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A Political Psychological Analysis on Ethnic Conflicts and Peace Studies

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 2, 463 - 488, 01.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.890202

Öz

George Santayana said, "Those who cannot remember the past are contemned to repeat it." However, parties of ethnic conflicts around the world show otherwise. So, those who remember the past and those who honor the past prepare the environment for the experienced traumas to create motivation and to strengthen the prejudices and stereotypes. These are increasingly established in societies that experience ethnic and intractable conflicts. In this context, formed emotions and behavioral patterns show continuity as a preparatory and also a consequence of ethnic conflicts. This study aims to deal with some emotional factors that predispose to this situation in the context of peace studies from a social constructivist perspective. The study is literature research aiming to eliminate an important deficiency in the field of international relations in our country in the point that emotion production is an area of evaluation as an international security paradigm.

Kaynakça

  • Allport, G. W., Clark, K., & Pettigrew, T. (1954). The nature of prejudice.
  • Arıboğan, D. Ü. (2020). Politik Karar, Tutum ve Davranışlarımızı Bireyselden Toplumsala Uzanan Bir Yelpazede Anlama ve Açıklama Kılavuzu Olarak Politik Psikoloji. Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, (10), 37-62.
  • Armoudian, M. (2020). In search of a genocidal frame: Preliminary evidence from the Holocaust and the Rwandan genocide. Media, War & Conflict, 13(2), 133-152.
  • Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. science, 211(4489), 1390-1396.
  • Baele, S., Sterck, O., & Meur, E. (2016). Theorizing and Measuring Emotions in Conflict: The Case of the 2011 Palestinian Statehood Bid. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60(4), 718-747.
  • Bar‐Tal, D. (2001). Why does fear override hope in societies engulfed by intractable conflict, as it does in the Israeli society?. Political Psychology, 22(3), 601-627.
  • Baumeister, R. F., & Hastings, S. (1997). Distortions of collective memory: How groups flatter and deceive themselves.
  • Behrendt, H., & Ben-Ari, R. (2012). The Positive Side of Negative Emotion: The Role of Guilt and Shame in Coping with Interpersonal Conflict. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 56(6), 1116-1138.
  • Billig, M. (1985). Prejudice, categorization and particularization: From a perceptual to a rhetorical approach. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15(1), 79-103.
  • Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2006). A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice. In Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 34, pp. 39-89). JAI.
  • Brandt, M. J., & Crawford, J. T. (2020). Worldview conflict and prejudice. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 61, pp. 1-66). Academic Press.
  • Brown, R., & Pehrson, S. (2019). Group processes: Dynamics within and between groups. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bulutgil, H. Z. (2018). The state of the field and debates on ethnic cleansing. Nationalities Papers, 46(6), 1136-1145.
  • Bush, R. A. B., & Folger, J. P. (2004). The promise of mediation: The transformative approach to conflict. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Buzan, B. (1984). Peace, power, and security: contending concepts in the study of International Relations. Journal of Peace Research, 21(2), 109-125.
  • Capucao, D. D. (2010). Religion and ethnocentrism: an empirical-theological study. Brill.
  • Charny, I. W. (1982). How can we commit the unthinkable. Genocide: The human cancer, 2-33.
  • Chiozza, G., & Goemans, H. E. (2011). Leaders and international conflict. Cambridge University Press.
  • Collins, C. (2012). Understanding Intractable Conflict in Sudan. American Intelligence Journal, 30(1), 23-26.
  • Connerton, P. (1989). How societies remember. Cambridge University Press.
  • Croco, S. E. (2011). The decider's dilemma: Leader culpability, war outcomes, and domestic punishment. American Political Science Review, 105(3), 457-477.
  • Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of personality and social psychology, 56(1), 5.
  • Diehl, P. F., & Lepgold, J. (Eds.). (2003). Regional conflict management. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Eber, D. E., & Neal, A. G. (2001). Memory and representation: constructed truths and competing realities. Popular Press.
