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Emisyon Azaltım Sorumluluğu Olan BM Ülkelerinde Hava Kirliliği, Sağlık Harcamaları ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 3, 856 - 872, 01.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.976646

Öz

1997 Kyoto Protokolünde hava kirliliği, daha özelde sera gazı emisyonunu azaltmaya dikkat çekilmesi bu alandaki girişimlerin ivme kazanmasında oldukça etkilidir. Protokolden sonra farklı disiplinlerde hava kirliliği ve etkileri alanındaki çalışmalarda önemli artış yaşanmıştır. Bu çalışmada 1990-2018 döneminde emisyon azaltım sorumluluğu olan BM ülkelerinde hava kirliliği ile ekonomik büyüme ve sağlık harcamaları arasındaki ilişkiler Kónya (2006) panel nedensellik testleriyle araştırılmıştır. Çalışma sonuçları, hava kirliliğinden sağlık harcamalarına, hava kirliliğinden ekonomik büyümeye ve ekonomik büyümeden sağlık harcamalarına doğru nedensellik ilişkisini göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Abdallh, A. A., & Abugamos, H. (2017), “A semi-parametric panel data analysis on the urbanisation-carbon emissions nexus for the MENA countries”, Renewable And Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, 1350-1356.
  • Alimi, O. Y., Ajide, K. B., & Isola, W. A. (2019), “Environmental quality and health expenditure in ECOWAS”, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-23.
  • Al-Mulali, U., Weng-Wai, C., Sheau-Ting, L., & Mohammed, A. H. (2015), “Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator of environmental degradation”, Ecological Indicators, 48, 315-323.
  • Amri, F., Zaied, Y. B., & Lahouel, B. B. (2019), “ICT, total factor productivity, and carbon dioxide emissions in Tunisia”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146, 212-217.
  • Apergis, N., Bhattacharya, M., & Hadhri, W. (2020), “Health care expenditure and environmental pollution: a cross-country comparison across different income groups”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(8), 8142-8156.
  • Atilgan, E., Kilic, D., & Ertugrul, H. M. (2017), “The dynamic relationship between health expenditure and economic growth: is the health-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?”, The European Journal of Health Economics, 18(5), 567-574.
  • Bakare, A. A., & Olubokun, S. (2011), “Health care expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria: An empirical study”, Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(2), 83-87.
  • Chaabouni, S., Zghidi, N., & Mbarek, M. B. (2016), “On the causal dynamics between CO2 emissions, health expenditures and economic growth”, Sustainable Cities and Society, 22, 184-191.
  • Cheng, Y. H., & Li, Y. S. (2010), “Influences of traffic emissions and meteorological conditions on ambient PM10 and PM2. 5 levels at a highway toll station”, Aerosol and air quality research, 10(5), 456-462.
  • Cylus, J., Mladovsky, P., & McKee, M. (2012), “Is there a statistical relationship between economic crises and changes in government health expenditure growth? An analysis of twenty‐four European countries”, Health services research, 47(6), 2204-2224.
  • Çetin, M. ve Ecevit, E. (2010), “Sağlık Harcamalarının Ekonomik Büyüme Üzerindeki Etkisi: OECD Ülkeleri Üzerine Bir Panel Regresyon Analizi”, Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 11 (2), 166-182.
  • Değirmenci, T. ve Aydın, M. (2020), “Çevre Koruma Harcamaları ile Gelir Dağılımı ve Ekonomik Büyüme Arasındaki Dinamik İlişkiler: Seçili OECD Ülkeleri için Panel Nedensellik Yaklaşımı”, Sosyoekonomi, 28(46), 391-406.
  • Destek, M. A., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2019), “Investigation of environmental Kuznets curve for ecological footprint: the role of energy and financial development”, Science of the Total Environment, 650, 2483-2489.
  • Destek, M. A., & Sinha, A. (2020), “Renewable, non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and ecological footprint: Evidence from organisation for economic Co-operation and development countries”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, 118537.
  • Destek, M. A., Ulucak, R., & Dogan, E. (2018), “Analyzing the environmental Kuznets curve for the EU countries: the role of ecological footprint”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(29), 29387-29396.
  • Dickerson, P., Guerreiro, C., Keating, T., Nzioka, J. M., Chung, S. H., Reis, S., ... & Hurley, F. (2019), “Air-Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet”, Healthy People Chapter 5.”, Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People.
  • Dinçer, H., & Yuksel, S. (2019), “Identifying the causality relationship between health expenditure and economic growth: an application on E7 countries”, Journal of Health Systems and Policies, 1(1), 5-23.
  • Dogan, E., & Turkekul, B. (2016), “CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(2), 1203-1213.
  • Dumrul, Y. (2019), “Sağlık harcamaları ve çevre kirliliği: ASEAN-5 ülkeleri üzerine bir panel veri analizi”, IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 396-407.
  • Farhani, S., & Ozturk, I. (2015), “Causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(20), 15663-15676.
  • Grossman, G. M., & Krueger, A. B. (1991), “Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement (No. w3914). National Bureau of economic research.
