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EVERYDAY CONSTRUCTION OF TURKISH NATIONALISM IN NEWS DISCOURSES: THE MURDER OF SEVAG BALIKÇI

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 393 - 420, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2022.2.393-420

Öz

This study examines how Turkish nationalism is constructed and reproduced within the discursive sphere through its re-encounter with ‘the Armenian issue’. Focusing on the murder of Sevag Balıkçı on April 24, 2011, it aims to examine the discursive strategies through which this confrontation is presented in national newspapers every day. The critical discourse analysis method was used to determine how the three national newspapers selected in the study covered this incident. According to the findings of the research, the ethnic origin of the victim, his martyrdom status, and his sacrifice for the nation were determined as the prominent themes in the media representations of the case. Therefore, this study discusses how nationalist discourses could be included in news discourses daily by constantly implying and reminding of nationhood. In this regard, it has been revealed that national newspapers positioned the Balıkçı murder in a way that brings out the discursive, representational, and exclusionary aspects of Turkish nationalism by isolating the murder of Balıkçı from its historical and political background and breaking its connection with ‘the Armenian question’.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Axinn, S. (2010). Sacrifice and Value: A Kantian Interpretation. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.
  • Aydıngün, İ. ve Aydıngün, A. (2004). The Role of Language in the Formation of Turkish National Identity and Turkishness. Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, 10 (3), 415-432.
  • Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.
  • Brookes, R. (1999). Newspapers and National Identity: The BSE/CJD Crisis and the British Press. Media, Culture and Society, 21(2), 247–263.
  • Burke, P. (2002). History and Historians in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Calhoun, C.(1993). Nationalism and Ethnicity. Annual Review of Sociology, 19 (1), 211- 239.
  • Calhoun, C. (1997). Nationalism. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Chan, M. (2012). The discursive reproduction of ideologies and national identities in the Chinese and Japanese English-language press. Discourse and Communication, 6(4), 361– 378.
  • De Cillia, R., Reisigl, M., ve Wodak, R. (1999). The discursive construction of national identities. Discourse and Society, 10(2), 149-173.
  • Dink, H. (19 Ocak 2007). Ruh halimin güvercin tedirginliği. Agos. Erişim: 2 Ekim 2022, https://www.agos.com.tr/tr/yazi/14061/agos-un-arsivinden-ruh-halimin-guvercin-tedirginligi.
  • Doğanay, Ü. ve Karaaslan Şanlı, H. (2011). Yazılı Basında Irkçı ve Ayrımcı Söylemlerin Olağanlaştırılması: Habertürk Gazetesinin “Sıradan Bir Gün”deki Haberleri Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Kültür ve İletişim, 14(2), 41-70.
  • Ekmekçioğlu, L. (2016). Recovering Armenia: the limits of belonging in post-genocide Turkey. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Erjavec, K. (2001). Media Representation of the discrimination against the Roma in Eastern Europe. Discourse and Society, 12 (6), 699-727.
  • Ermeni Kilisesinde Şehit Cenazesi (28 Nisan 2011). Cumhuriyet.
  • Fairclough, N., Muldering, J. ve Wodak, R. (2011). Critical discourse analysis. Teun A. van Dijk (Der.) içinde Discourse studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, (s.357-378). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Fox, J.E ve Miller-Idriss, C. (2008). Everyday Nationhood. Ethnicities, 8 (4), 536-563.
  • Frosh, P. ve Wolfsfeld, G. (2006). ImagiNation: news discourse, nationhood and civil society. Media, Culture and Society, 29 (1),105-129.
  • Hall, S. (1982). The rediscovery of ‘ideology’; return of the repressed in media studies. Michael Gurevitch, Tony Bennett, James Curran ve Janet Woollacott (Der.) içinde Culture, Society and the Media, (s.56-90). New York: Methuen.