  • Eggert, M., & Falzon, W. (2018). Resolving Conflict. Management Pocketbooks.
  • Fischer, A. H., & Roseman, I. J. (2007). Beat them or ban them: The characteristics and social functions of anger and contempt. Journal of personality and social psychology, 93(1), 103.
  • Frijda, N. H. (2004, April). Emotions and action. In Feelings and emotions: The Amsterdam symposium (pp. 158-173).
  • Gangopadhyay, P., & Chatterji, M. (Eds.). (2009). Peace science: theory and cases. Emerald Group Publishing.
  • Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological review, 102(1), 4.
  • Duffield, M. (2001). Governing the borderlands: decoding the power of aid. Disasters, 25(4), 308-320.
  • Eriksen, T. H. (1993). Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological perspectives.(ed.)
  • Haer, R., & Böhmelt, T. (2017). Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars. Cooperation and Conflict, 52(3), 332-359. doi:10.2307/48512949
  • Hammond, R. A., & Axelrod, R. (2006). The evolution of ethnocentrism. Journal of conflict resolution, 50(6), 926-936.
  • Harding, J., Proshansky, H., Kutner, B., & Chein, I. (1969). Prejudice and ethnic relations. The handbook of social psychology, 5, 1-76.
  • Herbert C. Kelman, "Social-Psychological Dimensions of International Conflict" Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods and Techniques, eds. I. William Zartman and J. Lewis Rasmussen, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997, pp. 191-238.
  • Halperin, E., & Pliskin, R. (2015). Emotions and emotion regulation in intractable conflict: Studying emotional processes within a unique context. Political Psychology, 36, 119-150.
  • Horowitz, M. C., & Starn, A. C. (2014). How prior military experience influences the future militarized behavior of leaders. International Organization, 527-559.
  • Horowitz, M. C., & Fuhrmann, M. (2018). Studying Leaders and Military Conflict: Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(10), 2072-2086.
  • Horowitz, M. C., Potter, P., Sechser, T. S., & Stam, A. (2018). Sizing Up the Adversary: Leader Attributes and Coercion in International Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(10), 2180-2204.
  • Katz, D., & Braly, K. W. (1933). Verbal stereotypes and racial prejudice. Journal of abnormal and social psychology, 28, 280-290.
  • Kelman, H. C. (1999). Interactive problem solving as a metaphor for international conflict resolution: Lessons for the policy process. Peace and Conflict, 5(3), 201-218.
  • Kelman, H. (2006). The role of an international facilitating service for conflict resolution. International Negotiation, 11(1), 209-223.
  • Kinder, D. R., & Kam, C. D. (2010). Us against them: Ethnocentric foundations of American opinion. University of Chicago Press.
  • Kurzban, R., Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2001). Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(26), 15387-15392.
  • Lederach, J. P. (1997). Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: USIP.
  • Lewicki, R., Gray, B., & Elliott, M. (Eds.). (2003). Making sense of intractable environmental conflicts: Concepts and cases. Island press.
  • Lederach, J. P. (1997). Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: USIP.
  • Levine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes, and group behavior.
  • Levy, J. S. (1994). Learning and foreign policy: Sweeping a conceptual minefield. International organization, 48(2), 279-312.
  • Mair, L. (1975). 'Ethnocide'. RAIN, (7), 4-5.
  • Messmer, H. (2007). Contradiction, conflict and borders. na.
  • Midlarsky, M. I. (2005). The killing trap: Genocide in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press.
  • Murer, J. S. (2009). Constructing the enemy-other: Anxiety, trauma and mourning in the narratives of political conflict. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 14(2), 109-130.
  • Murer, J. S. (2010). Institutionalizing enemies: The consequences of reifying projection in post-conflict environments. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 15(1), 1-19.
  • Mann, M., & Doğan, B. O. (2012). Demokrasinin karanlık yüzü: etnik temizliği açıklamak. İthaki.
  • Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society (Vol. 111). University of Chicago Press.: Chicago.
