Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

The Dark Leadership Scale: A Scaling Study on Employees’ Perceptions

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 31.12.2019

Öz

Within organizations, leadership is deemed effective through employees’ manners (opinions, beliefs, expectations, and rumors) and behaviours (participation, commitment/ absence, protests etc.) by means of emotional components (experiences, fears, positive/negative). During the management process, the leader benefits from various power of the position and effecting mechanisms to achieve organizational goals. However, it is also possible for the leader to use his/her power and position for different purposes; to change the direction of positive outputs.  For example, employees' perceptions of a leader who takes advantage of his/her personal charismatic power for his/her own interests or for the interests of the organization have been found to vary (Dirik et al., 2016, p. 260). Moreover, the manager can exhibit “dark” manners and behaviors, meaning oppressive and socially unaccepted behaviors (Harms & Spain, 2015; Brandebo & Alvinius, 2018). These dark manners and behaviours can surface not only because of negative character traits of the individual, but also due to uncertainty in the organization or organization structure (Brandebo & Alvinius, 2018), or due to concerns of losing positions (Nassif, 2018). Transformational leaders may look down on the people around them due to exaggerated levels of self-confidence (De Villiers, 2014; Li & Yuan, 2017, p. 60). The may show authoritative tendencies such as use of power to reach success (Khoo et al., 2008; Li & Yuan, 2017, p. 60) or may create a climate of fear (Kocel, 2007). Moreover, the leaders may show the success of subordinates as their own success and may dominate them by using the power of position (Harris & Jones, 2018). These kinds of behaviours can be classified as “dark”, according to the previous studies.

Studying the dark sides of leaders has been attracting scholarly attention lately, alongside considering the importance of how employees perceive leadership behaviors (Harris & Jones, 2018; Landay et al., 2018).

As it is stated above, the leader has the responsibility over followers and has also the power to strengthen or damage the exchange (leader–followers) relationship. In this perspective, Jean Lipman- Bluman has asserted that the leaders can produce harm or harmony essentially through two mechanisms: their destructive/ constructive behaviors and dysfunctional/ functional personal characteristics (Lipman- Bluman, 2011). It is possible this kind of destructive leadership behaviors or personal characteristics can be perceived by subordinates to be harmful to the well-being. In a nutshell, they can perceive they work for a “dark leader”. This paper aims to contribute to the literature emphasizing the negative traits of perceived by followers in the workplace by creating the scale ‘dark leadership’.

The research asks the question “Which behaviors of managers/leaders do employees describe as negative?”, and focuses on the subdimensions of dark leadership, under which these negative behaviors can be evaluated. Accordingly, the relation between employee perceptions of dark leadership and qualitative data, supported with quantitative data, is examined by the “exploratory sequential design” method (Firat et al., 2014, p. 72). One to one interviews, a focus group discussion and document review are used in the data collection stage. Data was examined using “three-stage analysis” (Sigri, 2018, p. 198).

The ‘purposive sampling’ method (Patton, 2002; Teddlie & Yu, 2007) was used with voluntary participants who had been working for at least 5 years in the same workplace for the qualitative research. (Baki & Göcek, 2012, p. 5). The study was conducted on 21 participants working in two different industries in Istanbul. Following individual and focus group interviews, the obtained data was saved in the QDA Miner software for analysis. After reading the participants’ responses carefully, ‘codes’ were determined according to the pre-specified concepts based on the relevant literature, to be used during the examination of data. Identified codes were grouped in terms of content integrity and interrelation. The six sub-dimensions which form the dark leadership were obtained as a result of arranging the themes according to the research questions.

The common statements of the participants were brought together under a single statement in accordance with the content analysis of Krippendorf (2004). Moreover, a ‘directed approach’ was used during the content analysis to conceptually validate and extend a theoretical expression (Hsieh & Shannoon, 2005). First, to avoid misunderstandings and for the reliability of data obtained in the semi-structured interview, each sub-dimension was independently evaluated. The statements given by the employees were compared to the concepts identified in the literature. In the context of content analysis, “cross case synthesis” (Yin, 2009) which handles the statements as separate studies, was used and the statements were compared to increase the reliability and to determine the differences as well as similarities. (Akgün et al., 2017). An item pool consisting of 108 statements was created using the answers provided by the participants, in accordance with the individual and focus group interviews. By using QDA Miner software, the number of these statements was decreased to 76 items.

