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Çalkantılı Bir Dönemde (1958-1988) Irak-İran İlişkilerinin Çözümlenmesi: Dış Politikada Rejim Güvenliği Endişesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 327 - 344, 01.08.2022

Öz

Dış politika geleneksel olarak devletlerin egemenliklerini ve ulusal güvenliklerini korumaları için önemli bir araçtır. Bu nedenle, herhangi bir devletin dış politikasının temel amacı, egemenliğini ve ulusal güvenliğini sağlamak, bölgesel ve uluslararası çıkarlarını gerçekleştirmektir. Ancak dış politika hem iç faktörlerin hem de dış faktörlerin etkileşim halinde olduğu ve yönetici kadroların tercihlerini ve sonuçlarını şekillendirdiği bir süreçtir. Özellikle devlet güvenliğinin rejimin bekasının sürdürülmesine eşdeğer olduğu demokratik olmayan ülkelerde, yönetici seçkinlerin iç siyasi hesapları dış politikaya hakimdir. Bu bağlamda, bu makale, 1958 ve 1988 yılları arasındaki Irak-İran ilişkilerini yeniden gözden geçirecek ve rejim güvenliği endişelerinin karar alma süreci üzerindeki belirleyici ağırlığını ortaya koyacaktır. Teorik olarak bu makale, Neoklasik realist çalışmaların sunduğu argümanlardan ve kavramlardan faydalanan rejim güvenliği yaklaşımı ile dış politikanın formülasyonunda dış-iç ayrımına karşı çıkan ve sorunsallaştıran bölgesel çalışmalara mütevazı bir katkı yapmaya çalışacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Referans 1. Abdulghani, J. M. (2011), Iraq and Iran; the Years of Crisis, Routledge, New York.
  • Referans 2. Alam, M. (1994), Iraqi Foreign Policy, Mittai Publications, New Delhi.
  • Referans 3. Al-Mazrouei, N. S. (2015), “Disputed Islands between UAE and Iran: Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, and Lesser Tunb in the Strait of Hormuz”, Gulf Research Centre Cambridge: 1-32.
  • Referans 4. Amin, S. H. (1982), “The Iran-Iraq Conflict: Legal Implications“, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 31, no. 1, January: 167–188
  • Referans 5. Bakhash, S. (2004), “The Troubled Relationship: Iran and Iraq, 1930–80”, Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War, Edited by Lawrence G. Potter and Garry G. Sick, Palgrave, New York.
  • Referans 6. Baram, A. (2012), “Deterrence Lessons From Iraq“, Foreign Affairs, July/August.
  • Referans 7. Bowden, Mark (2002), “Tales of the Tyrant“, the Atlantic, May.
  • Referans 8. Cooper, A.S. (2011), The Oil Kings: How the U.S., Iran, and Saudi Arabia Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East, Oneworld Publications.
  • Referans 9. Dahl, R. A. (1998), On Democracy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
  • Referans 10. David, S. R. (1991), “Explaining Third World Alignment,” World Politics, 1991, Vol. 43, No 2
  • Referans 11. Fürtig, H. (2007), “Conflict and Cooperation in the Persian Gulf: The Interregional Order and US Policy”, Middle East Journal, Vol. 61, No. 4, Autumn: 627-640.
  • Referans 12. Humeyni, İ. (1991), İslamda Devlet, İstanbul: Objektif Yayınları.
  • Referans 13. Huxsoll, D. B. (2003), Regimes, Institutions and Foreign Policy Change, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
  • Referans 14. Jahanbakhsh, F. (1997), Islam, Democracy and Religıous Modernism İn Iran (1953-1997): From Bàzargan To Soroush, PhD Thesis, Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University, Montreal, July.
  • Referans 15. Karsh, E. (2002), the Iran-Iraq War, Rosen Publishing, New York.
  • Referans 16. Khadduri, M. (2021), “Foreign policy 1968–80”, Encyclopedia Britannica, (https://www.britannica.com/place/Iraq/The-revolution-of-1968#ref793635, Acessed: 20 May 2021).
  • Referans 17. Marr, P. (2012), the Modern History of Iraq, Westview Press, Colorado.
  • Referans 18. Milani, M. M. (2011), “Iran’s Strategies and Objectives in Post-Saddam Iraq”, Iraq, Its Neighbors, and the United States: Competition, Crisis, and the Reordering the Power, (Ed.) Henri J. Barkey,Scott Lasensky and Phebe Marr, United States Institute of Peace, Washington.
  • Referans 19. Milani, M. M. (2006), “Iran’s Relations with Iraq, 1921-1979,” Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. 13 New York: Columbia University: 564-572.
  • Referans 20. Miller, E. A. and Toritsyn, Arkady (2005), “Bringing the Leader Back In: Internal Threats and Alignment Theory in the Commonwealth of Independent States”, Security Studies, Vol. 14, No 2: 325-363.
  • Referans 21. Onley, J. (2009), “Britain and the Gulf Sheikhdoms, 1820–1971: The Politics of Protection”, Center for International and Regional Studies Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar, Occasional Paper No. 4: 1-54.
  • Referans 22. Pirinççi, F. (2015), “Power Struggle in the Gulf: A Re-evaluation of the Iran-Iraq War”, Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi, Vol. 10, No.1:231-245.
  • Referans 23. Ramakrishnan, A. (2010), ‎The Making of A Revolution I: Religious PoIitical Discourse, Chapter 3: 110-133.
  • Referans 24. Sanjian, A. (1997), “The formulation of the Baghdad pact”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 33, No.2: 226-266
  • Referans 25. Slugett, P. (2002), “The Pan Arab Movement and the A Revolutionary Year: The Middle East”, 1958, (Ed.), William Roger Louis, Roger Owen, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington
  • Referans 26. Smolansky, O. M. and Smolansky, Bettie Moretz (1991), the USSR and Iraq: The Soviet Quest for Influence, Duke University Press, Durham.
  • Referans 27. Taflıoğlu, M. S. (2013), “İran İslam Cumhuriyeti’nde Egemenlik ve Meşrûiyet Kaynağı “Velâyet-İ Fakih” Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, Vol. 68, No. 3:97-100
  • Referans 28. Taflıoğlu, M.S. (2010), Şah Nasil Mat Oldu, Kripto Yayınları.
  • Referans 29. The Tudeh Party: “Vehicle of Communism in Iran”, CIA Historical Review Program, Copy No: 137, 1949: 1-32.
  • Referans 30. Tripp, C. (2000), A History of Iraq, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Referans 31. “Iran-Iraq War Timeline”, Wilson Center, September 1, 1982
  • Referans 32. “The Baghdad Pact (1955) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)”, The US Department of State Archive, From January 20, 2001 to January 20, 2009. (https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/98683.htm)

