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Gender Wage Gaps by Knowledge Intensity in Turkish Service Sector

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 272 - 294, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.985091

Öz

This study aims to determine whether knowledge intensive services (KIS) reduce gender wage gaps and women’s labor attributes in the Turkish service sector by employing survey data from the Turkish Household Labor Force Survey of 2019. Both mean wage differences and wage differences across the wage distribution are examined by employing the Oaxaca–Blinder wage decomposition, along with the Heckman sample selection procedure, and the Melly decomposition approaches respectively. The results suggest that, in spite of the relatively higher mean wages of women in KIS employment, KIS offers worse employment outcomes for women in terms of intra-sector wage inequality, and relatively poorer working conditions than the Turkish service sector.

Kaynakça

  • Abd Elkhalek, A.M.A. (2017), “Impact of Knowledge Economy on the Participation of Women in Labor Market”, International Journal of Business and Economic Development, 5(2). Retrieved from: https://ijbed.org/details&cid=140
  • Aktaş, A.; Uysal, G. (2016), “The gender wage gap in Turkey”, Marmara University Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 38(2), 1-19. DOI: 10.14780/muiibd.280227
  • Atik, P.; Altıparmak, Y. (2011). “Avrupa Birliği Ve Türkiye’de Bilgi Sektörünün İstihdama Katkısı”, Bilgi Ekonomisi ve Yönetimi Dergisi, 6 (1). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/beyder/issue/3476/47294
  • Barza, R.; Jara-Figueroa, C.; Hidalgo, C. Ã.; Viarengo, M. (2020), “Knowledge Intensity and Gender Wage Gaps: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data”, (CESifo Working Paper No. 8543). Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3689464
  • Batool, S. (2014), “Decomposition of Gender Wage Differential by Employer Size”, Sorbonne Center of the Economics, Retrieved From http://perso.uclouvain.be/vincent.vandenberghe/Workshop2014/Paper_presented/Poster_Batool_Seyda_gender%20decomposition%20paper_updatedBatool.pdf
  • Belgorodskiy, A.; Crump, B.; Griffiths, M.; Logan, K.; Peter, R.; Richardson, H. (2012), “The Gender Pay Gap in the ICT Labour Market: Comparative Experiences from the UK and New Zealand”, New Technology, Work and Employment, 27(2), 106-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2012.00281.x
  • Blinder, A. (1973), “Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates”, The Journal of Human Resources, 8(4), 436-455. doi:10.2307/144855
  • Brussevich, M.; Dabla-Norris, M. E.; Khalid, S. (2019), “Is technology widening the gender gap? Automation and the future of female employment” IMF Working Paper:WP/19/91. Retrieved From: https://ideas.repec.org/p/imf/imfwpa/2019-091.html
  • Buchinsky, M. (1998), “Recent advances in quantile regression models: a practical guideline for empirical research”, Journal of human resources, 33(1), 88-126. https://doi.org/10.2307/146316
  • Bustelo, M.; Flabbi, L.; Viollaz, M. (2019), “The gender labor market gap in the digital economy”, IDB Working Paper Series : IDB-WP-1056.
  • Byrne, G.; Staehr, L. (2011), “Women And The Australian ICT Industry: An Analysis Of ABS Census And Survey Data”, PACIS 2011 Proceedings:32. Retrieved From https://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2011/32
  • Cudeville, E.; Gurbuzer, L. Y. (2007), “Gender Wage Discrimination in the Turkish labor market”, Ces Working Papers: halshs-00188745. Retrieved From https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00188745/
  • Dolado, J. J.; Felgueroso, F.; Jimeno J.F. (2002), “Recent Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender: A Look Across the Atlantic”, IZA Working Papers Series Discussion Paper No. 524. Retrieved from SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=320108
  • Dube, S.; Dube, M.; Turan, A. (2015), “ Information technology in Turkey: Creating high-skill jobs along with more unemployed highly-educated workers?”, Telecommunications Policy, 39(10), 811-829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2015.07.001
  • Dueñas-Fernández, D.; Iglesias-Fernández, C.; Llorente-Heras, R. (2015), “Is there less gender inequality in the service sector? The gender wage-gap in knowledge-intensive services”, Social Science Information, 54(3), 369-393. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018415586216
  • EUROSTAT (2008). NACE Rev. 2 Statistical aggregations of service sector in the European Community, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
  • Galor, O.; Weil, D. (1996), The gender gap, fertility and growth, American Economic Review, 86(3):374–387. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2118202
  • Goldin, C. (2006), “The quiet revolution that transformed women’s employment, education and family” American Economic Review, 96(2): 1–21. DOI: 10.1257/000282806777212350
  • Goldin, C.; Katz, L. F. (2016), “A most egalitarian profession: pharmacy and the evolution of a family-friendly occupation”, Journal of Labor Economics, 34(3), 705-746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/685505