Subsequently, the quantitative research stage began with 151 voluntary participants online, using the snowball sampling method. The dark leadership scale was found to be sufficient for reliability, criterion validity, construct validity, parallel validity and test-retest reliability. 6 sub-dimensions (35 items) of the dark leadership were named as follows: toxic leadership (9 items), small tyranny (7 items), narcissistic leadership (5 items), destructive leadership (7 items), unethical leadership (4 items) and abusive leadership 3 (items). 

Kaynakça

  • Akgün, A. E., Keskin,H.,Ayar,H., Okunakol,Z. (2017). Knowledge sharing barriers in software development teams: a multiple case study in Turkey. Kybernetes, 1-34.
  • Ashforth, B. E. (1994). Petty tyranny in organization. 07 5, 2017 tarihinde Human Relations, ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247717438 adresinden alındı
  • Bakan İ., Büyükbeşe T (2010). Liderlik “türleri” ve “güç kaynakları”na ilişkin mevcut-gelecek durum karşılaştırması: eğitim kurumu yöneticilerinin algılarına dayalı bir alan araştırması. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomi̇k Araştırmalar Dergi̇si, 12(19), 73-84.
  • Ballı E., A. Çakıcı (2016). Karanlık Liderliğin Örgütsel Bağlılık Ve Örgütsel Sessizlik Üzerine Etkisi: Otel Çalışanları Üzerinde Bir Araştırma 20 12,2018 tarihinde ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net adresinden alındı.
  • Ballı E., A. Çakıcı (2015). Otel Çalışanlarının Karanlık Liderlik Algısı Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi 16. Ulusal Turizm Kongresi s.206-218
  • Ballı E., A.İ. Koca Ballı (2017). Karanlı Liderlik ve Örgütsel Etik İklim Arasındaki İlişki: Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Çalışma FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON FUTURE OF TOURISM / ResearchGate, 74-81
  • Bass B.M., Avolio B.J. (1990). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(5), 21-27.
  • Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
  • Bass, B. (1990). Bass & stogdill’s handbook of leadership, theory, research, and managerial applications (3.Edition b.). New York: The Free Press.
  • Başar, U., Sığrı,Ü., Basım, N (2016). İş yerinde karanlık liderlik. İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 65-76.
  • Blais, J. Pruysers,S. (2017). The power of the dark side: personality, the dark triad, and political ambition. Personality and Individual Differences, 167-172.
  • Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Open Road Media.
  • Braun S. and Nieberle Karolina W.A.M. The (2017) Authentic leadership extends beyond work: A multilevel model of work-family conflict and enrichment, Leadership Quarterly 28, 780–797
  • Brandebo M.F. ,Alvinius A.( 2018) “Dark Sides of Organizations and Leadership - An Integrative Approach and Definitions”, 09,2019 tarihinde www.intechopen.com open Access Books adresinden alındı.
  • Clarke I.E., Karlov,L.,Neale,N.J. (2015). The many faces of narcissism: Narcissism factors and their predictive utility. Personality and Individual Differences, 90-95.
  • Conger, J. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: an ınsider's perspectiveon these developing streams of research,on these developing streams of research. Leadership Quarterly, 19-35.
  • Davis, K. (1988). İşletmelerde insan davranışı. (Somay T., Aykar F., Baysal C., Sadullah Ö., Yalçın S., Tosun K., Çev.) İstanbul: 3.Baskı.
  • De Villiers, R. (2014). Book essay on the dark side of transformational leadership: acritical perspective. J.Bus.Res, 2512-2514.
  • Dirik, D. Ataç. L.O. (2016). Liderin kullandığı güç kaynakları, bağlamsal performans ve bölgecilik ilişkisi: beyaz yakalılar üzerine bir araştırma. Eurasian Academy of Sciences Eurasian Business & Economics Journal, 259-271.