Unraveling Iraq-Iran Relations during Turbulent Period (1958-1988): Regime Security Concern in Foreign Policy

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 327 - 344, 01.08.2022

Öz

Foreign policy is traditionally an important tool for states to protect their sovereignty and national-regime security. Therefore, the main objective of any state’s foreign policy is to ensure its sovereignty and national-regime security and to realize its regional and international interests. However, foreign policy is a process where both internal factors and external factors interact and shape the preferences and the outcomes of the ruling cadres. Especially, in non-democratic countries where state security is equivalent to the maintenance of regime survival, the internal political calculations of ruling elites dominate the foreign policy. In this context, this article will revisit Iraq-Iran relations between 1958 and 1988 to display the determinant weight of the regime security concerns on the decision-making process. Theoretically, this article will attempt to make a modest contribution to the regional studies which dispute and refuse the outside-inside separation on the formulation of foreign policy with the regime security approach which draws largely on the arguments and the concepts advanced by Neoclassical realist studies. the regime security approach which is.

Kaynakça

  • Referans 1. Abdulghani, J. M. (2011), Iraq and Iran; the Years of Crisis, Routledge, New York.
  • Referans 2. Alam, M. (1994), Iraqi Foreign Policy, Mittai Publications, New Delhi.
  • Referans 3. Al-Mazrouei, N. S. (2015), “Disputed Islands between UAE and Iran: Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, and Lesser Tunb in the Strait of Hormuz”, Gulf Research Centre Cambridge: 1-32.
  • Referans 4. Amin, S. H. (1982), “The Iran-Iraq Conflict: Legal Implications“, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 31, no. 1, January: 167–188
  • Referans 5. Bakhash, S. (2004), “The Troubled Relationship: Iran and Iraq, 1930–80”, Iran, Iraq, and the Legacies of War, Edited by Lawrence G. Potter and Garry G. Sick, Palgrave, New York.
  • Referans 6. Baram, A. (2012), “Deterrence Lessons From Iraq“, Foreign Affairs, July/August.
  • Referans 7. Bowden, Mark (2002), “Tales of the Tyrant“, the Atlantic, May.
  • Referans 8. Cooper, A.S. (2011), The Oil Kings: How the U.S., Iran, and Saudi Arabia Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East, Oneworld Publications.
  • Referans 9. Dahl, R. A. (1998), On Democracy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
  • Referans 10. David, S. R. (1991), “Explaining Third World Alignment,” World Politics, 1991, Vol. 43, No 2
  • Referans 11. Fürtig, H. (2007), “Conflict and Cooperation in the Persian Gulf: The Interregional Order and US Policy”, Middle East Journal, Vol. 61, No. 4, Autumn: 627-640.
  • Referans 12. Humeyni, İ. (1991), İslamda Devlet, İstanbul: Objektif Yayınları.
  • Referans 13. Huxsoll, D. B. (2003), Regimes, Institutions and Foreign Policy Change, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
  • Referans 14. Jahanbakhsh, F. (1997), Islam, Democracy and Religıous Modernism İn Iran (1953-1997): From Bàzargan To Soroush, PhD Thesis, Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University, Montreal, July.
  • Referans 15. Karsh, E. (2002), the Iran-Iraq War, Rosen Publishing, New York.
  • Referans 16. Khadduri, M. (2021), “Foreign policy 1968–80”, Encyclopedia Britannica, (https://www.britannica.com/place/Iraq/The-revolution-of-1968#ref793635, Acessed: 20 May 2021).