  • Halıcı-Tülüce, N. S., Doğan, İ., & Dumrul, C. (2016), “Is income relevant for health expenditure and economic growth nexus?”, International journal of health economics and management, 16(1), 23-49.
  • Han, L., Zhou, W., Li, W., & Li, L. (2014), “Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: A case of fine particles (PM2. 5) in Chinese cities”, Environmental Pollution, 194, 163-170.
  • Han, S., & Sun, B. (2019), “Impact of population density on PM2. 5 concentrations: A case study in Shanghai, China”, Sustainability, 11(7), 1968.
  • Hao, Y., Liu, S., Lu, Z. N., Huang, J., & Zhao, M. (2018), “The impact of environmental pollution on public health expenditure: dynamic panel analysis based on Chinese provincial data”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(19), 18853-18865.
  • Hassan, S. T., Baloch, M. A., Mahmood, N., & Zhang, J. (2019), “Linking economic growth and ecological footprint through human capital and biocapacity”, Sustainable Cities and Society, 47, 101516.
  • Hassan, S. T., Xia, E., Khan, N. H., & Shah, S. M. A. (2019), “Economic growth, natural resources, and ecological footprints: evidence from Pakistan”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(3), 2929-2938.
  • Khoshnevis Yazdi, S., & Khanalizadeh, B. (2017), “Air pollution, economic growth and health care expenditure”, Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 30(1), 1181-1190.
  • Kónya, L. (2006), “Exports and growth: Granger causality analysis on OECD countries with a panel data approach”, Economic Modelling, 23(6), 978-992.
  • Lucas, P., Hedden, S., van Vuuren, D., Calvin, K. V., Chung, S. H., Harfoot, M., ... & Hurley, F. (2019), Future Developments Without Targeted Policies-Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 21”, Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People.
  • Mehrara, M., & Musai, M. (2011), “The causality between health expenditure and economic growth in Iran”, Int. J. Eco. Res, 2(4), 13-19.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Data (2020), https://data.oecd.org/air/air-pollution-exposure.htm, (Erişim: 05.10.2020).
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Statistics (2020, December 9), “Emissions of air pollutants”, https://stats.oecd.org/, (Erişim:21.10.2020).
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Statistics (2020, Nowember), “Health expenditure and financing”, https://stats.oecd.org/, (Erişim:21.10.2020).
  • Pata, U. K., & Aydin, M. (2020), “Testing the EKC hypothesis for the top six hydropower energy-consuming countries: Evidence from Fourier Bootstrap ARDL procedure”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 121699.
  • Piabuo, S. M., & Tieguhong, J. C. (2017), “Health expenditure and economic growth-a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries”, Health economics review, 7(1), 1-13.
  • Ouyang, X., Shao, Q., Zhu, X., He, Q., Xiang, C., & Wei, G. (2019), “Environmental regulation, economic growth and air pollution: Panel threshold analysis for OECD countries”, Science of the total environment, 657, 234-241.
  • Shi, L., Zanobetti, A., Kloog, I., Coull, B. A., Koutrakis, P., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. D. (2016), “Low-concentration PM2. 5 and mortality: estimating acute and chronic effects in a population-based study”, Environmental health perspectives, 124(1), 46-52.
  • Şahin, D., ve Durmuş, S. (2019), “OECD Ülkelerinde Ekonomik Büyüme Ve Çevre Kirliliğinin Sağlık Harcamaları Üzerine Etkisinin Analizi”, Finans Politik & Ekonomik Yorumlar, 56(647), 185-201.
  • Wang, C. M., Hsueh, H. P., Li, F., & Wu, C. F. (2019), “Bootstrap ARDL on Health Expenditure, CO2 Emissions, and GDP Growth Relationship for 18 OECD Countries”, Frontiers in Public Health, 7,324.
  • Wang, S., Zhou, C., Wang, Z., Feng, K., & Hubacek, K. (2017), “The characteristics and drivers of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) distribution in China”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 1800-1809.
  • Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Kubota, J., Zhu, X., & Lu, G. (2015), “A semi-parametric panel data analysis on the urbanization-carbon emissions nexus for OECD countries”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48, 704-709.
  • World Bank Data (2020), “GDP per capita (current US$)”, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD, (Erişim: 12.10.2020).
  • World Health Organization (2021), “Air pollution”, https://www.who.int/airpollution/en/, (Erişim: 12.10.2020).
  • Wu, J., Zheng, H., Zhe, F., Xie, W., & Song, J. (2018), “Study on the relationship between urbanization and fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) concentration and its implication in China”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 182, 872-882.
  • Yazdi, S., Zahra, T., & Nikos, M. (2014), “Public healthcare expenditure and environmental quality in Iran”, Recent Advances in Applied Economics, (233).
  • Zaidi, S., & Saidi, K. (2018), “Environmental pollution, health expenditure and economic growth in the Sub-Saharan Africa countries: Panel ARDL approach”, Sustainable cities and society, 41, 833-840.
  • Zhu, H. M., You, W. H., & Zeng, Z. F. (2012), “Urbanization and CO2 emissions: A semi-parametric panel data analysis”, Economics Letters, 117(3), 848-850.

