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Avrupa Bölgesinde Kayıt-Dışı Ekonomi: Panel Sabit Etki Eşik Modellerinden Kanıtlar

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 387 - 409, 01.08.2022

Öz

Bu çalışma Avrupa Bölgesinde kayıt dışı ekonominin belirleyicilerini incelemektedir. Finansal gelişme, beşerî sermaye, işsizlik, enflasyon ve ekonomik özgürlüklerin kayıt-dışı ekonomi üzerindeki etkisi çeşitli panel sabit etki modelleriyle tartışılmaktadır. Belirli bir refah düzeyi üzerinde işsizliğin kayıt-dışı ekonomi üzerinde etkisi artarken, belirli bir beşerî sermaye eşik düzeyinin üzerinde işsizliğin kayıt-dışı ekonomi üzerindeki etkisi azalmaktadır. Ayrıca, ekonomik özgürlüğün kayıt-dışı ekonomi üzerindeki etkisinin belirli bir beşerî sermaye eşik düzeyinin üzerinde arttığı tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, Avrupa'da kayıt-dışı ekonomi ile baş edebilmek için ortak politikalar önerilmiş olup, kayıt dışı ekonomiyi azaltmada finansal gelişme, beşerî sermaye ve ekonomik özgürlüklerin artırılması faydalı olacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Arouri, M. E. H.; Youssef, A. B.; Elgin, C. (2014), "Informal Economy in Africa: Building Human Capital to Set the Gazelles Free", Bogazici University Department of Economics, Working Papers 2014/04.
  • Baltagi, B. H. (2013), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, 5. Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester.
  • Banerjee, B. (1983), "The Role of the Informal Sector in the Migration Process: A Test of Probabilistic Migration Models and Labor Market Segmentation for India", Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 35, No. 2: 399-422.
  • Bayar, Y.; Öztürk, Ö. F. (2016), "Financial Development and Shadow Economy in European Union Transition Economies", Managing Global Transitions, Vol. 14, No. 2: 157-173.
  • Berdiev, A. N.; Saunoris, J. W. (2016), "Financial Development and the Shadow Economy: A Panel VAR Analysis", Economic Modelling, Vol. 57: 197-202.
  • Berentsen, W. H. (2021), Europe Continent, 17 December, Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com, (Access: 20.12.2021)
  • Bittencourt, M.; Gupta, R.; Stander, L. (2014), "Tax Evasion, Financial Development and Inflation: Theory and Empirical Evidence", Journal of Banking & Finance, Vol. 41: 194-208.
  • Borlea, S. N.; Achim, M. V.; Miron, M. G. (2017), "Corruption, Shadow Economy and Economic Growth: An Empirical Survey Across the European Union Countries", Studia Universitatis Economic Series, Vol. 27, No.2: 19-32.
  • Bose, N.; Capasso, S.; Wurm, M. A. (2012), "The Impact of Banking Development on the Size of Shadow Economies", Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 39, No. 6: 620-638.
  • Buehn, A.; Farzanegan, M. R. (2013), "Impact of Education on the Shadow Economy: Institutions Matter", Economics Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 3: 2052-2063.
  • Capasso, S.; Jappelli, T. (2013), "Financial Development and the Underground Economy", Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 101: 167-178.
  • Carter, M. (1984), "Issues in the Hidden Economy-A Survey", The Economic Record, Vol. 60, No. 3: 209-221.
  • Ciutiene, R.; Meiliene, E.; Savaneviciene, A.; Vaitkevicius, S. (2015), "Interdependence Between Human Capital and the Power of a Shadow Economy: Lithuanian Case Study", Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 21, No. 3: 460-482.
  • Davidescu, A. A. (2015), "The Relationship Between Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate: A ARDL Causality Analysis for the Case of Romania", Romanian Statistical Review, Vol. 4: 46-62.
  • Dellanno, R. (2007), "The Shadow Economy in Portugal: An Analysis with the MIMIC Approach", Journal of Applied Economics, Vol. 10, No. 2: 253-277.
  • Dellanno, R.; Solomon, O. H. (2008), "Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate in USA: Is There a Structural Relationship? An Empirical Analysis", Applied Economics, Vol. 40, No. 19: 2537-2555.
  • Din, B. H.; Habibullah, M. S.; Hamid, B. A. (2019), "Re-estimation and Modelling Shadow Economy in Malaysia: Does Financial Development Mitigate Shadow Economy?", International Journal of Business and Society, Vol. 20, No. 3: 1062-1075.
  • Dobre, I.; Alexandru, A. A. (2009), "The Impact of Unemployment on the Dimension of Shadow Economy in Spain: A Structural Equation Approach", European Research Studies, Vol. 12, No.4: 179-197.
  • Dreher, A.; Kotosogiannis, C.; McCorriston, S. (2009), "How do Institutions Affects Corruption and the Shadow Economy?", International Tax and Public Finance, Vol. 16: 773-796.
  • Driscoll, J. C.; Kraay, A. C. (1998), "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Spatially Dependent Panel Data", Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 80, No. 4: 549-560.
  • Elgin, C.; Kose, M. A.; Ohnsorge, F.; Yu, S. (2021), “Understanding Informality”, MPRA Paper No. 109490.
  • Erlat, H. (2015), Panel Data: A Selective Survey, Ankara: Middle East Technical University.
  • Esposito, A.; Zaleski, P. A. (1999), "Economic Freedom and the Quality of Life: An Empirical Analysis", Constitutional Political Economy, Vol. 10: 185-197.
  • Feenstra, R. C.; Inklaar, R.; Timmer, M. P. (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table", American Economic Review, Vol. 105, No. 10: 3150-3182.
  • Feige, E. L. (1979), "How Big is the Irregular Economy?", Challenge, Vol. 22, No. 5: 5-13.
  • Feige, E. L. (1996), "Overseas Holdings of U.S. Currency and the Underground Economy", Exploring the Underground Economy: Studies of Illegal and Unreported Activity, (Ed. S. Pozo), W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Michigan: 5-62.
  • Frees, E. W. (1995), "Assessing Cross-sectional Correlation in Panel Data", Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 69: 393-414.
  • Friedman, M. (1937), "The Use of Ranks to Avoid the Assumption of Normality Implicit in the Analysis of Variance", Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 32, No. 200: 675-701.
  • Gershuny, J. I. (1979), "The Informal Economy: Its Role in Post-industrial Society", Futures, Vol. 11, No. 1: 3-15.
