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Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency

Yıl 2021, Sayı 19, 11 - 32, 20.01.2021

Öz

This article surveys a policy of Turkey’s energy planning over coal. Energy supply pattern of Turkey is highly dependent on the foreign resources. Electric production of the country relies largely on hydropower, natural gas and coal. Though the country has considerable lignite reserves suitable for energy production in thermal power plants, many of the plants constructed in the last two decades utilize imported coal. Future energy plans of the country consider resource diversification, decreasing foreign dependence and diversification of the dependent countries. However, current energy perspective of the country shows significant deviations of the strategies developed. Domestic lignite reserves of the country offer satisfying alternatives over the foreign coal. Additional efforts to enhance the effective utilization of domestic lignite reserves are required. This paper presents a detailed assessment of the future energy perspective of Turkey. For this purpose, the development plans, the past trends and the future projections of country about the coal and global energy supply-demand pattern were evaluated.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Franklin M, Kurtz C, Alksnis M, Steichen L, Younger C. Lights out in the cold: Reforming utility shut-off policies as if human rights matter. Environmental and Climate Justice Program, Baltimore, USA; 2017.
  • [2] Tully S. Access to electricity as a human right. Netherlands Q Hum Rights 2006;24:557–88. doi:10.1177/016934410602400402.
  • [3] Bilgili M, Hassanzadeh R, Sahin B, Ozbek A, Yasar A, Simsek E. Investigation of wind power density at different heights in the Gelibolu peninsula of Turkey. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2016;38:512–8. doi:10.1080/15567036.2013.799617.
  • [4] Sözen A, Cakir MT, Cipil F. Sectoral CO2 emission reductions in Turkey: Preparing for Doha 2020. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2016;38:905–13. doi:10.1080/15567036.2013.850559.
  • [5] Bilgen S. The status of primary fossil energy resources in Turkey. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2016;38:3478–83. doi:10.1080/15567036.2016.1172139.
  • [6] TMMOB-MMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - Chamber of Mechanical Engineers). Türkiye’de Termik Santraller; 2017.
  • [7] Eroğlu G, Şahiner M. Dünyada ve Türkiye’de uranyum ve toryum. MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration); 2017. https://www.mta.gov.tr/v3.0/sayfalar/bilgi-merkezi/maden-serisi/Uranyum-Toryum.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [8] Melikoglu M. Vision 2023: Status quo and future of biomass and coal for sustainable energy generation in Turkey. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017;74:800–8. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.005.
  • [9] WEC (World Energy Council). Energy sources: Coal. https://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/resource/coal/ Energy Resources [Accessed 29 January 2018].
  • [10] WEC (World Energy Council). World energy resources – coal 2016. https://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WEResources_Coal_2016.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [11] MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration). Kömür arama araştırmaları. http://www.mta.gov.tr/v3.0/arastirmalar/komur-arama-arastirmalari [Accessed 29 January 2018].
  • [12] TTK (Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises). Hakkımızda. http://www.taskomuru.gov.tr/index.php?page=sayfagoster&id=7 [Accessed 26 January 2018].
  • [13] Ersoy, M. 2010. Sürdürülebilir kalkınmada Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye kömür madenciliği. In: Proceedings of the 19th Coal Congress of Turkey; 2013.
  • [14] BP (British petrolium). Statistical Review of World Energy; 2017. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/en/corporate/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2017/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2017-full-report.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [15] GDPA (The General Directorate of Petroleum Affairs). İstatistikler: 2016 yılı petrol ve doğal gaz arama–üretim istatistikleri. http://www.pigm.gov.tr/index.php/istatistikler [Accessed 18 February 2018].
  • [16] RWE (Rheinisch - Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk). http://www.rwe.com/web/cms/en/12068/rwe-power-ag/fuels/kw-neurath-boa-2-3/ [Accessed 16 February 2018]. [17] TTK (Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises). 2016 yılı taşkömürü sektör raporu. http://www.taskomuru.gov.tr/file/duyuru/TTKGM_Sektor_Raporu_2016.PDF [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [18] ETKB (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). 2015 yılı faaliyet raporu. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FFaaliyet%20Raporu%2F2015.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [19] Acar S, Kitson L. Türkiye ’ de Kömür ve Yenilenebilir Enerji Teşvikleri. The International Institute for Sustainable Development. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/sites/default/files/ffsandrens_turkey_coal_tk.pdf ;2015 [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [20] Rao Z, Zhao Y, Huang C, Duan C, He J. Recent developments in drying and dewatering for low rank coals. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2015;46:1–11. doi:10.1016/j.pecs.2014.09.001.
  • [21] Enerji Atlası. Türkiye elektrik üretimi. https://www.enerjiatlasi.com/elektrik-uretimi/ [Accessed 26 January 2018].
  • [22] OECD/IEA (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency). Key world energy statistic; 2017, https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2017.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [23] Speight, JG. The chemistry and technology of coal. 3th ed. CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group; 2013.
  • [24] OECD/IEA (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency). Coal information; 2017.
  • [25] TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey). T.C. Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı 2018 Yılı Bütçe Sunumu. TBMM Tutanak Hizmetleri Başkanlığı; 2017.