The Relationship between Air Pollution, Health Expenditures and Economic Growth in UN Countries with Emission Reduction Responsibility

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 3, 856 - 872, 01.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.976646

Öz

The attention paid to reducing air pollution, more specifically greenhouse gas emissions, in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol is very effective in accelerating initiatives in this field. After the protocol, there has been a significant increase in studies in the field of air pollution and its effects in different disciplines. In this study, the relations between air pollution, economic growth and health expenditures in UN countries with emission reduction responsibility in the 1990-2018 period were investigated by Kónya (2006) panel causality tests. The results of the study show the causality relationship from air pollution to health expenditures, from air pollution to economic growth and from economic growth to health expenditures.

Kaynakça

  • Abdallh, A. A., & Abugamos, H. (2017), “A semi-parametric panel data analysis on the urbanisation-carbon emissions nexus for the MENA countries”, Renewable And Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, 1350-1356.
  • Alimi, O. Y., Ajide, K. B., & Isola, W. A. (2019), “Environmental quality and health expenditure in ECOWAS”, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-23.
  • Al-Mulali, U., Weng-Wai, C., Sheau-Ting, L., & Mohammed, A. H. (2015), “Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator of environmental degradation”, Ecological Indicators, 48, 315-323.
  • Amri, F., Zaied, Y. B., & Lahouel, B. B. (2019), “ICT, total factor productivity, and carbon dioxide emissions in Tunisia”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146, 212-217.
  • Apergis, N., Bhattacharya, M., & Hadhri, W. (2020), “Health care expenditure and environmental pollution: a cross-country comparison across different income groups”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(8), 8142-8156.
  • Atilgan, E., Kilic, D., & Ertugrul, H. M. (2017), “The dynamic relationship between health expenditure and economic growth: is the health-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?”, The European Journal of Health Economics, 18(5), 567-574.
  • Bakare, A. A., & Olubokun, S. (2011), “Health care expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria: An empirical study”, Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(2), 83-87.
  • Chaabouni, S., Zghidi, N., & Mbarek, M. B. (2016), “On the causal dynamics between CO2 emissions, health expenditures and economic growth”, Sustainable Cities and Society, 22, 184-191.
  • Cheng, Y. H., & Li, Y. S. (2010), “Influences of traffic emissions and meteorological conditions on ambient PM10 and PM2. 5 levels at a highway toll station”, Aerosol and air quality research, 10(5), 456-462.
  • Cylus, J., Mladovsky, P., & McKee, M. (2012), “Is there a statistical relationship between economic crises and changes in government health expenditure growth? An analysis of twenty‐four European countries”, Health services research, 47(6), 2204-2224.
  • Çetin, M. ve Ecevit, E. (2010), “Sağlık Harcamalarının Ekonomik Büyüme Üzerindeki Etkisi: OECD Ülkeleri Üzerine Bir Panel Regresyon Analizi”, Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi, 11 (2), 166-182.
  • Değirmenci, T. ve Aydın, M. (2020), “Çevre Koruma Harcamaları ile Gelir Dağılımı ve Ekonomik Büyüme Arasındaki Dinamik İlişkiler: Seçili OECD Ülkeleri için Panel Nedensellik Yaklaşımı”, Sosyoekonomi, 28(46), 391-406.
  • Destek, M. A., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2019), “Investigation of environmental Kuznets curve for ecological footprint: the role of energy and financial development”, Science of the Total Environment, 650, 2483-2489.