  • Hartley, J. (1982). Understanding News. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Higson, A. (2002). National identity and the media. Adam Briggs ve Paul Cobley (Der.) içinde The Media: An Introduction (Second Edition), (s. 401- 414). Harlow: Pearson.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1992). Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (2000). The Nation as Invented Tradition. John Hutchinson ve Anthony D. Smith (Der.), Nationalism, (s.76-82). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hobsbawm, E. ve Ranger, T. (1983). The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • İçduygu, A., Toktaş, Ş. ve Soner A. B., (2008). The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31 (2), 358-389.
  • İmer, K., Kocaman, A. ve Özsoy, A. S. (2011). Dilbilim sözlüğü. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.
  • Jandarmadan Ermeni Asıllı Aileye: Oğlunuz Kazada Öldü (27 Nisan 2011). Zaman.
  • Kaza kurşunuyla Ölen Ermeni Asıllı Türk Er Türk Bayrağıyla Toprağa Verildi (28 Nisan 2011). Zaman.
  • Kazara Vurulan Asker Şehit Oldu (25 Nisan 2011). Cumhuriyet.
  • Korteweg, A. ve Yurdakul, G. (2014). The Headscarf Debates: Conflicts of National Belonging. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Köse, A. ve Yılmaz, M. (2012). Flagging Turkishness: the reproduction of banal nationalism in the Turkish press. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 40 (6), 909-925.
  • Machin, D. ve Mayr, A. (2012). How to do Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multimodal Introduction. London: Sage.
  • Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the roots of terror. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Marranci, G. (2004). Multiculturalism, Islam and the Clash of Civilisations Theory: Rethinking Islamophobia. Culture and Religion, 15(1), 105-117.
  • Oktar, L. (2001). The ideological organization of representational processes in the presentation of us and them. Discourse and Society, 12 (3), 313-346.
  • Özdoğan G. G., Üstel, F., Karakaşlı, K., ve Kentel, F. (2009). Türkiye’de Ermeniler: Cemaat, Birey, Yurttaş. İstanbul: Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Özkırımlı, U. (2010). Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction (Second Edition). Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Özkırımlı, U. ve Uyan-Semerci, P. (2011). Pater familias and homo nationalis: Understanding nationalism in the case of Turkey. Ethnicities, 11 (1), 59-79.
  • Pape, S. ve Featherstone, S. (2005). Newspaper Journalism: A Practical Introduction. London: Sage.
  • Polonska-Kimunguyi, E. ve Kimunguyi, P. (2011). The making of the Europeans: Media in the construction of pan-national identity. International Communication Gazette, 73(6), 507–523.
  • Puri, J. (2004). Encountering Nationalism. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Richardson, J.E. (2007). Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Rosie, M., Macinnes, J., Petersoo, P., Condor, S. ve Kennedy, J. (2004). Nation speaking unto nation? Newspapers and national identity in the devolved UK. The Sociological Review, 52(4), 437-458.
  • Schlesinger, P. (1991a). Media, State and Nation: Political Violence and Collective Identities. London: Sage.
  • Schlesinger, P. (1991b). Media, the political order and national identity. Media, Culture and Society, 13(3), 297-308.
  • Sevag, Kırmızı Beyaz Uğurlandı (28 Nisan 2011). Hürriyet.
  • Sevak’ın Ailesini Ağırlayacaklar (27 Nisan 2011). Cumhuriyet.
  • Shojaei, A., Youssefi, K. ve Hosseini S. H. (2013). A CDA Approach to the Biased Interpretation and Representation of Ideologically Conflicting Ideas in Western Printed Media. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4 (4), 858-868.
  • Smith, A. D. (2000). The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Skey, M. (2009). The national in everyday life: A critical engagement with Michael Billig’s thesis of Banal Nationalism. The Sociological Review, 57 (2), 331-346.
  • Sutherland, C. (2005). Nation-building through discourse theory. Nations and Nationalism, 11(2), 185-202.
  • Svetanant, C. (2009). Revealing Linguistic Power: Discourse Practice toward 'Youth' in Japanese and Thai Newspapers. Japan Review, 21, 225-240.
  • Şehit Evi (27 Nisan 2011). Hürriyet.
  • Teo, P. (2000). Racism in the news: a critical discourse analysis of news reporting in two Australian newspapers. Discourse and Society, 11(1), 7-49.