  • [26] EİGM (General Directorate of Energy Affairs). İstatistikler: Denge Tabloları. 2018.Denge Tabloları. http://www.eigm.gov.tr/tr-TR/Denge-Tablolari/Denge-Tablolari [Accessed 1 February 2018].
  • [27] ETKB (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). http://www.enerji.gov.tr/tr-TR/Sayfalar/Komur [Accessed 1 February 2018].
  • [28] Turkyılmaz O, Özgiresun C. Türkiye’nin Enerji Görünümü. Enlarged 2nd edition. TMMOB-MMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - Chamber of Mechanical Engineers): MMO/588, , Ankara; 2012. ISBN: 978-605-01-0358-8
  • [29] TTK (Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises). Taşkömürü sektör raporu; 2015. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FTTK%202015%20Sekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu.pdf [Accessed 1 February 2018].
  • [30] TMMOB-EMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - The Chambers of Electrical Engineers). Türkiye elektrik enerjisi istatistikleri. http://www.emo.org.tr/genel/bizden_detay.php?kod=88369. [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [31] TP (Turkish Petroleum). 2017 yılı ham petrol ve doğalgaz sektör raporu. http://www.tpao.gov.tr/tp5/docs/rapor/sektor_rapor_2017.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [32] Tamzok N. Küreselleşme, serbestleşme ve kömür endüstrisi. TMMOB-MMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - The Chambers of Mining Engineers). http://www.maden.org.tr/resimler/ekler/1a94cef23357f68_ek.pdf?tipi=23&turu=X&sube=0 ; 2007 [Accessed 16 January 2018].
  • [33] Durmuşoğlu S. Türkiye ’ nin enerji politikaları ve komşu ülkeler ile uluslararası ilişkilerine etkileri [MA]. İstanbul Technical University; 2015.
  • [34] TKİ (Turkish Coal Enterprise). 2015 Kömür (Linyit) sektör raporu, http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FSEKT%C3%96R%20RAPORU%202015%2030.06.2015%20SON.pdf ; 2017 [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [35] Demir İ, Emeksiz C. Yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının Türkiye potansiyeli ve kullanımı. EEB (Elektrik-Elektronik ve Bilgisayar Sempozyumu). 2016.
  • [36] EÜAŞ (Electricity Generation Company), 2016 elektrik üretim sektör raporu. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FEUAS-Sektor_Raporu2016.pdf ; 2017 [Accessed 18 February 2018]. [37] Kilickaplan A, Bogdanov D, Peker O, Caldera U, Aghahosseini A, Breyer C. An energy transition pathway for Turkey to achieve 100% renewable energy powered electricity, desalination and non-energetic industrial gas demand sectors by 2050. Sol Energy 2017;158:218–35. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.09.030.
  • [38] KB (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development). Onuncu kalkınma planı 2014-2018. 2013.
  • [39] Karagöl ET, Kavaz I. Dünyada ve Türkiye’de yenilenebilir enerji. Seta Siyaset, Ekon ve Toplum Araştırmaları Vakfı 2017;197:1–32.
  • [40] Cayir Ervural B, Zaim S, Demirel OF, Aydin Z, Delen D. An ANP and fuzzy TOPSIS-based SWOT analysis for Turkey’s energy planning. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2018;82:1538–50. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.095.
  • [41] RG (The Official Gazette of the Turkish Republic). Agreement between the Government of the republic of Turkey and the government of the Russian Federation on cooperation in relation to the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant at the Akkuyu site in the republic of Turkey. The Official Gazette of the Turkish Republic. 6 October 2010.
  • [42] RG (The Official Gazette of the Turkish Republic). Agreement between the government of the Republic of Turkey and the government of Japan on co-operation for development of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power industry in the Republic of Turkey. 23 May 2015.
  • [43] Kok B, Benli H. Energy diversity and nuclear energy for sustainable development in Turkey. Renew Energy 2017;111:870–7. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2017.05.001.
  • [44] Yousefi-Sahzabi A, Unlu-Yucesoy E, Sasaki K, Yuosefi H, Widiatmojo A, Sugai Y. Turkish challenges for low-carbon society: Current status, government policies and social acceptance. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017;68:596–608. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.090.
  • [45] IKV (Economic Development Foundation). 2020’ye doğru Kyoto-Tipi iklim değişikliği müzakereleri; Avrupa birliği’nin yeterliliği ve Türkiye’nin konumu, İstanbul; 2013.
  • [46] DB (Repuclic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Paris anlaşması: 2018. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/paris-anlasmasi.tr.mfa. [Accessed 13 February 2018].
  • [47] WNA, 2011 World Nuclear Association. 2011. Comparison of life cyle greenhouse gas emissions of various electricity generation sources. WNA Report, World Nuclear Association, London, UK.
  • [48] Sovacool BK, Walter G. Major hydropower states, sustainable development, and energy security: Insights from a preliminary cross-comparative assessment. Energy 2018;142:1074–82. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.09.085.
  • [49] Burgherr P, Hirschberg S. Comparative risk assessment of severe accidents in the energy sector. Energy Policy 2014;74:S45–56. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.035.
  • [50] MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The Future of Nuclear Power. 2003. ISBN 0-615-12420-8. [51] Sovacool BK, Kryman M, Laine E. Profiling technological failure and disaster in the energy sector: A comparative analysis of historical energy accidents. Energy 2015;90:2016–27. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.043.
  • [52] Sovacool BK. A critical evaluation of nuclear power and renewable electricity in Asia. J Contemp Asia 2010;40:369–400. doi:10.1080/00472331003798350.
  • [53] Prăvălie R, Bandoc G. Nuclear energy: Between global electricity demand, worldwide decarbonisation imperativeness, and planetary environmental implications. J Environ Manage 2018;209:81–92. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.043.
  • [54] Curry A. What Lies Beneath. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/10/what-lies-beneath/537894/. [Accessed 13 February 2018].
  • [55] Greenpeace. Energy revolution a sustainable Turkey energy outlook. https://www.greenpeace.org/turkey/Global/turkey/report/2015/Energy%20%5BR%5Devolution.pdf ; 2015 [Accessed 26 January 2019].

Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency

Yıl 2021, Sayı 19, 11 - 32, 20.01.2021

Öz

This article surveys a policy of Turkey’s energy planning over coal. Energy supply pattern of Turkey is highly dependent on the foreign resources. Electric production of the country relies largely on hydropower, natural gas and coal. Though the country has considerable lignite reserves suitable for energy production in thermal power plants, many of the plants constructed in the last two decades utilize imported coal. Future energy plans of the country consider resource diversification, decreasing foreign dependence and diversification of the dependent countries. However, current energy perspective of the country shows significant deviations of the strategies developed. Domestic lignite reserves of the country offer satisfying alternatives over the foreign coal. Additional efforts to enhance the effective utilization of domestic lignite reserves are required. This paper presents a detailed assessment of the future energy perspective of Turkey. For this purpose, the development plans, the past trends and the future projections of country about the coal and global energy supply-demand pattern were evaluated.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Franklin M, Kurtz C, Alksnis M, Steichen L, Younger C. Lights out in the cold: Reforming utility shut-off policies as if human rights matter. Environmental and Climate Justice Program, Baltimore, USA; 2017.
  • [2] Tully S. Access to electricity as a human right. Netherlands Q Hum Rights 2006;24:557–88. doi:10.1177/016934410602400402.
  • [3] Bilgili M, Hassanzadeh R, Sahin B, Ozbek A, Yasar A, Simsek E. Investigation of wind power density at different heights in the Gelibolu peninsula of Turkey. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2016;38:512–8. doi:10.1080/15567036.2013.799617.
  • [4] Sözen A, Cakir MT, Cipil F. Sectoral CO2 emission reductions in Turkey: Preparing for Doha 2020. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2016;38:905–13. doi:10.1080/15567036.2013.850559.
  • [5] Bilgen S. The status of primary fossil energy resources in Turkey. Energy Sources, Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 2016;38:3478–83. doi:10.1080/15567036.2016.1172139.
  • [6] TMMOB-MMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - Chamber of Mechanical Engineers). Türkiye’de Termik Santraller; 2017.
  • [7] Eroğlu G, Şahiner M. Dünyada ve Türkiye’de uranyum ve toryum. MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration); 2017. https://www.mta.gov.tr/v3.0/sayfalar/bilgi-merkezi/maden-serisi/Uranyum-Toryum.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [8] Melikoglu M. Vision 2023: Status quo and future of biomass and coal for sustainable energy generation in Turkey. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017;74:800–8. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.005.
  • [9] WEC (World Energy Council). Energy sources: Coal. https://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/resource/coal/ Energy Resources [Accessed 29 January 2018].
  • [10] WEC (World Energy Council). World energy resources – coal 2016. https://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WEResources_Coal_2016.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [11] MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration). Kömür arama araştırmaları. http://www.mta.gov.tr/v3.0/arastirmalar/komur-arama-arastirmalari [Accessed 29 January 2018].
  • [12] TTK (Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises). Hakkımızda. http://www.taskomuru.gov.tr/index.php?page=sayfagoster&id=7 [Accessed 26 January 2018].
  • [13] Ersoy, M. 2010. Sürdürülebilir kalkınmada Avrupa Birliği ve Türkiye kömür madenciliği. In: Proceedings of the 19th Coal Congress of Turkey; 2013.
  • [14] BP (British petrolium). Statistical Review of World Energy; 2017. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/en/corporate/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2017/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2017-full-report.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [15] GDPA (The General Directorate of Petroleum Affairs). İstatistikler: 2016 yılı petrol ve doğal gaz arama–üretim istatistikleri. http://www.pigm.gov.tr/index.php/istatistikler [Accessed 18 February 2018].