  • Destek, M. A., & Sinha, A. (2020), “Renewable, non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and ecological footprint: Evidence from organisation for economic Co-operation and development countries”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 242, 118537.
  • Destek, M. A., Ulucak, R., & Dogan, E. (2018), “Analyzing the environmental Kuznets curve for the EU countries: the role of ecological footprint”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(29), 29387-29396.
  • Dickerson, P., Guerreiro, C., Keating, T., Nzioka, J. M., Chung, S. H., Reis, S., ... & Hurley, F. (2019), “Air-Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet”, Healthy People Chapter 5.”, Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People.
  • Dinçer, H., & Yuksel, S. (2019), “Identifying the causality relationship between health expenditure and economic growth: an application on E7 countries”, Journal of Health Systems and Policies, 1(1), 5-23.
  • Dogan, E., & Turkekul, B. (2016), “CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(2), 1203-1213.
  • Dumrul, Y. (2019), “Sağlık harcamaları ve çevre kirliliği: ASEAN-5 ülkeleri üzerine bir panel veri analizi”, IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 396-407.
  • Farhani, S., & Ozturk, I. (2015), “Causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(20), 15663-15676.
  • Grossman, G. M., & Krueger, A. B. (1991), “Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement (No. w3914). National Bureau of economic research.
  • Halıcı-Tülüce, N. S., Doğan, İ., & Dumrul, C. (2016), “Is income relevant for health expenditure and economic growth nexus?”, International journal of health economics and management, 16(1), 23-49.
  • Han, L., Zhou, W., Li, W., & Li, L. (2014), “Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: A case of fine particles (PM2. 5) in Chinese cities”, Environmental Pollution, 194, 163-170.
  • Han, S., & Sun, B. (2019), “Impact of population density on PM2. 5 concentrations: A case study in Shanghai, China”, Sustainability, 11(7), 1968.
  • Hao, Y., Liu, S., Lu, Z. N., Huang, J., & Zhao, M. (2018), “The impact of environmental pollution on public health expenditure: dynamic panel analysis based on Chinese provincial data”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(19), 18853-18865.
  • Hassan, S. T., Baloch, M. A., Mahmood, N., & Zhang, J. (2019), “Linking economic growth and ecological footprint through human capital and biocapacity”, Sustainable Cities and Society, 47, 101516.
  • Hassan, S. T., Xia, E., Khan, N. H., & Shah, S. M. A. (2019), “Economic growth, natural resources, and ecological footprints: evidence from Pakistan”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(3), 2929-2938.
  • Khoshnevis Yazdi, S., & Khanalizadeh, B. (2017), “Air pollution, economic growth and health care expenditure”, Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 30(1), 1181-1190.
  • Kónya, L. (2006), “Exports and growth: Granger causality analysis on OECD countries with a panel data approach”, Economic Modelling, 23(6), 978-992.
  • Lucas, P., Hedden, S., van Vuuren, D., Calvin, K. V., Chung, S. H., Harfoot, M., ... & Hurley, F. (2019), Future Developments Without Targeted Policies-Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 21”, Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People.
  • Mehrara, M., & Musai, M. (2011), “The causality between health expenditure and economic growth in Iran”, Int. J. Eco. Res, 2(4), 13-19.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Data (2020), https://data.oecd.org/air/air-pollution-exposure.htm, (Erişim: 05.10.2020).
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Statistics (2020, December 9), “Emissions of air pollutants”, https://stats.oecd.org/, (Erişim:21.10.2020).