  • Gorkey, S. (2019), “Women's Employment in Turkey's ICT Sector: An Examination from a Social Inclusion Perspective”, In Gender Gaps and the Social Inclusion Movement in ICT (pp. 63-86). IGI Global. Retrieved From https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/womens-employment-in-turkeys-ict-sector/218439
  • Jann, B. (2008), “The Blinder–Oaxaca Decomposition for Linear Regression Models”, The Stata Journal, 8(4), 453–479. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X0800800401
  • Kaya, E. (2017), “Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?”, Cardiff Economics Working Papers No: E2017/5, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2320411
  • KEIG. (2013), “Women’s Labor and Employment ın Turkey Problem Areas and Policy Suggestions II”, Women’s Labor and Employment Initiative Platform (KEIG) Report, Retrieved from http://www.keig.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/keig-policy-report-2013.pdf
  • Mankiw, G. (2015), “Principles of Economics”, 7TH Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
  • Melly, B. (2006), “Estimation of counterfactual distributions using quantile regression”, Review of Labor Economics, 68(4): 543–572.
  • Mincer, J. (1974), “Schooling, Experience, and Earnings”, New York: Columbia University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Neuman, S.; Oaxaca, R.L. (2004), “Wage Decompositions with Selectivity-Corrected Wage Equations: A Methodological Note”, The Journal of Economic Inequality,2,3–10. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOEI.0000028395.38694.4b
  • Ng, C.; Mitter, S. (Eds.) (2005), “Gender and the Digital Economy: Perspectives from the Developing World”, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9788132103622
  • Ngai, L. R.; Petrongolo, B. (2017), “Gender gaps and the rise of the service economy”, American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 9(4), 1-44. DOI: 10.1257/mac.20150253
  • Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, 14(3), 693-709. doi:10.2307/2525981
  • OECD (2007), “ICTs and Gender”, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 129, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/231011217663
  • Oleksy, W.;Just, E.; Zapedowska‐Kling, K. (2012), “Gender issues in information and communication technologies (ICTs). Journal of Information”, Communication and Ethics in Society, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1108/14779961211227010
  • Quispe Cuba, R. (2020), “An analysis of the gender wage gap in Peru in the formal and informal sectors”, Unpublished Master Thesis. Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Rendall, M. (2017), “Brain versus brawn: the realization of women's comparative advantage”, University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Working Paper: 491, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1635251
  • Salardi, P. (2012), “Wage disparities and occupational intensity by gender and race in Brazil: an empirical analysis using quantile decomposition techniques”, In IZA/Word Bank Conference: Employment and Development (Vol. 7). Retrieved From https://eesp.fgv.br/sites/eesp.fgv.br/files/file/Salardi.pdf
  • Segovia‐Pérez, M.; Castro Núñez, R. B.; Santero Sánchez, R.; Laguna Sánchez, P. (2020), “Being a woman in an ICT job: An analysis of the gender pay gap and discrimination in Spain”, New Technology, Work and Employment, 35(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12145
  • Simonsen M.; Corneliussen H.G. (2020), “What Can Statistics Tell About the Gender Gap in ICT? Tracing Men and Women’s Participation in the ICT Sector Through Numbers”, In: Kreps D., Komukai T., Gopal T.V., Ishii K. (eds) Human-Centric Computing in a Data-Driven Society. HCC 2020. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 590. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-62803-1_30
  • Tattersall, A.; Keogh, C.; Richardson, H. (2007), “The gender pay gap in the ICT industry”, Information Resources Management Association. Vancouver. Retrieved From https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228805195_The_Gender_Pay_Gap_in_the_ICT_Industry
  • Tokatlıoğlu, Y.; Doğan, N. (2021), “Return of Education for Women across Socio-Economic Status: Using Quantile Regression and Machado-Mata Decomposition Methods for Turkey”, Ege Academic Review, 21(2), 93-110. https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.907367
  • Truss, C.; Conway, E.; d’Amato, A.; Kelly, G.; Monks, K.; Hannon, E.; Flood, P. C. (2012), “Knowledge work: gender-blind or gender-biased?”, Work, employment and society, 26(5), 735-754. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017012451675
  • Ural, B. P.; Horrace, W. C.; Jung, J. H. (2009),” Inter-industry gender wage gaps by knowledge intensity: discrimination and technology in Korea” Applied Economics, 41(11), 1437-1452. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840601019281
  • Windrum, P.; Tomlinson, M. (1999), “Knowledge-intensive services and international competitiveness: a four country comparison”, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 11(3), 391-408. DOI: 10.1080/095373299107429