  • Farah, A. Amorim, I.S.,Chamorro-Premuzic,T.(2009). Empathy deficits and trait emotional intelligence in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 758-762.
  • Fatfouta, R. (2017). To be alone or not to be alone? facets of narcissism and preference for solitude. Personality and Individual Differences, 1-4.
  • Glad, B. (2002). Why tyrants go too far: Malignant narcissism and absolute power. Political Psychology, 23, 1-37.
  • Güldü, Ö., Esentürk-Aksu,N (2016). Yıkıcı liderlik algısı ve mesleki tükenmişlik arasındaki ilişkide olumsuz duydu-durumunun aracı rolü. Çalışma İlişkileri Dergisi, 7(2), 91-113.
  • Haider S., Nisar Q. A., F. Baig, M. Azeem, W. Hameed (2018). Dark Side of Leadership: Employees’ Job Stress & Deviant Behaviors in Pharmaceutical Industry International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, 125-138.
  • Harms P.D., M. Seth Spain (2015). Beyond the Bright Side: Dark Personality at Work Applied Psychology,15-24
  • Harms P.D., Wood D., Landay K., Lester B. P., Lester G.V.(2018) Autocratic leaders and authoritarian followers revisited: A review and agenda for the futurePages, The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 105-122
  • Harris A., Jones M. (2018) The dark side of leadership and management, School Leadership & Management, 38:5, 475-477, 09,2019 tarihinde DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2018.1509276 adresinden alındı.
  • Henriques P.L. , Curado C. , Mateus J. H. , Martins J.(2019). Facing the Dark Side: How Leadership Destroys Organisational Innovation, Journal of Technology Management & Innovation , 718-2724.
  • Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, (4), 307-322.
  • Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524, 09,2019 tarihinde http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X adresinden alındı.
  • Jex, S. (2002). Organizational psychology; a scientist-practitioner approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Kasalak, G. Bilgin-Aksu M. (2016). Örgütler nasıl zehirlenir? Öğretim elemanlarının örgütsel toksisite algıları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 31(4), 676-694.
  • Kesken, J. Ayyıldız-Ünnü,.N. (2011). Öteki Liderlik. Gazi Kitap Evi.
  • Khoo, H. Burch G. (2008). The dark side of leadership personality and transformational leadership: an exploratory study. Personality and Individual Difference, 86-97.
  • Koçel, T. (2007). İşletme yöneticiliği (11.Baskı b.), Arıkan Yayınevi.
  • Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology (2rd edn b.). USA: SAGE.
  • Lamkin, J. Lavner,J.A.,Shaffer,A. (2017). Narcissism and observed communication in couples. Personality and Individual Differences, 224-228.
  • Lapalme, M.-È. Stamper, C. L., Simard G. Ve Tremblay, M. (2009). Bringing the outside ın: can “external” workers experience ınsider status?”. 919-940.
  • Landay K.,Harms P.D., Crede M.(2018). Shall We Serve the Dark Lords? A Meta-Analytic Review of Psychopathy and Leadership, Journal of Applied Psychology,09,2019 tarihinde DOI: 10.1037/apl0000357 adresinden alındı.
  • Lasakova, A. Remisova A. (2015). Unethical leadership: current theoretical trends and conceptualization. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34, 319-328.
  • Laschinger, H. K. S., Fida, R. (2014). New nurses burnout and workplace wellbeing: The influence of authentic leadership and psychological capital.Burnout,Research,1,19–28.09,2019tarihinde http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.03.002,adresinden alındı.
  • Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., and White, R. (1939). Patterns of Aggressive Behaviour in Experimentally Created Social Climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-299.
  • Li, J. Yuan,B. (2017). Both angel and devil: The suppressing effect of transformational leadership on proactive employee’s career satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 59-70.