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Statistics (2020, Nowember), “Health expenditure and financing”, https://stats.oecd.org/, (Erişim:21.10.2020).
  • Pata, U. K., & Aydin, M. (2020), “Testing the EKC hypothesis for the top six hydropower energy-consuming countries: Evidence from Fourier Bootstrap ARDL procedure”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 121699.
  • Piabuo, S. M., & Tieguhong, J. C. (2017), “Health expenditure and economic growth-a review of the literature and an analysis between the economic community for central African states (CEMAC) and selected African countries”, Health economics review, 7(1), 1-13.
  • Ouyang, X., Shao, Q., Zhu, X., He, Q., Xiang, C., & Wei, G. (2019), “Environmental regulation, economic growth and air pollution: Panel threshold analysis for OECD countries”, Science of the total environment, 657, 234-241.
  • Shi, L., Zanobetti, A., Kloog, I., Coull, B. A., Koutrakis, P., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. D. (2016), “Low-concentration PM2. 5 and mortality: estimating acute and chronic effects in a population-based study”, Environmental health perspectives, 124(1), 46-52.
  • Şahin, D., ve Durmuş, S. (2019), “OECD Ülkelerinde Ekonomik Büyüme Ve Çevre Kirliliğinin Sağlık Harcamaları Üzerine Etkisinin Analizi”, Finans Politik & Ekonomik Yorumlar, 56(647), 185-201.
  • Wang, C. M., Hsueh, H. P., Li, F., & Wu, C. F. (2019), “Bootstrap ARDL on Health Expenditure, CO2 Emissions, and GDP Growth Relationship for 18 OECD Countries”, Frontiers in Public Health, 7,324.
  • Wang, S., Zhou, C., Wang, Z., Feng, K., & Hubacek, K. (2017), “The characteristics and drivers of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) distribution in China”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 1800-1809.
  • Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Kubota, J., Zhu, X., & Lu, G. (2015), “A semi-parametric panel data analysis on the urbanization-carbon emissions nexus for OECD countries”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48, 704-709.
  • World Bank Data (2020), “GDP per capita (current US$)”, https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD, (Erişim: 12.10.2020).
  • World Health Organization (2021), “Air pollution”, https://www.who.int/airpollution/en/, (Erişim: 12.10.2020).
  • Wu, J., Zheng, H., Zhe, F., Xie, W., & Song, J. (2018), “Study on the relationship between urbanization and fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) concentration and its implication in China”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 182, 872-882.
  • Yazdi, S., Zahra, T., & Nikos, M. (2014), “Public healthcare expenditure and environmental quality in Iran”, Recent Advances in Applied Economics, (233).
  • Zaidi, S., & Saidi, K. (2018), “Environmental pollution, health expenditure and economic growth in the Sub-Saharan Africa countries: Panel ARDL approach”, Sustainable cities and society, 41, 833-840.
  • Zhu, H. M., You, W. H., & Zeng, Z. F. (2012), “Urbanization and CO2 emissions: A semi-parametric panel data analysis”, Economics Letters, 117(3), 848-850.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Tunahan DEĞİRMENCİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SİYASAL BİLGİLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-8903-7883
Türkiye


Hakan YAVUZ
SAKARYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SİYASAL BİLGİLER FAKÜLTESİ, MALİYE BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-5972-8213
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Temmuz 2021
Kabul Tarihi 14 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Değirmenci, T. & Yavuz, H. (2021). Emisyon Azaltım Sorumluluğu Olan BM Ülkelerinde Hava Kirliliği, Sağlık Harcamaları ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisi . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 16 (3) , 856-872 . DOI: 10.17153/oguiibf.976646