  • Referans 17. Marr, P. (2012), the Modern History of Iraq, Westview Press, Colorado.
  • Referans 18. Milani, M. M. (2011), “Iran’s Strategies and Objectives in Post-Saddam Iraq”, Iraq, Its Neighbors, and the United States: Competition, Crisis, and the Reordering the Power, (Ed.) Henri J. Barkey,Scott Lasensky and Phebe Marr, United States Institute of Peace, Washington.
  • Referans 19. Milani, M. M. (2006), “Iran’s Relations with Iraq, 1921-1979,” Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. 13 New York: Columbia University: 564-572.
  • Referans 20. Miller, E. A. and Toritsyn, Arkady (2005), “Bringing the Leader Back In: Internal Threats and Alignment Theory in the Commonwealth of Independent States”, Security Studies, Vol. 14, No 2: 325-363.
  • Referans 21. Onley, J. (2009), “Britain and the Gulf Sheikhdoms, 1820–1971: The Politics of Protection”, Center for International and Regional Studies Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar, Occasional Paper No. 4: 1-54.
  • Referans 22. Pirinççi, F. (2015), “Power Struggle in the Gulf: A Re-evaluation of the Iran-Iraq War”, Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi, Vol. 10, No.1:231-245.
  • Referans 23. Ramakrishnan, A. (2010), ‎The Making of A Revolution I: Religious PoIitical Discourse, Chapter 3: 110-133.
  • Referans 24. Sanjian, A. (1997), “The formulation of the Baghdad pact”, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 33, No.2: 226-266
  • Referans 25. Slugett, P. (2002), “The Pan Arab Movement and the A Revolutionary Year: The Middle East”, 1958, (Ed.), William Roger Louis, Roger Owen, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington
  • Referans 26. Smolansky, O. M. and Smolansky, Bettie Moretz (1991), the USSR and Iraq: The Soviet Quest for Influence, Duke University Press, Durham.
  • Referans 27. Taflıoğlu, M. S. (2013), “İran İslam Cumhuriyeti’nde Egemenlik ve Meşrûiyet Kaynağı “Velâyet-İ Fakih” Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, Vol. 68, No. 3:97-100
  • Referans 28. Taflıoğlu, M.S. (2010), Şah Nasil Mat Oldu, Kripto Yayınları.
  • Referans 29. The Tudeh Party: “Vehicle of Communism in Iran”, CIA Historical Review Program, Copy No: 137, 1949: 1-32.
  • Referans 30. Tripp, C. (2000), A History of Iraq, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Referans 31. “Iran-Iraq War Timeline”, Wilson Center, September 1, 1982
  • Referans 32. “The Baghdad Pact (1955) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)”, The US Department of State Archive, From January 20, 2001 to January 20, 2009. (https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/lw/98683.htm)

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ahmet ÜÇAĞAÇ>
SAKARYA UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-1731-2946
Türkiye


Rıdvan KALAYCI> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Department of International Relations in Sakarya University
0000-0002-7569-4583
Türkiye


Mustafa YETİM>
ESKISEHIR OSMANGAZI UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-6013-9299
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ağustos 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 16 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 15 Şubat 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Üçağaç, A. , Kalaycı, R. & Yetim, M. (2022). Unraveling Iraq-Iran Relations during Turbulent Period (1958-1988): Regime Security Concern in Foreign Policy . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 17 (2) , 327-344 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/oguiibf/issue/70614/1037663