  • Pender, J. (2002). Empowering the poorest? The world bank and the ‘Voices of the Poor’. In Rethinking Human Rights (pp. 97-114). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Posen, Barry (1993). “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict”, Survival, Cilt 35 (1), ss. 27-47.
  • Pratto, F. (1999). The puzzle of continuing group inequality: Piecing together psychological, social, and cultural forces in social dominance theory. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 31, pp. 191-263). Academic Press.
  • Pupavac, V. (2002). Pathologizing populations and colonizing minds: International psychosocial programs in Kosovo. Alternatives, 27(4), 489-511.
  • Pupavac, V. (2004). War on the couch: the emotionology of the new international security paradigm. European journal of social theory, 7(2), 149-170.
  • Ratner, T. J., & Enders, F. S. Scapegoat Theory: Shifting Blame and Displacing Aggression.
  • Ray, L. (1999). Memory, trauma and genocidal nationalism. Sociological Research Online, 4(2), 125-132.
  • Santayana, G. (1905). Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Santayana G: Reason in Common Sense: The Life of Reason. New York, Charles Scribner, 284Santayana.
  • Schick, K. (2011). Acting out and working through: trauma and (in) security. Review of International Studies, 1837-1855.
  • Schwartz, S. H., & Struch, N. (1989). Values, stereotypes, and intergroup antagonism. In Stereotyping and prejudice (pp. 151-167). Springer, New York, NY.
  • Sechser, T. S. (2004). Are soldiers less war-prone than statesmen?. Journal of conflict resolution, 48(5), 746-774.
  • Singh, M. (2002). Ethnic Conflict And International Security: Theoretical Considerations. World Affairs: The Journal of International Issues, 6(4), 72-89.
  • Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages. Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, Ginn & Co., Boston, MA.
  • Staub, E. (1989). The roots of evil: The origins of genocide and other group violence. Cambridge University Press.
  • Stearns, P. N., & Stearns, C. Z. (1985). Emotionology: Clarifying the history of emotions and emotional standards. The American historical review, 90(4), 813-836.
  • Steiner, B. H. (2004). Collective preventive diplomacy: a study in international conflict management. SUNY Press. Sternberg, R. J. (2005). The psychology of hate. American Psychological Association.
  • Tajfel, H. E. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. Academic Press.
  • Tint, B. (2010). History, memory, and intractable conflict. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 27(3), 239-256.
  • Trolier, T. K., & Hamilton, D. L. (1986). Variables influencing judgments of correlational relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(5), 879.
  • Wondolleck, J. M., Gray, B., & Bryan, T. (2003). Us versus them: How identities and characterizations influence conflict. Environmental Practice, 5(3), 207-213.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2003). Large-group identity: Border psychology and related societal processes. Mind and Human Interaction, 13(1), 49-76.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2011). Unending mourning and its consequences. Psychotherapie-Wissenschaft, 1(2), 102-110.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2013). Divandaki düşmanlar: bir Türk psikanalistin siyaset psikolojisi serüveni. Alfa.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2018). Immigrants and refugees: Trauma, perennial mourning, prejudice, and border psychology. Routledge.
  • Zartman, I. W. (2007). Negotiation and conflict management: Essays on theory and practice. Routledge.
  • Zerubavel, Y. (1995). Recovered roots: Collective memory and the making of Israeli national tradition. University of Chicago Press.
  • Zerubavel, E. (1996). Social memories: Steps to a sociology of the past. Qualitative sociology, 19(3), 283-299.