  • Lipman-Blumen, J. (2005). The allure of toxic leader. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Marcus, B. Schuler, H. (2004). Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at work: a general perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 647-660.
  • Nagler, U. K.J., Reiter,K.J., Furtner, M.R., Rauthmann,J. (2014). Is there a “dark intelligence”? Emotional intelligence is used by dark personalities to emotionally manipulate others. Personality and Individual Differences, 47-52.
  • Nassif, Afif George (2018) Heterogeneity And Centrality Of “Dark Personality” Within Teams,Shared Leadership, And Team Performance: A Conceptual Moderated-Mediation Model, Human Resource Management Review,1-14
  • Padilla, A. Hogan,R., Kaiser,B.R. (2007). The toxic triangle: destructive leaders, susceptible followers and conducive environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 176-194.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd edn b.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.
  • Podsakoff P.M. Mackenzie S.B., Moorman R.H., Fetter R (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction,and organizational citizenship. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107-142.
  • Reyhanoğlu, M. Akın,Ö. (2016). Toksik liderlik örgüt sağlığını olumsuz yönde etkiler mi ? İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırma Dergis, 5(3), 442-459.
  • Schmidt, A.A. (2008). Development and validation of the toxic leadership scale. Unpublished Master Thesis,University of Maryland.
  • Schein, E.H. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco:John Wiley & Sons.
  • Sezici, E. (2015). İzleyicilerin yıkıcı liderlik algısı ve sonuçları. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Yönetim Organizasyon Bölümü, Dergipak.
  • Sığrı Ü.(2018). Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri,Beta Basım Yayın
  • Singh, N. Dev,S.,Sengupta,S. (2017). Perceived toxicity in leaders: Through the demographic lens of subordinates. nformation Technology and Quantitative Management, 114-121.
  • Teddlie, C. Yu,F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: a typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77-100.
  • Tepper, Bennett J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervison. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178-190.
  • Tourish, D. (2013). The dark side of transformational leadership: a criticalperspective. London: Routledge.
  • Uymaz, A. (2013). Yıkıcı liderlik ölçeği geliştirme çalışması. İ.Ü İşletme İktisadı Enstitüsü Yönetim Dergisi, 24(75), 38-57.
  • Üçok, D. Turgut,T. (2014). İstismarcı yönetim davranışlarının işyerindeki sapkın davranışlar üzerindeki rolü. Eskişehir Osman Gazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi,, 9(3), 163-179.
  • Ülbeği, İ. Mimaroğlu-Özgen,H., Özgen,H. (2014, 01). ''Türkiyede istismarcı yönetim ölçeğinin uyarlanması: güvenilirlik ve gerçeklik analizi.'' 06 29, 2017 tarihinde ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273593115_Turkiye'de_Istismarci_Yonetim_Olceginin_Uyarlamasi_Guvenirlik_ve_Gecerlik_Analizi adresinden alındı
  • Whicker, M. L. ( 1996). Toxic leaders: When organizations go bad. Westport: VA: Quorum Books.
  • Williams, K.M., Paulhus,D.L (2004). Factor structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II) in non-forensic samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 765-778.
  • Yavaş, A. (2016). Sectoral differences in the perception of toxic leadership. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 267-276.
  • Yin, R.K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4rd edn b.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.
  • Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations (5.edt b.). Upper Saddle River: NJ:Prentice Hall.