  • [16] RWE (Rheinisch - Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk). http://www.rwe.com/web/cms/en/12068/rwe-power-ag/fuels/kw-neurath-boa-2-3/ [Accessed 16 February 2018]. [17] TTK (Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises). 2016 yılı taşkömürü sektör raporu. http://www.taskomuru.gov.tr/file/duyuru/TTKGM_Sektor_Raporu_2016.PDF [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [18] ETKB (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). 2015 yılı faaliyet raporu. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FFaaliyet%20Raporu%2F2015.pdf [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [19] Acar S, Kitson L. Türkiye ’ de Kömür ve Yenilenebilir Enerji Teşvikleri. The International Institute for Sustainable Development. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/sites/default/files/ffsandrens_turkey_coal_tk.pdf ;2015 [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [20] Rao Z, Zhao Y, Huang C, Duan C, He J. Recent developments in drying and dewatering for low rank coals. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2015;46:1–11. doi:10.1016/j.pecs.2014.09.001.
  • [21] Enerji Atlası. Türkiye elektrik üretimi. https://www.enerjiatlasi.com/elektrik-uretimi/ [Accessed 26 January 2018].
  • [22] OECD/IEA (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency). Key world energy statistic; 2017, https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2017.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [23] Speight, JG. The chemistry and technology of coal. 3th ed. CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group; 2013.
  • [24] OECD/IEA (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency). Coal information; 2017.
  • [25] TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey). T.C. Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı 2018 Yılı Bütçe Sunumu. TBMM Tutanak Hizmetleri Başkanlığı; 2017.
  • [26] EİGM (General Directorate of Energy Affairs). İstatistikler: Denge Tabloları. 2018.Denge Tabloları. http://www.eigm.gov.tr/tr-TR/Denge-Tablolari/Denge-Tablolari [Accessed 1 February 2018].
  • [27] ETKB (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). http://www.enerji.gov.tr/tr-TR/Sayfalar/Komur [Accessed 1 February 2018].
  • [28] Turkyılmaz O, Özgiresun C. Türkiye’nin Enerji Görünümü. Enlarged 2nd edition. TMMOB-MMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - Chamber of Mechanical Engineers): MMO/588, , Ankara; 2012. ISBN: 978-605-01-0358-8
  • [29] TTK (Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises). Taşkömürü sektör raporu; 2015. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FTTK%202015%20Sekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu.pdf [Accessed 1 February 2018].
  • [30] TMMOB-EMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - The Chambers of Electrical Engineers). Türkiye elektrik enerjisi istatistikleri. http://www.emo.org.tr/genel/bizden_detay.php?kod=88369. [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [31] TP (Turkish Petroleum). 2017 yılı ham petrol ve doğalgaz sektör raporu. http://www.tpao.gov.tr/tp5/docs/rapor/sektor_rapor_2017.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].
  • [32] Tamzok N. Küreselleşme, serbestleşme ve kömür endüstrisi. TMMOB-MMO (The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects - The Chambers of Mining Engineers). http://www.maden.org.tr/resimler/ekler/1a94cef23357f68_ek.pdf?tipi=23&turu=X&sube=0 ; 2007 [Accessed 16 January 2018].
  • [33] Durmuşoğlu S. Türkiye ’ nin enerji politikaları ve komşu ülkeler ile uluslararası ilişkilerine etkileri [MA]. İstanbul Technical University; 2015.
  • [34] TKİ (Turkish Coal Enterprise). 2015 Kömür (Linyit) sektör raporu, http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FSEKT%C3%96R%20RAPORU%202015%2030.06.2015%20SON.pdf ; 2017 [Accessed 16 February 2018].
  • [35] Demir İ, Emeksiz C. Yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının Türkiye potansiyeli ve kullanımı. EEB (Elektrik-Elektronik ve Bilgisayar Sempozyumu). 2016.