  • Titscher, S., Meyer, M., Wodak, R. ve Vetter, E. (2000). Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
  • Tunç, A. (2010). Mediated Justice: Turkish Newspapers’ Coverage of Controversial Criminal Cases. Turkish Studies, 11 (4), 643-661.
  • Van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Critical Discourse Analysis. Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen ve Heidi E. Hamilton (Der.) içinde The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, (s.352-371). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Wodak, R. (2001). What CDA is about- a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. Ruth Wodak ve Michael Meyer (Der.) içinde Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, (s.1-13). London: Sage.
  • Wodak, R. ve Reisigl, M. (2001). Discourse and Racism. Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen ve Heidi E. Hamilton (Der.) içinde The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, (s.372- 397). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Yavuz, H. M. (2013). Toward an Islamic Enlightenment: The Gulen Movement. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Yumul, A. ve Özkırımlı,U. (2000). Reproducing the nation: ‘banal nationalism’ in the Turkish press. Media, Culture and Society, 22(6), 787-804.
  • Zerubavel, Y. (2006). Patriotic Sacrifice and the Burden of Memory in Israeli Secular National Hebrew Culture. Ussama Samir Makdisi and Paul A. Silverstein (Der.) içinde Memory and Violence in the Middle East and North Africa, (s.77-100). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

TÜRK MİLLİYETÇİLİĞİNİN HABER SÖYLEMLERİNDE GÜNDELİK İNŞASI: SEVAG BALIKÇI CİNAYETİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 393 - 420, 31.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2022.2.393-420

Öz

Bu çalışma Türk milliyetçiliğinin söylem alanında nasıl inşa edildiğini ve yeniden üretildiğini ‘Ermeni sorunu’ ile yeniden karşılaşması üzerinden incelemektedir. 24 Nisan 2011 tarihinde gerçekleşen Sevag Balıkçı cinayeti vakasına odaklanılarak bu yüzleşmenin ulusal gazetelerde günlük olarak hangi söylemsel stratejiler aracılığıyla sunulduğu gösterilmektedir. Araştırmada seçilen üç ulusal gazetenin bu olayı nasıl haberleştirdiği eleştirel söylem analizi yöntemi kullanılarak tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre vakanın medya temsillerinde maktulün etnik kökeni, şehitlik durumu ve ulus için fedakârlık yapması öne çıkan temalar olarak belirlenmiştir. Böylece millet olma halinin sürekli imlenmesi ve hatırlatılması ile milliyetçi söylemlerin haber söylemlerine gündelik olarak nasıl eklemlenebildiği tartışılmaktadır. Bu bağlamda ulusal gazetelerin Balıkçı cinayetini tarihsel ve politik arka planından soyutlayarak ve ‘Ermeni sorunu’ ile bağlantısını kopararak, Türk milliyetçiliğinin söylemsel, temsili ve dışlayıcı yönlerini açığa çıkarır şekilde konumlandırdığı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Axinn, S. (2010). Sacrifice and Value: A Kantian Interpretation. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.
  • Aydıngün, İ. ve Aydıngün, A. (2004). The Role of Language in the Formation of Turkish National Identity and Turkishness. Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, 10 (3), 415-432.
  • Billig, M. (1995). Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.
  • Brookes, R. (1999). Newspapers and National Identity: The BSE/CJD Crisis and the British Press. Media, Culture and Society, 21(2), 247–263.
  • Burke, P. (2002). History and Historians in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Calhoun, C.(1993). Nationalism and Ethnicity. Annual Review of Sociology, 19 (1), 211- 239.
  • Calhoun, C. (1997). Nationalism. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Chan, M. (2012). The discursive reproduction of ideologies and national identities in the Chinese and Japanese English-language press. Discourse and Communication, 6(4), 361– 378.
  • De Cillia, R., Reisigl, M., ve Wodak, R. (1999). The discursive construction of national identities. Discourse and Society, 10(2), 149-173.
