character Effectiveness. Sex Roles. 45(11), 845-858. doi: 0360-0025/01/1200-0845/0.
  • Peirce, K., & McBride, M. (1999). Aunt Jemima Isn't Keeping Up With The Energizer Bunny: Stereotyping Of Animated Spokescharacters in Advertising. Sex roles. 40(11), 959-968. Erişim: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1018833423803
  • Philips, A. (2012). Demokrasinin Cinsiyeti, (Alev T., Çev.), İstanbul: Metis.
  • Plous, S. ve Neptune, D. (1997). Racial And Gender Biases In Magazine Advertising: A Content Analytic Study. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 21 (4), 627–644. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00135.x
  • Rahm, H. (2005). Getting Attention in the Media: Interdiscursivity and ideology in Advertisement. I. Lassen, J. Strunck and T. Vestergaard (Der.) içinde Mediating Ideology in Text and İmage Ten Critical Studies (s.193- 210). Amsterdam ve Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Reichert, B. T. ve Carpenter, C. (2016). An Update on Sex in Magazine Advertising: 1983 to 2003. Journalism and Mass Media Quarterly. 81 (4), 207–23. doi:10.1177/107769900408100407
  • Rodero, E., Larrea, O. ve Vázquez, M. (2013). Male and Female Voices in Commercials: Analysis of Effectiveness, Adequacy for the Product, Attention and Recall. Sex Roles. 68(5–6), 349–362. doi: 10.1007/s11199-012-0247-y
  • Rudloff, M. (2020). Advertising Masculinities. Karen Ross, Ingrid Bachmann, Valentina Cardo, Sujata Moorti, Cosimo Marco Scarcelli (Der.). içinde The International Encyclopedia of Gender, Media, and Communication (s.1-7). London: John Wiley & Sons Publishing. Erişim: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119429128.iegmc199
  • Scambor, E., Bergmann, N., Wojnicka, K., Belghiti-Mahut, S., Hearn, J., Holter, Ø. G. Ve White, A. (2014). Men and Gender Equality: European Insights. Men and Masculinities. 17(5), 552-577. doi: /10.1177/1097184X14558239
  • Scheibling, C., & Lafrance, M. (2019). Man Up But Stay Smooth: Hybrid Masculinities In Advertising For Men’s Grooming Products. The Journal of Men’s Studies. 27(2), 222-239. doi: 10.1177/1060826519841473
  • Schroeder, J. E., ve Borgerson, J. L. (1998). Marketing images of gender: A visual analysis. Consumption, Markets and Culture. 2(2), 161-201. doi: 10.1080/10253866.1998.9670315
  • Ungerson, C. (2006). Gender, Care, And The Welfare State. Kathy Davis, Mary Evans ve Judith Lorber (Der.). içinde Handbook of Gender and Women’s Studies (s. 272-286). London: Sage. Erişim https://xyonline.net/sites
  • Valls-Fernández, F., & Martínez-Vicente, J. M. (2007). Gender Stereotypes in Spanish Television Commercials. Sex Roles. 56(9-10), 691-699. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9208-2
  • Van Dijk, T. A. (1997). The Study of Discourse. T. A. Van Dijk (Der.). içinde Discourse as Structure and Process (s. 703-752.). London: Sage.
  • Wolin, L. D. (2003). Gender Issues in Advertising: An Oversight Synthesis of Research: 1970-2002. Journal of Advertising Research. 43(1), 111-130. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9208-2

REKLAMLARDA ERKEKLİK: PİZZA REKLAMLARINDAKİ KONUŞAN ANİMASYON KARAKTER BİZE ERKEKLİKLE İLGİLİ NELER SÖYLÜYOR?

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2, 459 - 479, 27.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2021.2.459479