  • [36] EÜAŞ (Electricity Generation Company), 2016 elektrik üretim sektör raporu. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FSekt%C3%B6r%20Raporu%2FEUAS-Sektor_Raporu2016.pdf ; 2017 [Accessed 18 February 2018]. [37] Kilickaplan A, Bogdanov D, Peker O, Caldera U, Aghahosseini A, Breyer C. An energy transition pathway for Turkey to achieve 100% renewable energy powered electricity, desalination and non-energetic industrial gas demand sectors by 2050. Sol Energy 2017;158:218–35. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.09.030.
  • [38] KB (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development). Onuncu kalkınma planı 2014-2018. 2013.
  • [39] Karagöl ET, Kavaz I. Dünyada ve Türkiye’de yenilenebilir enerji. Seta Siyaset, Ekon ve Toplum Araştırmaları Vakfı 2017;197:1–32.
  • [40] Cayir Ervural B, Zaim S, Demirel OF, Aydin Z, Delen D. An ANP and fuzzy TOPSIS-based SWOT analysis for Turkey’s energy planning. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2018;82:1538–50. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.095.
  • [41] RG (The Official Gazette of the Turkish Republic). Agreement between the Government of the republic of Turkey and the government of the Russian Federation on cooperation in relation to the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant at the Akkuyu site in the republic of Turkey. The Official Gazette of the Turkish Republic. 6 October 2010.
  • [42] RG (The Official Gazette of the Turkish Republic). Agreement between the government of the Republic of Turkey and the government of Japan on co-operation for development of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power industry in the Republic of Turkey. 23 May 2015.
  • [43] Kok B, Benli H. Energy diversity and nuclear energy for sustainable development in Turkey. Renew Energy 2017;111:870–7. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2017.05.001.
  • [44] Yousefi-Sahzabi A, Unlu-Yucesoy E, Sasaki K, Yuosefi H, Widiatmojo A, Sugai Y. Turkish challenges for low-carbon society: Current status, government policies and social acceptance. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017;68:596–608. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.090.
  • [45] IKV (Economic Development Foundation). 2020’ye doğru Kyoto-Tipi iklim değişikliği müzakereleri; Avrupa birliği’nin yeterliliği ve Türkiye’nin konumu, İstanbul; 2013.
  • [46] DB (Repuclic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Paris anlaşması: 2018. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/paris-anlasmasi.tr.mfa. [Accessed 13 February 2018].
  • [47] WNA, 2011 World Nuclear Association. 2011. Comparison of life cyle greenhouse gas emissions of various electricity generation sources. WNA Report, World Nuclear Association, London, UK.
  • [48] Sovacool BK, Walter G. Major hydropower states, sustainable development, and energy security: Insights from a preliminary cross-comparative assessment. Energy 2018;142:1074–82. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.09.085.
  • [49] Burgherr P, Hirschberg S. Comparative risk assessment of severe accidents in the energy sector. Energy Policy 2014;74:S45–56. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.01.035.
  • [50] MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). The Future of Nuclear Power. 2003. ISBN 0-615-12420-8. [51] Sovacool BK, Kryman M, Laine E. Profiling technological failure and disaster in the energy sector: A comparative analysis of historical energy accidents. Energy 2015;90:2016–27. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.043.
  • [52] Sovacool BK. A critical evaluation of nuclear power and renewable electricity in Asia. J Contemp Asia 2010;40:369–400. doi:10.1080/00472331003798350.
  • [53] Prăvălie R, Bandoc G. Nuclear energy: Between global electricity demand, worldwide decarbonisation imperativeness, and planetary environmental implications. J Environ Manage 2018;209:81–92. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.043.
  • [54] Curry A. What Lies Beneath. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/10/what-lies-beneath/537894/. [Accessed 13 February 2018].
  • [55] Greenpeace. Energy revolution a sustainable Turkey energy outlook. https://www.greenpeace.org/turkey/Global/turkey/report/2015/Energy%20%5BR%5Devolution.pdf ; 2015 [Accessed 26 January 2019].