Etnik Çatışmalar ve Barış Çalışmaları Üzerine Politik Psikolojik Bir İnceleme

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 2, 463 - 488, 01.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.890202

Öz

George Santayana, (1905) “Geçmişi hatırlayamayanlar onu tekrar etmeye mahkûmdur” demiştir. Ancak dünyadaki etnik çatışmaların tarafları, aksini göstermektedir. Nitekim, geçmişi hatırlayanlar ve geçmişi onurlandıranlar, yaşanılan travmaların motivasyon yaratmasına ve önyargı/klişelerin güçlenmesine ortam hazırlamaktadır. Etnik ve müzmin çatışmaları deneyimleyen toplumlarda bunlar giderek yerleşik hale gelmektedir. Bu bağlamda oluşan duygular ve davranış kalıpları, etnik çatışmaların hazırlayıcısı ve neticesi olarak süreklilik göstermektedir. Çalışma, bu duruma zemin hazırlayan birtakım duygusal etmenleri, barış çalışmaları bağlamında ve sosyal inşacılık bakış açısıyla ele almayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma, ülkemizde uluslararası ilişkiler alanında, duygu üretiminin uluslararası güvenlik paradigması olarak değerlendirme alanı olduğu noktasında önemli bir eksikliği gidermeyi hedefleyen literatür araştırmasıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Allport, G. W., Clark, K., & Pettigrew, T. (1954). The nature of prejudice.
  • Arıboğan, D. Ü. (2020). Politik Karar, Tutum ve Davranışlarımızı Bireyselden Toplumsala Uzanan Bir Yelpazede Anlama ve Açıklama Kılavuzu Olarak Politik Psikoloji. Üsküdar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, (10), 37-62.
  • Armoudian, M. (2020). In search of a genocidal frame: Preliminary evidence from the Holocaust and the Rwandan genocide. Media, War & Conflict, 13(2), 133-152.
  • Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. science, 211(4489), 1390-1396.
  • Baele, S., Sterck, O., & Meur, E. (2016). Theorizing and Measuring Emotions in Conflict: The Case of the 2011 Palestinian Statehood Bid. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60(4), 718-747.
  • Bar‐Tal, D. (2001). Why does fear override hope in societies engulfed by intractable conflict, as it does in the Israeli society?. Political Psychology, 22(3), 601-627.
  • Baumeister, R. F., & Hastings, S. (1997). Distortions of collective memory: How groups flatter and deceive themselves.
  • Behrendt, H., & Ben-Ari, R. (2012). The Positive Side of Negative Emotion: The Role of Guilt and Shame in Coping with Interpersonal Conflict. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 56(6), 1116-1138.
  • Billig, M. (1985). Prejudice, categorization and particularization: From a perceptual to a rhetorical approach. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15(1), 79-103.
  • Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2006). A developmental intergroup theory of social stereotypes and prejudice. In Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 34, pp. 39-89). JAI.
  • Brandt, M. J., & Crawford, J. T. (2020). Worldview conflict and prejudice. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 61, pp. 1-66). Academic Press.
  • Brown, R., & Pehrson, S. (2019). Group processes: Dynamics within and between groups. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bulutgil, H. Z. (2018). The state of the field and debates on ethnic cleansing. Nationalities Papers, 46(6), 1136-1145.
  • Bush, R. A. B., & Folger, J. P. (2004). The promise of mediation: The transformative approach to conflict. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Buzan, B. (1984). Peace, power, and security: contending concepts in the study of International Relations. Journal of Peace Research, 21(2), 109-125.
  • Capucao, D. D. (2010). Religion and ethnocentrism: an empirical-theological study. Brill.
  • Charny, I. W. (1982). How can we commit the unthinkable. Genocide: The human cancer, 2-33.
  • Chiozza, G., & Goemans, H. E. (2011). Leaders and international conflict. Cambridge University Press.
  • Collins, C. (2012). Understanding Intractable Conflict in Sudan. American Intelligence Journal, 30(1), 23-26.
  • Connerton, P. (1989). How societies remember. Cambridge University Press.
  • Croco, S. E. (2011). The decider's dilemma: Leader culpability, war outcomes, and domestic punishment. American Political Science Review, 105(3), 457-477.
  • Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of personality and social psychology, 56(1), 5.
  • Diehl, P. F., & Lepgold, J. (Eds.). (2003). Regional conflict management. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Eber, D. E., & Neal, A. G. (2001). Memory and representation: constructed truths and competing realities. Popular Press.
