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Toplumsal Cinsiyete Dayalı Cinsel Şiddet Sarmalı İçinde Göçmen Kadınlar: Bağlamsal Bir Değerlendirme

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 2, 1441 - 1460, 02.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.48146/odusobiad.1093320

Öz

Savaş/çatışma ortamında ve beraberinde zorunlu göç sürecinde toplumsal cinsiyete dayalı şiddet (TCDŞ) ve toplumsal cinsiyete dayalı cinsel şiddet (TCDŞ-C) riski kadınlar için artmaktadır. Ancak zorunlu göçmen kadınların maruz bırakıldığı TCDŞ-C sadece savaşın talihsiz yan ürünü olarak ele alınmakta; bu ise TCDŞ-C’nin örtük olan görünümlerini daha da örtük hale getirerek adeta görünmez kılmaktadır. Bu derleme çalışmanın amacı; zorunlu göçmen kadınların maruz bırakıldıkları çatışmanın devamı olan TCDŞ-C’nin görünümlerini mevcut literatür ışığında bağlamsal (savaş/çatışma ortamı, yolculuk süreci ve varış ülke) olarak değerlendirmek ve zorunlu göçmen kadınların içerisinde yer aldığı TCDŞ-C sarmalını besleyen bağlamsal süreçleri tartışmaktır. Sonuç olarak, zorunlu göçmen kadınların maruz bırakıldıkları TCDŞ-C sarmal bir yapıya sahiptir ancak TCDŞ’-C’nin görünümleri karmaşık, etkileşimli, dönüşümlü olup TCDŞ-C eyleminin meydana geldiği bağlamsal parametrelerle akışkan ve dinamik olarak inşa olmaktadır. Bu inşa süreci de sonuçların, ihtiyaçların ve müdahalelerin yönünü belirlemektedir.