Karanlık Liderlik Ölçeği: Çalışanların Algısı Üzerine Bir Ölçeklendirme Çalışması

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 31.12.2019

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı liderin karanlık yönlerinin çalışan algısı üzerinden belirlenmesidir. Olumsuz liderlik tarzlarının tek tek değil, daha fazlasının tek bir yöneticide bulunabileceği düşüncesinden yola çıkarak karma yöntem kullanılarak araştırma yürütülmüştür. Bu çalışmada karma yöntem desenlerinden keşfedici sıralı desen kullanılmıştır. Nitel analiz kapsamında birebir mülakatlar, odak grup görüşmesi yapılmış, katılımcılardan elde edilen ifadelerin QDA Miner programı ile analizleri yapılmıştır. Madde havuzu oluşturulduktan sonra nicel yöntemde çalışanlar açısından yönetici davranışları altı alt boyutta belirmiş ve bu alt boyutlar üzerinden geçerlilik-güvenilirlik analizleri yapılmıştır. Karanlık liderlik ölçeği güvenilirlik, ölçüt geçerliliği, yapı geçerliliği, paralel geçerlilik ve test-tekrar test güvenilirliği açısından yeterli düzeyde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçları, 35 ifade 6 faktörlü bir ölçek yapısını ortaya çıkarmıştır. Çalışan algısı kapsamında karanlık liderlikle ilgili; toksik liderliği (9 ifade), küçük tiranlığı (7 ifade), narsist liderliği (5 ifade), yıkıcı liderliği (7 ifade), etik dışı liderliği (4 ifade) ve istismarcı liderliği (3 ifade) kapsayan bir ölçme aracı elde edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akgün, A. E., Keskin,H.,Ayar,H., Okunakol,Z. (2017). Knowledge sharing barriers in software development teams: a multiple case study in Turkey. Kybernetes, 1-34.
  • Ashforth, B. E. (1994). Petty tyranny in organization. 07 5, 2017 tarihinde Human Relations, ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247717438 adresinden alındı
  • Bakan İ., Büyükbeşe T (2010). Liderlik “türleri” ve “güç kaynakları”na ilişkin mevcut-gelecek durum karşılaştırması: eğitim kurumu yöneticilerinin algılarına dayalı bir alan araştırması. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomi̇k Araştırmalar Dergi̇si, 12(19), 73-84.
  • Ballı E., A. Çakıcı (2016). Karanlık Liderliğin Örgütsel Bağlılık Ve Örgütsel Sessizlik Üzerine Etkisi: Otel Çalışanları Üzerinde Bir Araştırma 20 12,2018 tarihinde ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net adresinden alındı.
  • Ballı E., A. Çakıcı (2015). Otel Çalışanlarının Karanlık Liderlik Algısı Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi 16. Ulusal Turizm Kongresi s.206-218
  • Ballı E., A.İ. Koca Ballı (2017). Karanlı Liderlik ve Örgütsel Etik İklim Arasındaki İlişki: Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Çalışma FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON FUTURE OF TOURISM / ResearchGate, 74-81
  • Bass B.M., Avolio B.J. (1990). Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(5), 21-27.
  • Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
  • Bass, B. (1990). Bass & stogdill’s handbook of leadership, theory, research, and managerial applications (3.Edition b.). New York: The Free Press.
  • Başar, U., Sığrı,Ü., Basım, N (2016). İş yerinde karanlık liderlik. İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 65-76.
  • Blais, J. Pruysers,S. (2017). The power of the dark side: personality, the dark triad, and political ambition. Personality and Individual Differences, 167-172.
  • Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Open Road Media.
  • Braun S. and Nieberle Karolina W.A.M. The (2017) Authentic leadership extends beyond work: A multilevel model of work-family conflict and enrichment, Leadership Quarterly 28, 780–797
  • Brandebo M.F. ,Alvinius A.( 2018) “Dark Sides of Organizations and Leadership - An Integrative Approach and Definitions”, 09,2019 tarihinde www.intechopen.com open Access Books adresinden alındı.
  • Clarke I.E., Karlov,L.,Neale,N.J. (2015). The many faces of narcissism: Narcissism factors and their predictive utility. Personality and Individual Differences, 90-95.
  • Conger, J. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: an ınsider's perspectiveon these developing streams of research,on these developing streams of research. Leadership Quarterly, 19-35.
  • Davis, K. (1988). İşletmelerde insan davranışı. (Somay T., Aykar F., Baysal C., Sadullah Ö., Yalçın S., Tosun K., Çev.) İstanbul: 3.Baskı.