  • Gerxhani, K. (2004), "The Informal Sector in Developed and Less Developed Countries: A Literature Survey", Public Choice, Vol. 120: 267-300.
  • Gerxhani, K.; Werfhorst, H. G. (2013), "The Effect of Education on Informal Sector Participation in a Post-Communist Country", European Sociological Review, Vol. 29, No. 3: 464-476.
  • Gezer, M. A. (2020), "The Impact of Economic Freedom on Human Development in European Transition Economies", Economic Computation and Cybernetics Studies and Research, Vol. 54, No. 3: 161-178.
  • Gupta, M. R. (1993), "Rural-urban Migration, Informal Sector and Development Policies", Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 41: 137-151.
  • Hansen, B. E. (1999), "Threshold Effects in Non-Dynamic Panels: Estimation, Testing, and Inference", Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 93: 345-368.
  • Hart, K. (1973), "Informal Income Opportunities and Urban Employment in Ghana", The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1: 61-89.
  • Henri, N. (2018), "Does Financial Development Reduce the Size of the Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan African Countries?", MPRA Paper No. 89851.
  • Hsiao, C. (2014), Analysis of Panel Data, 3. Edition, Cambridge University Press: New York.
  • IMF (2021), Financial Development Index Database, International Monetary Fund, https://data.imf.org, (Access: 24.12.2021).
  • Johnston, J.; Dinardo, J. (1997), Econometrics Method, 4. Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • Kar, M.; Nazlıoğlu, Ş.; Ağır, H. (2011), "Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus in the MENA Countries: Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis", Economic Modelling, Vol. 28: 685-693.
  • Kelmanson, B.; Kirabaeva, K.; Medina, L.; Mircheva, B.; Weiss, J. (2019), "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options", IMF Working Papers: Washington DC.
  • Maddah, M.; Sobhani, B. (2014), "The Effective Factors on Informality in Developing Countries: Panel Data Model", International Journal of Regional Development, Vol. 1, No. 1: 12-25.
  • Medina, L.; Schneider, F. (2018), "Shadow Economies Around the World: What did we Learn over the Last 20 Years?", IMF Working Papers: Washington DC.
  • Menyah, K.; Nazlioglu, S.; Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2014), "Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in African Countries: New Insights from a Panel Causality Approach", Economic Modelling, Vol. 37: 386-394.
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2021), "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels", Empirical Economics, Vol. 60: 13-50.
  • Porta, R. L.; Shleifer, A. (2014), “Informality and Development”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 28. No. 3: 109-126.
  • PWT (2021), Penn World Table, 10. Version, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, https://www.rug.nl, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • Saafi, S.; Mohamed, M. H.; Farhat, A. (2015), “Is There a Causal Relationship Between Unemployment and Informal Economy in Tunisia: Evidence from Linear and Non-linear Granger Causality”, Economic Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 2: 1191-1204.
  • Sahay, R.; Cihak, M.; Ndiaye, P.; Barajas, A.; Bi, R.; Ayala, D.; ...; Yousefi, S. R. (2015), “Rethinking Financial Deepening: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets”, IMF Staff Discussion Note: Washington DC.
  • Sahnoun, M.; Abdennadher, C. (2019), “The Nexus Between Unemployment Rate and Shadow Economy: A Comparative Analysis of Developed and Developing Countries Using a Simultoneous Equation Model”, Kiel Institute for the World Economy: Kiel.
  • Schneider, F. (2005), “Shadow Economies Around the World: What do we Really Know?”, European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 21: 598-642.
  • Schneider, F.; Enste, D. H. (2000), “Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences”, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 38, No. 1: 77-114.
  • Singh, A.; Jain-Chandra, S.; Mohommad, A. (2012), "Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy", IMF Working Papers: Washington DC.
  • Sweidan, O. (2017), “Economic Freedom and the Informal Economy”, Global Economy Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4.
  • Tanzi, V. (1980), “The Underground Economy in the United States: Estimates and Implications”, PSL Quarterly Review, Vol. 33 No. 135: 427-453.
  • Tedds, L. M.; Giles, D. E. (2000), “Modelling the Underground Economies in Canada and New Zealand: A Comparative Analysis”, University of Victoria, Econometrics Working Papers 0003.
  • The Heritage (2021), 2021 Index of Economic Freedom, The Heritage Foundation, https://www.heritage.org, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • The World Bank (2021), Informal Economy Database, The World Bank, https://www.worldbank.org, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • Toda, H. Y.; Yamamoto, T. (1995), “Statistical Inferences in Vector Auto-regressions with Possibly Integrated Processes”, Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 66: 225-250.
  • Todaro, M. P. (1969), “A Model of Labor Migration and Unemployment in Less Developed Countries”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 59, No. 1: 138-148.
  • Wang, Q. (2015), “Fixed-effect Panel Threshold Model Using Stata”, The Stata Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1: 121-134.
  • WDI (2021), World Development Indicators Databank, The World Bank, https://databank.worldbank.org, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • Wooldridge, J. M. (2013), “Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach”, 5. Edition, South-Western Cengage Learning: Ohio.
  • Wu, D. F.; Schneider, F. (2019), “Nonlinearity Between the Shadow Economy and Level of Development”, IMF Working Paper: Washington DC.
  • Yereli, A. B.; Seçilmiş, İ. E.; Başaran, A. (2007), “Shadow Economy and Public Debt Sustainability in Turkey”, Economic Annals, Vol. 52, No. 173: 85-104.