Türkiye’de Hizmet Sektöründe Bilgi Yoğunluğuna Göre Cinsiyete Dayalı Ücret Farklılıkları

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 272 - 294, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.985091

Öz

Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de bilgi yoğun hizmetlerin, hizmet sektöründe cinsiyete dayalı ücret farklılıklarını ve kadın işgücü niteliklerini iyileştirip iyileştirmediğini 2019 Türkiye Hanehalkı İşgücü Araştırması verilerini kullanarak belirlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ortalama ücret farklılıkları ve ücret dağılımı boyunca ücret farklılıkları sırasıyla Heckman örneklem seçilim modeliyle birlikte Oaxaca-Blinder dekompozisyonu ve Melly dekompozisyonu yöntemleriyle incelenmiştir. Sonuçlar, bilgi yoğun hizmetlerin istihdamında kadınların nispeten daha yüksek ortalama ücret elde etmelerine rağmen, bilgi yoğun hizmetlerde sektör içi cinsiyete dayalı ücret eşitsizliğinin daha yüksek olduğunu ve hizmet sektörüne göre nispeten daha kötü çalışma koşulları sunduğunu göstermektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Abd Elkhalek, A.M.A. (2017), “Impact of Knowledge Economy on the Participation of Women in Labor Market”, International Journal of Business and Economic Development, 5(2). Retrieved from: https://ijbed.org/details&cid=140
  • Aktaş, A.; Uysal, G. (2016), “The gender wage gap in Turkey”, Marmara University Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 38(2), 1-19. DOI: 10.14780/muiibd.280227
  • Atik, P.; Altıparmak, Y. (2011). “Avrupa Birliği Ve Türkiye’de Bilgi Sektörünün İstihdama Katkısı”, Bilgi Ekonomisi ve Yönetimi Dergisi, 6 (1). Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/beyder/issue/3476/47294
  • Barza, R.; Jara-Figueroa, C.; Hidalgo, C. Ã.; Viarengo, M. (2020), “Knowledge Intensity and Gender Wage Gaps: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data”, (CESifo Working Paper No. 8543). Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3689464
  • Batool, S. (2014), “Decomposition of Gender Wage Differential by Employer Size”, Sorbonne Center of the Economics, Retrieved From http://perso.uclouvain.be/vincent.vandenberghe/Workshop2014/Paper_presented/Poster_Batool_Seyda_gender%20decomposition%20paper_updatedBatool.pdf
  • Belgorodskiy, A.; Crump, B.; Griffiths, M.; Logan, K.; Peter, R.; Richardson, H. (2012), “The Gender Pay Gap in the ICT Labour Market: Comparative Experiences from the UK and New Zealand”, New Technology, Work and Employment, 27(2), 106-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2012.00281.x
  • Blinder, A. (1973), “Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates”, The Journal of Human Resources, 8(4), 436-455. doi:10.2307/144855
  • Brussevich, M.; Dabla-Norris, M. E.; Khalid, S. (2019), “Is technology widening the gender gap? Automation and the future of female employment” IMF Working Paper:WP/19/91. Retrieved From: https://ideas.repec.org/p/imf/imfwpa/2019-091.html
  • Buchinsky, M. (1998), “Recent advances in quantile regression models: a practical guideline for empirical research”, Journal of human resources, 33(1), 88-126. https://doi.org/10.2307/146316
  • Bustelo, M.; Flabbi, L.; Viollaz, M. (2019), “The gender labor market gap in the digital economy”, IDB Working Paper Series : IDB-WP-1056.
  • Byrne, G.; Staehr, L. (2011), “Women And The Australian ICT Industry: An Analysis Of ABS Census And Survey Data”, PACIS 2011 Proceedings:32. Retrieved From https://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2011/32
  • Cudeville, E.; Gurbuzer, L. Y. (2007), “Gender Wage Discrimination in the Turkish labor market”, Ces Working Papers: halshs-00188745. Retrieved From https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00188745/