Kaynakça

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  • Amnesty International. (2014). Escape from Hell—Torture and Sexual Slavery in Islamic State Captivity in Iraq. London: Amnesty International Ltd.
  • Amowitz, L. L., Reis, C., Lyons, K. H., Vann, B., Mansaray, B., Akinsulure-Smith, A. M., . . . Iacopino, V. (2002). Prevalence of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons in Sierra Leone. Jama, 287(4), 513- 521.
  • Araujo, J. d., Souza, F. M., Proença, R., Bastos, M. L., Trajman, A., & Faerstein, E. (2019). Prevalence of sexual violence among refugees: a systematic review. Revista de saude publica, 53, 78.
  • Arpacı, M. (2020). Ulusaşırı göç ve toplumsal cinsiyet: Erzincan'da yaşayan Afgan Kadınlar Örneği. Sinop Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4(1), 135-154.
  • Barın , H. (2015). Türkiye’deki Suriyeli kadınların toplumsal bağlamda yaşadıkları sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri. Göç Araştırmaları Dergisi(2), 10-56.
  • Basile , K. C., Smith , S. G., Breiding , M. J., Black , M. C., & Mahendra , R. R. (2014). Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
  • Biehl, K., & Danış, D. (2020). Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Türkiye’de Göç Araştırmaları. İstanbul: SU gender ve GAR.
  • Caballero, M. (2002). Migration, gender and HIV/AIDS in Central America and Mexico. 14th International AIDS Conference, (s. 7-12). Barcelona, Spain.
  • Card, C. (1996). Rape as a Weapon of War. Hypatia, 11(4), 5-18.
  • Chambers, I. (2014). Göç, Kimlik, Kültür. (İ. Türkmen, & M. Beşikçi, Çev.) İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Charles, L., & Denman, K. (2013). Syrian and Palestinian Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: the Plight of Women and Children. Journal of International Women's Studies, 14(5), 96-111.
  • Cockburn, C. (2004). The Countinuum of Violence: Gender Perspective War and Peace. W. Giles, & J. Hyndman (Dü) içinde, Sites of Violence Gender and Conflict Zones (s. 24-44). London: University of California Press.
  • Cockburn, C. (2009). Buradan Baktığımızda Kadınların Militarizme Karşı Mücadelesi. İstanbul: Metis.
  • Coşkun , E., & Eski , B. (2019). Erkek Şiddetinden Kaçarken... İstanbul: SAV Sosyal Araştırmalar Vakfı.
  • Coşkun, E. (2016). Türkiye'nin göç rejiminde toplumsal cinsiyet faktörü: Ugandalı göçmen kadınlar örneği. Fe Dergi: Feminist Eleştiri, 8(1), 91-104.
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  • Çağlar Chesley, M. (2020). Mülteci Hakederliği ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet Temelli Kırılganlık Arasındaki İlişkiyi Anlamak: Uluslararası Koruma Altındaki Mülteciler İçin Sosyal Yardımlar Örneği. K. Biehl , & D. Danış içinde, Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Türkiye’de Göç Araştırmaları (s. 143-163). İstanbul: SU gender ve GAR.
  • Dedeoğlu, S., & Gökmen, Ç. E. (2020). Göç Teorileri, Göçmen Emeği ve Entegrasyon: Kadınların Yeri. K. Biehl, & D. Danış içinde, Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Türkiye'de Göç Araştırmaları (s. 18-37). İstanbul: SU gender ve GAR.
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  • Dykstra, T. A. (2016). Assemblages of Syrian suffering: Rhetorical formations of refugees in Western media. Language, Discourse & Society, 4(1), 31-48.
  • FIDH. (2012). Violence Against Women in Syria: Breaking the Silence Briefing Paper Based on an FIDH assessment mission in Jordan in December 2012. Paris: International Federation for Human Rights.
  • Filiz , B. (2019). Militarizm ve Kadın: İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın Rahatlatıcı Kadınları . Lisansüstü Programlar Enstitüsü Hukuk Yüksek Lisans Programı. İstanbul : İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi.
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  • FRA. (2014). Violence Against Women: an EU-wide Survey: Main Results . Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights.
  • Freedman, J. (2016). Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: a hidden aspect of the refugee" crisis". Reproductive health matters, 24(47), 18-26.
  • Freedman, J. (2017). Women’s experience of forced migration Gender- based forms of insecurity and the uses of “vulnerability”. J. Freedman, Z. Kivilcim, & N. Ö. Baklacıoğlu içinde, A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis (s. 125-141). New York: Routledge.
  • Freedman, J., & Jamal, B. (2008). Violence against migrant and refugee women in the Euromed region. Case studies: France, Egypt & Marocco. Copenhagen: Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network.
  • Freedman, J., Kivilcim , Z., & Baklacıoglu, N. Ö. (2017). Gender, Migration and Exile. J. Freedman, Z. Kivilcim , & N. Ö. Baklavacıoğlu içinde, A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis (s. 1-16). New York: Routledge.
  • GİGM. (2020). T.C. İçişleri Bakanlığı Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü. 12 16, 2020 tarihinde İstatistikler Göç Alanındaki Güncel Sayılar: https://www.goc.gov.tr/# adresinden alındı.
  • González, O. M. (2016). Refugees and ‘host communities’ facing gender-based violence: developing an area-based approach to gender-based violence around Mbera Camp, Mauritania. Gender & Development, 24(3), 375-390.
  • Gögen, S. (2011). Bir Savaş Silahı Olarak Kadına Yönelik Cinsel Şiddetin Sağlık Üzerine Etkileri: Bosna Savaşı Örneği. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 10(1), 119-126.
  • Green, J. L. (2004). Uncovering collective rape: A comparative study of political sexual violence. International Journal of Sociology, 34(1), 97-116.
  • Hynes, H. P. (2003). Ten Reasons Why Mılıtarısm is Bad for Women's Health. 12 01, 2020 tarihinde Peace Women: https://www.peacewomen.org/sites/default/files/RacDisc-SEA-VAW_BadMilitarism_Hynes_Spring2003_0.pdf adresinden alındı.
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  • Keygnaert , I., Dıas , S. F., Degomme , O., Devılle , W., Kennedy , P., Kovats , A., . . . Temmerman , M. (2015). Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile? 25(1), 90-. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(1), 90-96.
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Migrant Women inside the Spiral of Sexual and Gender-based Violence: A Contextual Assessment

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 2, 1441 - 1460, 02.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.48146/odusobiad.1093320

Öz

The risk of gender-based violence (GBV) and sexual-gender-based violence (SGBV) increases significantly for women in a war/conflict context and forced migration process. However, this issue is only considered as the unfortunate outcome of the war. This situation makes the existence of SGBV even more obscure and makes it invisible. The aim of this review is to contextually (war/conflict context, journey, and destination country) evaluate the appearances of SGBV, which is the continuation of the conflict to which forced migrant women are exposed, and to discuss the contextual processes that feed the SGBV spiral. As a result, SGBV to which forced migrant women are exposed has a spiral structure, but the appearances of SGBV are complex, interactive, and transformative. Moreover, it is dynamically and fluidly constructed with the contextual parameters in which SGBV action occurs. Therefore, this construction process determines the direction of outcomes, needs, and interventions.