Öz

Bu çalışma, reklamlarda erkekliğin söylemsel inşası konusuna odaklanmaktadır. Bu kapsamda Dominos Pizza’ya ait, Dominos Ayısı olarak adlandırılan animasyon konuşan erkek karakterin yer aldığı 12 reklam filminde erkekliğin söylemsel inşasının, eleştirel söylem analizi aracılığı ile ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır. Erkeklik çalışmaları özellikle 1980’lerden sonra hegemonik erkeklik (hegemonic masculanity) kavramıyla, erkekliği bir söylemsel inşa biçimi olarak kabul etmiştir. Ancak toplumsal dönüşümler, erkekliğin hegemonik bir çerçeveden çıkarılarak, normatif bir yaklaşımla önemseyen erkeklik (caring masculanities) kavramına doğru yönelmesi gerektiği fikrini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Reklam ve erkeklik konusuna odaklanan çalışmalar bakımından bu iki kavram önemli araçlar olarak görülmüştür. Bu çalışmada da reklamlarda erkekliğin söylemsel inşasında, hegemonik ve önemseyen erkeklik kavramlarının ne ölçüde ağırlık taşıdığının ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Analiz sonucunda reklamlarda erkekliğin, hegemonik erkeklik kavramına uygun şekilde, duygusuz ve otorite figürü olarak erkek şeklinde konumlandırıldığı ortaya konulmuştur. Önemseyen erkeklik yaklaşımının ise reklam karakteri üzerinden yaratılan erkekliğin inşasında yer bulmadığı görülmüştür.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, E., ve McCormack, M. (2018). Inclusive Masculinity Theory: Overview, Reflection And Refinement. Journal of Gender Studies. 27(5), 547-561. doi:10.1080/09589236.2016.1245605
  • Barthes, R. (2014). Göstergebilimsel Serüven (M. Ve S. Rıfat, Çev.). İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Kültür Yayınları.
  • Carrigan, T., Connell, B., ve Lee, J. (1985). Toward a New Sociology of Masculinity. Theory and Society, 14(5), 551-604. Erişim:https://www.jstor.org/stable/657315?seq=1&cid=pdfreference#references_tab_contents
  • Chang, C. T., Chu, X. Y. M., & Kao, S. T. (2020). How Anthropomorphized Brand Spokescharacters Affect Consumer Perceptions and Judgments: Is Being Cute Helpful or Harmful to Brands?. Journal of Advertising Research. 60 (4). doi: 10.2501/JAR-2020-025
  • Connell, R. W., ve Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking The Concept. Gender & Society. 19(6), 829-859. doi: 10.1177/0891243205278639
  • Cook, G. (2001). The Discourse of Advertising. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Danesi, M. (2015). Advertising Discourse. Karen Tracy, Cornelia Ilie, Todd Sandel (Der.). içinde The International Encyclopedia of Language and Social Interaction, (s.1-10). London: John Waley & Sons Publishing.
  • Elliott, K. (2016). Caring Masculinities: Theorizing An Emerging Concept. Men and Masculinities. 19(3), 240-259. doi: 10.1177/1097184X15576203
  • Fairclough, N. (1996). Language and Power. New York: Longman.
  • Fairclough, N. (1998). Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Longman
  • Fairclough, N. ve Wodak, R. (1997). Critical Discourse Analysis. Teun A. Van Dijk (Der.). içinde Discourse as Structure and Process (s.258-284). London: Sage.
  • Fraser, N. (1996). Cinsiyet Eşitliği ve Refah Devleti: Sanayi Sonrası Bir Düşünme Girişimi. Seyla Benhabib (Der.). içinde Demokrasi ve Farklılık. (s.310-344). Demokrasi Kitaplığı: İstanbul.
  • Freitas, E. S. L. (2008). Taboo in Advertising. Amsterdam ve Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Garretson, J. A., ve Niedrich, R. W. (2004). Spokes-Characters: Creating Character Trust And Positive Brand Attitudes. Journal of Advertising. 33(2), 25-36. doi:10.1080/00913367.2004.10639159
  • Gastil, J. (1992). Undemocratic Discourse: A Review Of Theory and Research On Political Discourse. Discourse & Society. 3(4):469-500. doi: 10.1177/0957926592003004003
  • Goldman, R. (2005). Reading Ads Socially. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Hackley, C.E. (1998). Social Constructionism And Research İn Marketing And Advertising. Qualitative Market Research. 1 (3), 125-131. doi:10.1108/13522759810235188
  • Hunter, S. C., Riggs, D. W., & Augoustinos, M. (2017). Hegemonic Masculinity Versus A Caring Masculinity: Implications For Understanding Primary Caregiving Fathers. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 11(3), 123-127. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12307 Liu, Shubo. (2015). Advertising Greenness in China : A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Corporate Online Advertising Discourse. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Üniversitesi