  • Dink, H. (19 Ocak 2007). Ruh halimin güvercin tedirginliği. Agos. Erişim: 2 Ekim 2022, https://www.agos.com.tr/tr/yazi/14061/agos-un-arsivinden-ruh-halimin-guvercin-tedirginligi.
  • Doğanay, Ü. ve Karaaslan Şanlı, H. (2011). Yazılı Basında Irkçı ve Ayrımcı Söylemlerin Olağanlaştırılması: Habertürk Gazetesinin “Sıradan Bir Gün”deki Haberleri Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Kültür ve İletişim, 14(2), 41-70.
  • Ekmekçioğlu, L. (2016). Recovering Armenia: the limits of belonging in post-genocide Turkey. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Erjavec, K. (2001). Media Representation of the discrimination against the Roma in Eastern Europe. Discourse and Society, 12 (6), 699-727.
  • Ermeni Kilisesinde Şehit Cenazesi (28 Nisan 2011). Cumhuriyet.
  • Fairclough, N., Muldering, J. ve Wodak, R. (2011). Critical discourse analysis. Teun A. van Dijk (Der.) içinde Discourse studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, (s.357-378). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Fox, J.E ve Miller-Idriss, C. (2008). Everyday Nationhood. Ethnicities, 8 (4), 536-563.
  • Frosh, P. ve Wolfsfeld, G. (2006). ImagiNation: news discourse, nationhood and civil society. Media, Culture and Society, 29 (1),105-129.
  • Hall, S. (1982). The rediscovery of ‘ideology’; return of the repressed in media studies. Michael Gurevitch, Tony Bennett, James Curran ve Janet Woollacott (Der.) içinde Culture, Society and the Media, (s.56-90). New York: Methuen.
  • Hartley, J. (1982). Understanding News. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Higson, A. (2002). National identity and the media. Adam Briggs ve Paul Cobley (Der.) içinde The Media: An Introduction (Second Edition), (s. 401- 414). Harlow: Pearson.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1992). Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (2000). The Nation as Invented Tradition. John Hutchinson ve Anthony D. Smith (Der.), Nationalism, (s.76-82). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hobsbawm, E. ve Ranger, T. (1983). The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • İçduygu, A., Toktaş, Ş. ve Soner A. B., (2008). The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31 (2), 358-389.
  • İmer, K., Kocaman, A. ve Özsoy, A. S. (2011). Dilbilim sözlüğü. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.
  • Jandarmadan Ermeni Asıllı Aileye: Oğlunuz Kazada Öldü (27 Nisan 2011). Zaman.
  • Kaza kurşunuyla Ölen Ermeni Asıllı Türk Er Türk Bayrağıyla Toprağa Verildi (28 Nisan 2011). Zaman.
  • Kazara Vurulan Asker Şehit Oldu (25 Nisan 2011). Cumhuriyet.
  • Korteweg, A. ve Yurdakul, G. (2014). The Headscarf Debates: Conflicts of National Belonging. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Köse, A. ve Yılmaz, M. (2012). Flagging Turkishness: the reproduction of banal nationalism in the Turkish press. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 40 (6), 909-925.
  • Machin, D. ve Mayr, A. (2012). How to do Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multimodal Introduction. London: Sage.
  • Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the roots of terror. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Marranci, G. (2004). Multiculturalism, Islam and the Clash of Civilisations Theory: Rethinking Islamophobia. Culture and Religion, 15(1), 105-117.
  • Oktar, L. (2001). The ideological organization of representational processes in the presentation of us and them. Discourse and Society, 12 (3), 313-346.
  • Özdoğan G. G., Üstel, F., Karakaşlı, K., ve Kentel, F. (2009). Türkiye’de Ermeniler: Cemaat, Birey, Yurttaş. İstanbul: Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Özkırımlı, U. (2010). Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction (Second Edition). Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Özkırımlı, U. ve Uyan-Semerci, P. (2011). Pater familias and homo nationalis: Understanding nationalism in the case of Turkey. Ethnicities, 11 (1), 59-79.
  • Pape, S. ve Featherstone, S. (2005). Newspaper Journalism: A Practical Introduction. London: Sage.