  • Eggert, M., & Falzon, W. (2018). Resolving Conflict. Management Pocketbooks.
  • Fischer, A. H., & Roseman, I. J. (2007). Beat them or ban them: The characteristics and social functions of anger and contempt. Journal of personality and social psychology, 93(1), 103.
  • Frijda, N. H. (2004, April). Emotions and action. In Feelings and emotions: The Amsterdam symposium (pp. 158-173).
  • Gangopadhyay, P., & Chatterji, M. (Eds.). (2009). Peace science: theory and cases. Emerald Group Publishing.
  • Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological review, 102(1), 4.
  • Duffield, M. (2001). Governing the borderlands: decoding the power of aid. Disasters, 25(4), 308-320.
  • Eriksen, T. H. (1993). Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological perspectives.(ed.)
  • Haer, R., & Böhmelt, T. (2017). Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars. Cooperation and Conflict, 52(3), 332-359. doi:10.2307/48512949
  • Hammond, R. A., & Axelrod, R. (2006). The evolution of ethnocentrism. Journal of conflict resolution, 50(6), 926-936.
  • Harding, J., Proshansky, H., Kutner, B., & Chein, I. (1969). Prejudice and ethnic relations. The handbook of social psychology, 5, 1-76.
  • Herbert C. Kelman, "Social-Psychological Dimensions of International Conflict" Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods and Techniques, eds. I. William Zartman and J. Lewis Rasmussen, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997, pp. 191-238.
  • Halperin, E., & Pliskin, R. (2015). Emotions and emotion regulation in intractable conflict: Studying emotional processes within a unique context. Political Psychology, 36, 119-150.
  • Horowitz, M. C., & Starn, A. C. (2014). How prior military experience influences the future militarized behavior of leaders. International Organization, 527-559.
  • Horowitz, M. C., & Fuhrmann, M. (2018). Studying Leaders and Military Conflict: Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(10), 2072-2086.
  • Horowitz, M. C., Potter, P., Sechser, T. S., & Stam, A. (2018). Sizing Up the Adversary: Leader Attributes and Coercion in International Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(10), 2180-2204.
  • Katz, D., & Braly, K. W. (1933). Verbal stereotypes and racial prejudice. Journal of abnormal and social psychology, 28, 280-290.
  • Kelman, H. C. (1999). Interactive problem solving as a metaphor for international conflict resolution: Lessons for the policy process. Peace and Conflict, 5(3), 201-218.
  • Kelman, H. (2006). The role of an international facilitating service for conflict resolution. International Negotiation, 11(1), 209-223.
  • Kinder, D. R., & Kam, C. D. (2010). Us against them: Ethnocentric foundations of American opinion. University of Chicago Press.
  • Kurzban, R., Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2001). Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(26), 15387-15392.
  • Lederach, J. P. (1997). Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: USIP.
  • Lewicki, R., Gray, B., & Elliott, M. (Eds.). (2003). Making sense of intractable environmental conflicts: Concepts and cases. Island press.
  • Lederach, J. P. (1997). Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: USIP.
  • Levine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes, and group behavior.
  • Levy, J. S. (1994). Learning and foreign policy: Sweeping a conceptual minefield. International organization, 48(2), 279-312.
  • Mair, L. (1975). 'Ethnocide'. RAIN, (7), 4-5.
  • Messmer, H. (2007). Contradiction, conflict and borders. na.
  • Midlarsky, M. I. (2005). The killing trap: Genocide in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press.
  • Murer, J. S. (2009). Constructing the enemy-other: Anxiety, trauma and mourning in the narratives of political conflict. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 14(2), 109-130.
  • Murer, J. S. (2010). Institutionalizing enemies: The consequences of reifying projection in post-conflict environments. Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society, 15(1), 1-19.
  • Mann, M., & Doğan, B. O. (2012). Demokrasinin karanlık yüzü: etnik temizliği açıklamak. İthaki.
  • Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self and society (Vol. 111). University of Chicago Press.: Chicago.