Kaynakça

  • Allen , B. (1996). Rape Warfare the Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. London: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Amnesty International. (2014). Escape from Hell—Torture and Sexual Slavery in Islamic State Captivity in Iraq. London: Amnesty International Ltd.
  • Amowitz, L. L., Reis, C., Lyons, K. H., Vann, B., Mansaray, B., Akinsulure-Smith, A. M., . . . Iacopino, V. (2002). Prevalence of war-related sexual violence and other human rights abuses among internally displaced persons in Sierra Leone. Jama, 287(4), 513- 521.
  • Araujo, J. d., Souza, F. M., Proença, R., Bastos, M. L., Trajman, A., & Faerstein, E. (2019). Prevalence of sexual violence among refugees: a systematic review. Revista de saude publica, 53, 78.
  • Arpacı, M. (2020). Ulusaşırı göç ve toplumsal cinsiyet: Erzincan'da yaşayan Afgan Kadınlar Örneği. Sinop Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4(1), 135-154.
  • Barın , H. (2015). Türkiye’deki Suriyeli kadınların toplumsal bağlamda yaşadıkları sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri. Göç Araştırmaları Dergisi(2), 10-56.
  • Basile , K. C., Smith , S. G., Breiding , M. J., Black , M. C., & Mahendra , R. R. (2014). Sexual Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
  • Biehl, K., & Danış, D. (2020). Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Türkiye’de Göç Araştırmaları. İstanbul: SU gender ve GAR.
  • Caballero, M. (2002). Migration, gender and HIV/AIDS in Central America and Mexico. 14th International AIDS Conference, (s. 7-12). Barcelona, Spain.
  • Card, C. (1996). Rape as a Weapon of War. Hypatia, 11(4), 5-18.
  • Chambers, I. (2014). Göç, Kimlik, Kültür. (İ. Türkmen, & M. Beşikçi, Çev.) İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Charles, L., & Denman, K. (2013). Syrian and Palestinian Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: the Plight of Women and Children. Journal of International Women's Studies, 14(5), 96-111.
  • Cockburn, C. (2004). The Countinuum of Violence: Gender Perspective War and Peace. W. Giles, & J. Hyndman (Dü) içinde, Sites of Violence Gender and Conflict Zones (s. 24-44). London: University of California Press.
  • Cockburn, C. (2009). Buradan Baktığımızda Kadınların Militarizme Karşı Mücadelesi. İstanbul: Metis.
  • Coşkun , E., & Eski , B. (2019). Erkek Şiddetinden Kaçarken... İstanbul: SAV Sosyal Araştırmalar Vakfı.
  • Coşkun, E. (2016). Türkiye'nin göç rejiminde toplumsal cinsiyet faktörü: Ugandalı göçmen kadınlar örneği. Fe Dergi: Feminist Eleştiri, 8(1), 91-104.
  • Council of Europe. (2011). Kadına Yönelik Şiddet ve Aile İçi Şiddetin Önlenmesi ve Bunlarla Mücadeleye Dair Avrupa Konseyi Sözleşmesi. İstanbul: Council of Europe.
  • Çağlar Chesley, M. (2020). Mülteci Hakederliği ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet Temelli Kırılganlık Arasındaki İlişkiyi Anlamak: Uluslararası Koruma Altındaki Mülteciler İçin Sosyal Yardımlar Örneği. K. Biehl , & D. Danış içinde, Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Türkiye’de Göç Araştırmaları (s. 143-163). İstanbul: SU gender ve GAR.
  • Dedeoğlu, S., & Gökmen, Ç. E. (2020). Göç Teorileri, Göçmen Emeği ve Entegrasyon: Kadınların Yeri. K. Biehl, & D. Danış içinde, Toplumsal Cinsiyet Perspektifinden Türkiye'de Göç Araştırmaları (s. 18-37). İstanbul: SU gender ve GAR.
  • Donato, K. M., Gabaccia, D., Holdaway, J., Manalansan, M., & Pessar, P. R. (2006). A glass half full? Gender in migration studies. International migration review, 40(1), 3-26.
  • Dykstra, T. A. (2016). Assemblages of Syrian suffering: Rhetorical formations of refugees in Western media. Language, Discourse & Society, 4(1), 31-48.
  • FIDH. (2012). Violence Against Women in Syria: Breaking the Silence Briefing Paper Based on an FIDH assessment mission in Jordan in December 2012. Paris: International Federation for Human Rights.
  • Filiz , B. (2019). Militarizm ve Kadın: İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın Rahatlatıcı Kadınları . Lisansüstü Programlar Enstitüsü Hukuk Yüksek Lisans Programı. İstanbul : İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi.
  • Fisher , S. K. (1996). Occupation of the womb: Forced impregnation as genocide. Duke Law Journal, 46(91), 91-133.
  • FRA. (2014). Violence Against Women: an EU-wide Survey: Main Results . Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights.
  • Freedman, J. (2016). Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: a hidden aspect of the refugee" crisis". Reproductive health matters, 24(47), 18-26.