  • Polonska-Kimunguyi, E. ve Kimunguyi, P. (2011). The making of the Europeans: Media in the construction of pan-national identity. International Communication Gazette, 73(6), 507–523.
  • Puri, J. (2004). Encountering Nationalism. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Richardson, J.E. (2007). Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Rosie, M., Macinnes, J., Petersoo, P., Condor, S. ve Kennedy, J. (2004). Nation speaking unto nation? Newspapers and national identity in the devolved UK. The Sociological Review, 52(4), 437-458.
  • Schlesinger, P. (1991a). Media, State and Nation: Political Violence and Collective Identities. London: Sage.
  • Schlesinger, P. (1991b). Media, the political order and national identity. Media, Culture and Society, 13(3), 297-308.
  • Sevag, Kırmızı Beyaz Uğurlandı (28 Nisan 2011). Hürriyet.
  • Sevak’ın Ailesini Ağırlayacaklar (27 Nisan 2011). Cumhuriyet.
  • Shojaei, A., Youssefi, K. ve Hosseini S. H. (2013). A CDA Approach to the Biased Interpretation and Representation of Ideologically Conflicting Ideas in Western Printed Media. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 4 (4), 858-868.
  • Smith, A. D. (2000). The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates about Ethnicity and Nationalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Skey, M. (2009). The national in everyday life: A critical engagement with Michael Billig’s thesis of Banal Nationalism. The Sociological Review, 57 (2), 331-346.
  • Sutherland, C. (2005). Nation-building through discourse theory. Nations and Nationalism, 11(2), 185-202.
  • Svetanant, C. (2009). Revealing Linguistic Power: Discourse Practice toward 'Youth' in Japanese and Thai Newspapers. Japan Review, 21, 225-240.
  • Şehit Evi (27 Nisan 2011). Hürriyet.
  • Teo, P. (2000). Racism in the news: a critical discourse analysis of news reporting in two Australian newspapers. Discourse and Society, 11(1), 7-49.
  • Titscher, S., Meyer, M., Wodak, R. ve Vetter, E. (2000). Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
  • Tunç, A. (2010). Mediated Justice: Turkish Newspapers’ Coverage of Controversial Criminal Cases. Turkish Studies, 11 (4), 643-661.
  • Van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Critical Discourse Analysis. Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen ve Heidi E. Hamilton (Der.) içinde The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, (s.352-371). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Wodak, R. (2001). What CDA is about- a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments. Ruth Wodak ve Michael Meyer (Der.) içinde Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, (s.1-13). London: Sage.
  • Wodak, R. ve Reisigl, M. (2001). Discourse and Racism. Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen ve Heidi E. Hamilton (Der.) içinde The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, (s.372- 397). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Yavuz, H. M. (2013). Toward an Islamic Enlightenment: The Gulen Movement. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Yumul, A. ve Özkırımlı,U. (2000). Reproducing the nation: ‘banal nationalism’ in the Turkish press. Media, Culture and Society, 22(6), 787-804.
  • Zerubavel, Y. (2006). Patriotic Sacrifice and the Burden of Memory in Israeli Secular National Hebrew Culture. Ussama Samir Makdisi and Paul A. Silverstein (Der.) içinde Memory and Violence in the Middle East and North Africa, (s.77-100). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İletişim
Bölüm Makaleler (Tema)
Yazarlar

Bengi BEZİRGAN-TANIŞ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
NİŞANTAŞI ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6444-6285
Türkiye

Teşekkür Makalenin son halini almasındaki değerli katkıları için Kaya Tanış'a teşekkür ederim.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 8 Eylül 2022
Kabul Tarihi 19 Aralık 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 9, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Bezirgan-tanış, B. (2022). TÜRK MİLLİYETÇİLİĞİNİN HABER SÖYLEMLERİNDE GÜNDELİK İNŞASI: SEVAG BALIKÇI CİNAYETİ . Moment Dergi , Gündelik Milliyetçilik , 393-420 . DOI: 10.17572/mj2022.2.393-420