  • Pender, J. (2002). Empowering the poorest? The world bank and the ‘Voices of the Poor’. In Rethinking Human Rights (pp. 97-114). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Posen, Barry (1993). “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict”, Survival, Cilt 35 (1), ss. 27-47.
  • Pratto, F. (1999). The puzzle of continuing group inequality: Piecing together psychological, social, and cultural forces in social dominance theory. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 31, pp. 191-263). Academic Press.
  • Pupavac, V. (2002). Pathologizing populations and colonizing minds: International psychosocial programs in Kosovo. Alternatives, 27(4), 489-511.
  • Pupavac, V. (2004). War on the couch: the emotionology of the new international security paradigm. European journal of social theory, 7(2), 149-170.
  • Ratner, T. J., & Enders, F. S. Scapegoat Theory: Shifting Blame and Displacing Aggression.
  • Ray, L. (1999). Memory, trauma and genocidal nationalism. Sociological Research Online, 4(2), 125-132.
  • Santayana, G. (1905). Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Santayana G: Reason in Common Sense: The Life of Reason. New York, Charles Scribner, 284Santayana.
  • Schick, K. (2011). Acting out and working through: trauma and (in) security. Review of International Studies, 1837-1855.
  • Schwartz, S. H., & Struch, N. (1989). Values, stereotypes, and intergroup antagonism. In Stereotyping and prejudice (pp. 151-167). Springer, New York, NY.
  • Sechser, T. S. (2004). Are soldiers less war-prone than statesmen?. Journal of conflict resolution, 48(5), 746-774.
  • Singh, M. (2002). Ethnic Conflict And International Security: Theoretical Considerations. World Affairs: The Journal of International Issues, 6(4), 72-89.
  • Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages. Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, Ginn & Co., Boston, MA.
  • Staub, E. (1989). The roots of evil: The origins of genocide and other group violence. Cambridge University Press.
  • Stearns, P. N., & Stearns, C. Z. (1985). Emotionology: Clarifying the history of emotions and emotional standards. The American historical review, 90(4), 813-836.
  • Steiner, B. H. (2004). Collective preventive diplomacy: a study in international conflict management. SUNY Press. Sternberg, R. J. (2005). The psychology of hate. American Psychological Association.
  • Tajfel, H. E. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. Academic Press.
  • Tint, B. (2010). History, memory, and intractable conflict. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 27(3), 239-256.
  • Trolier, T. K., & Hamilton, D. L. (1986). Variables influencing judgments of correlational relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(5), 879.
  • Wondolleck, J. M., Gray, B., & Bryan, T. (2003). Us versus them: How identities and characterizations influence conflict. Environmental Practice, 5(3), 207-213.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2003). Large-group identity: Border psychology and related societal processes. Mind and Human Interaction, 13(1), 49-76.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2011). Unending mourning and its consequences. Psychotherapie-Wissenschaft, 1(2), 102-110.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2013). Divandaki düşmanlar: bir Türk psikanalistin siyaset psikolojisi serüveni. Alfa.
  • Volkan, V. D. (2018). Immigrants and refugees: Trauma, perennial mourning, prejudice, and border psychology. Routledge.
  • Zartman, I. W. (2007). Negotiation and conflict management: Essays on theory and practice. Routledge.
  • Zerubavel, Y. (1995). Recovered roots: Collective memory and the making of Israeli national tradition. University of Chicago Press.
  • Zerubavel, E. (1996). Social memories: Steps to a sociology of the past. Qualitative sociology, 19(3), 283-299.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Burcu TUGAY
SİYASET BİLİMİ VE ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3106-0466
Türkiye


Hasan DURAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
SİYASET BİLİMİ VE ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-5328-9918
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ağustos 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 3 Mart 2021
Kabul Tarihi 30 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Tugay, B. & Duran, H. (2021). Etnik Çatışmalar ve Barış Çalışmaları Üzerine Politik Psikolojik Bir İnceleme . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 16 (2) , 463-488 . DOI: 10.17153/oguiibf.890202