  • Freedman, J. (2017). Women’s experience of forced migration Gender- based forms of insecurity and the uses of “vulnerability”. J. Freedman, Z. Kivilcim, & N. Ö. Baklacıoğlu içinde, A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis (s. 125-141). New York: Routledge.
  • Freedman, J., & Jamal, B. (2008). Violence against migrant and refugee women in the Euromed region. Case studies: France, Egypt & Marocco. Copenhagen: Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network.
  • Freedman, J., Kivilcim , Z., & Baklacıoglu, N. Ö. (2017). Gender, Migration and Exile. J. Freedman, Z. Kivilcim , & N. Ö. Baklavacıoğlu içinde, A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis (s. 1-16). New York: Routledge.
  • GİGM. (2020). T.C. İçişleri Bakanlığı Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü. 12 16, 2020 tarihinde İstatistikler Göç Alanındaki Güncel Sayılar: https://www.goc.gov.tr/# adresinden alındı.
  • González, O. M. (2016). Refugees and ‘host communities’ facing gender-based violence: developing an area-based approach to gender-based violence around Mbera Camp, Mauritania. Gender & Development, 24(3), 375-390.
  • Gögen, S. (2011). Bir Savaş Silahı Olarak Kadına Yönelik Cinsel Şiddetin Sağlık Üzerine Etkileri: Bosna Savaşı Örneği. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 10(1), 119-126.
  • Green, J. L. (2004). Uncovering collective rape: A comparative study of political sexual violence. International Journal of Sociology, 34(1), 97-116.
  • Hynes, H. P. (2003). Ten Reasons Why Mılıtarısm is Bad for Women's Health. 12 01, 2020 tarihinde Peace Women: https://www.peacewomen.org/sites/default/files/RacDisc-SEA-VAW_BadMilitarism_Hynes_Spring2003_0.pdf adresinden alındı.
  • Hynes, M., & Cardozo, B. L. (2000). Observations from the CDC: Sexual violence against refugee women. Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine,, 9(8), 819-823.
  • IASC. (2005). Guidelines for gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian settings: focusing on prevention of and response to sexual violence in emergencies . Geneva: Inter-Agency Standing Committee.
  • IASC. (2015). Guidelines for integrating gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian action: reducing risk, promoting resilience and aiding recovery. Inter-Agency Standing Committee.
  • IOM. (2020). IOM Online Book Store. 12 16, 2020 tarihinde World Migration Report 2020: https://publications.iom.int/books/world-migration-report-2020-turkish-chapter-2 adresinden alındı.
  • Johnson, K., Scott, J., Rughita, B., Kisielewski, M., Asher, J., Ong, R., & Lawry, L. (2010). Association of sexual violence and human rights violations with physical and mental health in territories of the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Jama, 304(5), 553-562.
  • Karakaya, H. (2019). Savaş ve Göç Sürecinde Suriyeli Kadınlar . Social Sciences, 14(5), 2275-2290.
  • Keygnaert , I., Dıas , S. F., Degomme , O., Devılle , W., Kennedy , P., Kovats , A., . . . Temmerman , M. (2015). Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile? 25(1), 90-. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(1), 90-96.
  • Keygnaert, I., Vettenburg, N., & Temmerman, M. (2012). Hidden violence is silent rape: sexual and gender-based violence in refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands. Culture, health & sexuality, 14(5), 505-520.
  • Médecins Sans Frontières. (2005). Violence and immigration report on illegal sub-Saharan migrants (ISSues) in Morocco. https://www.statewatch.org/media/documents/news/2005/oct/MSF-morocco-2005.pdf adresinden alındı.
  • Narlı, N., Özaşçılar , M., & Turkan, I. Z. (2020). Turkish Daily press framing and representation of Syrian women refugees and gender-based problems: Implications for social integration. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 18(1), 1-21.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Beşeri Bilimler, Ortak Disiplinler
Bölüm DERLEME
Yazarlar

Ayşe Nur PEKASIL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1864-0359
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum -
Proje Numarası -
Teşekkür -
Yayımlanma Tarihi 2 Ağustos 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 25 Mart 2022
Kabul Tarihi 28 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Pekasıl, A. N. (2022). Toplumsal Cinsiyete Dayalı Cinsel Şiddet Sarmalı İçinde Göçmen Kadınlar: Bağlamsal Bir Değerlendirme . Ordu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi , 12 (2) , 1441-1460 . DOI: 10.48146/odusobiad.1093320

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