  • Dolado, J. J.; Felgueroso, F.; Jimeno J.F. (2002), “Recent Trends in Occupational Segregation by Gender: A Look Across the Atlantic”, IZA Working Papers Series Discussion Paper No. 524. Retrieved from SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=320108
  • Dube, S.; Dube, M.; Turan, A. (2015), “ Information technology in Turkey: Creating high-skill jobs along with more unemployed highly-educated workers?”, Telecommunications Policy, 39(10), 811-829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.telpol.2015.07.001
  • Dueñas-Fernández, D.; Iglesias-Fernández, C.; Llorente-Heras, R. (2015), “Is there less gender inequality in the service sector? The gender wage-gap in knowledge-intensive services”, Social Science Information, 54(3), 369-393. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018415586216
  • EUROSTAT (2008). NACE Rev. 2 Statistical aggregations of service sector in the European Community, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
  • Galor, O.; Weil, D. (1996), The gender gap, fertility and growth, American Economic Review, 86(3):374–387. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2118202
  • Goldin, C. (2006), “The quiet revolution that transformed women’s employment, education and family” American Economic Review, 96(2): 1–21. DOI: 10.1257/000282806777212350
  • Goldin, C.; Katz, L. F. (2016), “A most egalitarian profession: pharmacy and the evolution of a family-friendly occupation”, Journal of Labor Economics, 34(3), 705-746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/685505
  • Gorkey, S. (2019), “Women's Employment in Turkey's ICT Sector: An Examination from a Social Inclusion Perspective”, In Gender Gaps and the Social Inclusion Movement in ICT (pp. 63-86). IGI Global. Retrieved From https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/womens-employment-in-turkeys-ict-sector/218439
  • Jann, B. (2008), “The Blinder–Oaxaca Decomposition for Linear Regression Models”, The Stata Journal, 8(4), 453–479. https://doi.org/10.1177/1536867X0800800401
  • Kaya, E. (2017), “Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?”, Cardiff Economics Working Papers No: E2017/5, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2320411
  • KEIG. (2013), “Women’s Labor and Employment ın Turkey Problem Areas and Policy Suggestions II”, Women’s Labor and Employment Initiative Platform (KEIG) Report, Retrieved from http://www.keig.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/keig-policy-report-2013.pdf
  • Mankiw, G. (2015), “Principles of Economics”, 7TH Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
  • Melly, B. (2006), “Estimation of counterfactual distributions using quantile regression”, Review of Labor Economics, 68(4): 543–572.
  • Mincer, J. (1974), “Schooling, Experience, and Earnings”, New York: Columbia University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Neuman, S.; Oaxaca, R.L. (2004), “Wage Decompositions with Selectivity-Corrected Wage Equations: A Methodological Note”, The Journal of Economic Inequality,2,3–10. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOEI.0000028395.38694.4b
  • Ng, C.; Mitter, S. (Eds.) (2005), “Gender and the Digital Economy: Perspectives from the Developing World”, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9788132103622
  • Ngai, L. R.; Petrongolo, B. (2017), “Gender gaps and the rise of the service economy”, American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 9(4), 1-44. DOI: 10.1257/mac.20150253
  • Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review, 14(3), 693-709. doi:10.2307/2525981