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Yerbilimleri, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Serkan İNAL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5960-013X
Türkiye


Özüm YASAR Bu kişi benim
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Kerim AYDINER Bu kişi benim
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Ocak 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt , Sayı 19

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { mtb865278, journal = {MT Bilimsel}, issn = {2146-9431}, address = {Kabil Cd. 1335 Sk No: 6 Daire: 8 Vadi Köşk Apt. Aşağı Öveçler Çankaya Ankara}, publisher = {Mayeb Basın Yayın İnsan Kaynakları Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2021}, number = {19}, pages = {11 - 32}, title = {Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency}, key = {cite}, author = {İnal, Serkan and Yasar, Özüm and Aydıner, Kerim} }
APA İnal, S. , Yasar, Ö. & Aydıner, K. (2021). Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency . MT Bilimsel , (19) , 11-32 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/mtb/issue/59860/865278
MLA İnal, S. , Yasar, Ö. , Aydıner, K. "Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency" . MT Bilimsel (2021 ): 11-32 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/mtb/issue/59860/865278>
Chicago İnal, S. , Yasar, Ö. , Aydıner, K. "Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency". MT Bilimsel (2021 ): 11-32
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency AU - Serkanİnal, ÖzümYasar, KerimAydıner Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - MT Bilimsel JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 11 EP - 32 VL - IS - 19 SN - 2146-9431- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 MT Bilimsel Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency %A Serkan İnal , Özüm Yasar , Kerim Aydıner %T Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency %D 2021 %J MT Bilimsel %P 2146-9431- %V %N 19 %R %U
ISNAD İnal, Serkan , Yasar, Özüm , Aydıner, Kerim . "Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency". MT Bilimsel / 19 (Ocak 2021): 11-32 .
AMA İnal S. , Yasar Ö. , Aydıner K. Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency. MT Bilimsel. 2021; (19): 11-32.
Vancouver İnal S. , Yasar Ö. , Aydıner K. Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency. MT Bilimsel. 2021; (19): 11-32.
IEEE S. İnal , Ö. Yasar ve K. Aydıner , "Importance of Domestic Coal (Lignite) Reserves on Turkey’s Energy Independency", MT Bilimsel, sayı. 19, ss. 11-32, Oca. 2021

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