  • De Villiers, R. (2014). Book essay on the dark side of transformational leadership: acritical perspective. J.Bus.Res, 2512-2514.
  • Dirik, D. Ataç. L.O. (2016). Liderin kullandığı güç kaynakları, bağlamsal performans ve bölgecilik ilişkisi: beyaz yakalılar üzerine bir araştırma. Eurasian Academy of Sciences Eurasian Business & Economics Journal, 259-271.
  • Farah, A. Amorim, I.S.,Chamorro-Premuzic,T.(2009). Empathy deficits and trait emotional intelligence in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 758-762.
  • Fatfouta, R. (2017). To be alone or not to be alone? facets of narcissism and preference for solitude. Personality and Individual Differences, 1-4.
  • Glad, B. (2002). Why tyrants go too far: Malignant narcissism and absolute power. Political Psychology, 23, 1-37.
  • Güldü, Ö., Esentürk-Aksu,N (2016). Yıkıcı liderlik algısı ve mesleki tükenmişlik arasındaki ilişkide olumsuz duydu-durumunun aracı rolü. Çalışma İlişkileri Dergisi, 7(2), 91-113.
  • Haider S., Nisar Q. A., F. Baig, M. Azeem, W. Hameed (2018). Dark Side of Leadership: Employees’ Job Stress & Deviant Behaviors in Pharmaceutical Industry International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, 125-138.
  • Harms P.D., M. Seth Spain (2015). Beyond the Bright Side: Dark Personality at Work Applied Psychology,15-24
  • Harms P.D., Wood D., Landay K., Lester B. P., Lester G.V.(2018) Autocratic leaders and authoritarian followers revisited: A review and agenda for the futurePages, The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 105-122
  • Harris A., Jones M. (2018) The dark side of leadership and management, School Leadership & Management, 38:5, 475-477, 09,2019 tarihinde DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2018.1509276 adresinden alındı.
  • Henriques P.L. , Curado C. , Mateus J. H. , Martins J.(2019). Facing the Dark Side: How Leadership Destroys Organisational Innovation, Journal of Technology Management & Innovation , 718-2724.
  • Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, (4), 307-322.
  • Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524, 09,2019 tarihinde http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X adresinden alındı.
  • Jex, S. (2002). Organizational psychology; a scientist-practitioner approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Kasalak, G. Bilgin-Aksu M. (2016). Örgütler nasıl zehirlenir? Öğretim elemanlarının örgütsel toksisite algıları. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 31(4), 676-694.
  • Kesken, J. Ayyıldız-Ünnü,.N. (2011). Öteki Liderlik. Gazi Kitap Evi.
  • Khoo, H. Burch G. (2008). The dark side of leadership personality and transformational leadership: an exploratory study. Personality and Individual Difference, 86-97.
  • Koçel, T. (2007). İşletme yöneticiliği (11.Baskı b.), Arıkan Yayınevi.
  • Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology (2rd edn b.). USA: SAGE.
  • Lamkin, J. Lavner,J.A.,Shaffer,A. (2017). Narcissism and observed communication in couples. Personality and Individual Differences, 224-228.
  • Lapalme, M.-È. Stamper, C. L., Simard G. Ve Tremblay, M. (2009). Bringing the outside ın: can “external” workers experience ınsider status?”. 919-940.
  • Landay K.,Harms P.D., Crede M.(2018). Shall We Serve the Dark Lords? A Meta-Analytic Review of Psychopathy and Leadership, Journal of Applied Psychology,09,2019 tarihinde DOI: 10.1037/apl0000357 adresinden alındı.
  • Lasakova, A. Remisova A. (2015). Unethical leadership: current theoretical trends and conceptualization. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34, 319-328.
  • Laschinger, H. K. S., Fida, R. (2014). New nurses burnout and workplace wellbeing: The influence of authentic leadership and psychological capital.Burnout,Research,1,19–28.09,2019tarihinde http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.03.002,adresinden alındı.
  • Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., and White, R. (1939). Patterns of Aggressive Behaviour in Experimentally Created Social Climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-299.
  • Li, J. Yuan,B. (2017). Both angel and devil: The suppressing effect of transformational leadership on proactive employee’s career satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 59-70.