  • Lundstrom, W. J. ve Sciglimpaglia, D. (1977). Sex Role Portrayals in Advertising. Journal of Marketing. 41(3), 72-84. doi: 10.1177/002224297704100308
  • Marshall, D., Davis, T., Hogg, M. K., Schneider, T. ve Petersen, A. (2014). From Overt Provider To İnvisible Presence: Discursive Shifts İn Advertising Portrayals Of The Father İn Good Housekeeping, 1950–2010. Journal of Marketing Management. 30(15-16), 1654-1679. doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2014.945471
  • Paek, H. J., Nelson, M. R. ve Vilela, A. M.(2011). Examination Of Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across Seven Countries. Sex Roles. 64(3), 192–207. Erişim: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-010-9850-y
  • Pateman, C. (1993). Kardeşler Arası Toplumsal Sözleşme. John Keane (Der.). içinde Sivil Toplum ve Devlet Avrupa’da Yeni Yaklaşımlar (s.119-146). İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
  • Peirce, K. (2001). What If The Energizer Bunny Were Female? Importance Of Gender In Perceptions Of Advertising Spokes-Character Effectiveness. Sex Roles. 45(11), 845-858. doi: 0360-0025/01/1200-0845/0.
  • Peirce, K., & McBride, M. (1999). Aunt Jemima Isn't Keeping Up With The Energizer Bunny: Stereotyping Of Animated Spokescharacters in Advertising. Sex roles. 40(11), 959-968. Erişim: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1018833423803
  • Philips, A. (2012). Demokrasinin Cinsiyeti, (Alev T., Çev.), İstanbul: Metis.
  • Plous, S. ve Neptune, D. (1997). Racial And Gender Biases In Magazine Advertising: A Content Analytic Study. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 21 (4), 627–644. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00135.x
  • Rahm, H. (2005). Getting Attention in the Media: Interdiscursivity and ideology in Advertisement. I. Lassen, J. Strunck and T. Vestergaard (Der.) içinde Mediating Ideology in Text and İmage Ten Critical Studies (s.193- 210). Amsterdam ve Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Reichert, B. T. ve Carpenter, C. (2016). An Update on Sex in Magazine Advertising: 1983 to 2003. Journalism and Mass Media Quarterly. 81 (4), 207–23. doi:10.1177/107769900408100407
  • Rodero, E., Larrea, O. ve Vázquez, M. (2013). Male and Female Voices in Commercials: Analysis of Effectiveness, Adequacy for the Product, Attention and Recall. Sex Roles. 68(5–6), 349–362. doi: 10.1007/s11199-012-0247-y
  • Rudloff, M. (2020). Advertising Masculinities. Karen Ross, Ingrid Bachmann, Valentina Cardo, Sujata Moorti, Cosimo Marco Scarcelli (Der.). içinde The International Encyclopedia of Gender, Media, and Communication (s.1-7). London: John Wiley & Sons Publishing. Erişim: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119429128.iegmc199
  • Scambor, E., Bergmann, N., Wojnicka, K., Belghiti-Mahut, S., Hearn, J., Holter, Ø. G. Ve White, A. (2014). Men and Gender Equality: European Insights. Men and Masculinities. 17(5), 552-577. doi: /10.1177/1097184X14558239
  • Scheibling, C., & Lafrance, M. (2019). Man Up But Stay Smooth: Hybrid Masculinities In Advertising For Men’s Grooming Products. The Journal of Men’s Studies. 27(2), 222-239. doi: 10.1177/1060826519841473
  • Schroeder, J. E., ve Borgerson, J. L. (1998). Marketing images of gender: A visual analysis. Consumption, Markets and Culture. 2(2), 161-201. doi: 10.1080/10253866.1998.9670315
  • Ungerson, C. (2006). Gender, Care, And The Welfare State. Kathy Davis, Mary Evans ve Judith Lorber (Der.). içinde Handbook of Gender and Women’s Studies (s. 272-286). London: Sage. Erişim https://xyonline.net/sites
  • Valls-Fernández, F., & Martínez-Vicente, J. M. (2007). Gender Stereotypes in Spanish Television Commercials. Sex Roles. 56(9-10), 691-699. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9208-2
  • Van Dijk, T. A. (1997). The Study of Discourse. T. A. Van Dijk (Der.). içinde Discourse as Structure and Process (s. 703-752.). London: Sage.
  • Wolin, L. D. (2003). Gender Issues in Advertising: An Oversight Synthesis of Research: 1970-2002. Journal of Advertising Research. 43(1), 111-130. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9208-2

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İletişim
Bölüm Makaleler (Tema)
Yazarlar

Kenan DEMİRCİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Fırat Üniveristesi
0000-0003-2164-7973
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 25 Şubat 2021
Kabul Tarihi 17 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Demirci, K. (2021). REKLAMLARDA ERKEKLİK: PİZZA REKLAMLARINDAKİ KONUŞAN ANİMASYON KARAKTER BİZE ERKEKLİKLE İLGİLİ NELER SÖYLÜYOR? . Moment Dergi , Erkekllikler - 2 , 459-479 . DOI: 10.17572/mj2021.2.459479