  • OECD (2007), “ICTs and Gender”, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 129, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/231011217663
  • Oleksy, W.;Just, E.; Zapedowska‐Kling, K. (2012), “Gender issues in information and communication technologies (ICTs). Journal of Information”, Communication and Ethics in Society, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1108/14779961211227010
  • Quispe Cuba, R. (2020), “An analysis of the gender wage gap in Peru in the formal and informal sectors”, Unpublished Master Thesis. Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Rendall, M. (2017), “Brain versus brawn: the realization of women's comparative advantage”, University of Zurich, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, Working Paper: 491, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1635251
  • Salardi, P. (2012), “Wage disparities and occupational intensity by gender and race in Brazil: an empirical analysis using quantile decomposition techniques”, In IZA/Word Bank Conference: Employment and Development (Vol. 7). Retrieved From https://eesp.fgv.br/sites/eesp.fgv.br/files/file/Salardi.pdf
  • Segovia‐Pérez, M.; Castro Núñez, R. B.; Santero Sánchez, R.; Laguna Sánchez, P. (2020), “Being a woman in an ICT job: An analysis of the gender pay gap and discrimination in Spain”, New Technology, Work and Employment, 35(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12145
  • Simonsen M.; Corneliussen H.G. (2020), “What Can Statistics Tell About the Gender Gap in ICT? Tracing Men and Women’s Participation in the ICT Sector Through Numbers”, In: Kreps D., Komukai T., Gopal T.V., Ishii K. (eds) Human-Centric Computing in a Data-Driven Society. HCC 2020. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 590. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-62803-1_30
  • Tattersall, A.; Keogh, C.; Richardson, H. (2007), “The gender pay gap in the ICT industry”, Information Resources Management Association. Vancouver. Retrieved From https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228805195_The_Gender_Pay_Gap_in_the_ICT_Industry
  • Tokatlıoğlu, Y.; Doğan, N. (2021), “Return of Education for Women across Socio-Economic Status: Using Quantile Regression and Machado-Mata Decomposition Methods for Turkey”, Ege Academic Review, 21(2), 93-110. https://doi.org/10.21121/eab.907367
  • Truss, C.; Conway, E.; d’Amato, A.; Kelly, G.; Monks, K.; Hannon, E.; Flood, P. C. (2012), “Knowledge work: gender-blind or gender-biased?”, Work, employment and society, 26(5), 735-754. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017012451675
  • Ural, B. P.; Horrace, W. C.; Jung, J. H. (2009),” Inter-industry gender wage gaps by knowledge intensity: discrimination and technology in Korea” Applied Economics, 41(11), 1437-1452. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840601019281
  • Windrum, P.; Tomlinson, M. (1999), “Knowledge-intensive services and international competitiveness: a four country comparison”, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 11(3), 391-408. DOI: 10.1080/095373299107429

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Sinem SEFİL TANSEVER (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL TİCARET ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7124-8618
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Nisan 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 20 Ağustos 2021
Kabul Tarihi 6 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Sefil Tansever, S. (2022). Gender Wage Gaps by Knowledge Intensity in Turkish Service Sector . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 17 (1) , 272-294 . DOI: 10.17153/oguiibf.985091