  • Lipman-Blumen, J. (2005). The allure of toxic leader. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Marcus, B. Schuler, H. (2004). Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at work: a general perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 647-660.
  • Nagler, U. K.J., Reiter,K.J., Furtner, M.R., Rauthmann,J. (2014). Is there a “dark intelligence”? Emotional intelligence is used by dark personalities to emotionally manipulate others. Personality and Individual Differences, 47-52.
  • Nassif, Afif George (2018) Heterogeneity And Centrality Of “Dark Personality” Within Teams,Shared Leadership, And Team Performance: A Conceptual Moderated-Mediation Model, Human Resource Management Review,1-14
  • Padilla, A. Hogan,R., Kaiser,B.R. (2007). The toxic triangle: destructive leaders, susceptible followers and conducive environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 176-194.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd edn b.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.
  • Podsakoff P.M. Mackenzie S.B., Moorman R.H., Fetter R (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction,and organizational citizenship. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107-142.
  • Reyhanoğlu, M. Akın,Ö. (2016). Toksik liderlik örgüt sağlığını olumsuz yönde etkiler mi ? İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırma Dergis, 5(3), 442-459.
  • Schmidt, A.A. (2008). Development and validation of the toxic leadership scale. Unpublished Master Thesis,University of Maryland.
  • Schein, E.H. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco:John Wiley & Sons.
  • Sezici, E. (2015). İzleyicilerin yıkıcı liderlik algısı ve sonuçları. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Yönetim Organizasyon Bölümü, Dergipak.
  • Sığrı Ü.(2018). Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri,Beta Basım Yayın
  • Singh, N. Dev,S.,Sengupta,S. (2017). Perceived toxicity in leaders: Through the demographic lens of subordinates. nformation Technology and Quantitative Management, 114-121.
  • Teddlie, C. Yu,F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: a typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77-100.
  • Tepper, Bennett J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervison. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178-190.
  • Tourish, D. (2013). The dark side of transformational leadership: a criticalperspective. London: Routledge.
  • Uymaz, A. (2013). Yıkıcı liderlik ölçeği geliştirme çalışması. İ.Ü İşletme İktisadı Enstitüsü Yönetim Dergisi, 24(75), 38-57.
  • Üçok, D. Turgut,T. (2014). İstismarcı yönetim davranışlarının işyerindeki sapkın davranışlar üzerindeki rolü. Eskişehir Osman Gazi Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi,, 9(3), 163-179.
  • Ülbeği, İ. Mimaroğlu-Özgen,H., Özgen,H. (2014, 01). ''Türkiyede istismarcı yönetim ölçeğinin uyarlanması: güvenilirlik ve gerçeklik analizi.'' 06 29, 2017 tarihinde ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273593115_Turkiye'de_Istismarci_Yonetim_Olceginin_Uyarlamasi_Guvenirlik_ve_Gecerlik_Analizi adresinden alındı
  • Whicker, M. L. ( 1996). Toxic leaders: When organizations go bad. Westport: VA: Quorum Books.
  • Williams, K.M., Paulhus,D.L (2004). Factor structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II) in non-forensic samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 765-778.
  • Yavaş, A. (2016). Sectoral differences in the perception of toxic leadership. Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences, 267-276.
  • Yin, R.K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4rd edn b.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage.
  • Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in organizations (5.edt b.). Upper Saddle River: NJ:Prentice Hall.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İşletme
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Mine M. AFACAN FINDIKLI> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BEYKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1021-6641
Türkiye


Gözde OKAN>

0000-0002-2531-8600


Ünsal SIĞRI Bu kişi benim

0000-0002-8870-7398

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Afacan Fındıklı, M. M. , Okan, G. & Sığrı, Ü. (2019). Karanlık Liderlik Ölçeği: Çalışanların Algısı Üzerine Bir Ölçeklendirme Çalışması . Nitel Sosyal Bilimler , 1 (1) , . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/nsb/issue/51274/648579