Informal Economy at the European Territory: Evidence from Panel Threshold Fixed Effect Models

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 387 - 409, 01.08.2022

Öz

This study investigates the determiners of informal economy at the European Territory. The impact of financial development, human capital, unemployment, inflation, and economic freedom is discussed with various fixed effect models. While the influence of unemployment on informal economy increases above a certain welfare, the influence of unemployment on informal economy decreases above a certain human capital level. Besides, it is detected that the influence of economic freedom on informal economy increases above a certain human capital threshold. Consequently, common policies are recommended to cope with informal economy in Europe, and the increment in financial development, human capital and economic freedom will be beneficial to reduce informal economy.

Kaynakça

  • Arouri, M. E. H.; Youssef, A. B.; Elgin, C. (2014), "Informal Economy in Africa: Building Human Capital to Set the Gazelles Free", Bogazici University Department of Economics, Working Papers 2014/04.
  • Baltagi, B. H. (2013), Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, 5. Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester.
  • Banerjee, B. (1983), "The Role of the Informal Sector in the Migration Process: A Test of Probabilistic Migration Models and Labor Market Segmentation for India", Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 35, No. 2: 399-422.
  • Bayar, Y.; Öztürk, Ö. F. (2016), "Financial Development and Shadow Economy in European Union Transition Economies", Managing Global Transitions, Vol. 14, No. 2: 157-173.
  • Berdiev, A. N.; Saunoris, J. W. (2016), "Financial Development and the Shadow Economy: A Panel VAR Analysis", Economic Modelling, Vol. 57: 197-202.
  • Berentsen, W. H. (2021), Europe Continent, 17 December, Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com, (Access: 20.12.2021)
  • Bittencourt, M.; Gupta, R.; Stander, L. (2014), "Tax Evasion, Financial Development and Inflation: Theory and Empirical Evidence", Journal of Banking & Finance, Vol. 41: 194-208.
  • Borlea, S. N.; Achim, M. V.; Miron, M. G. (2017), "Corruption, Shadow Economy and Economic Growth: An Empirical Survey Across the European Union Countries", Studia Universitatis Economic Series, Vol. 27, No.2: 19-32.
  • Bose, N.; Capasso, S.; Wurm, M. A. (2012), "The Impact of Banking Development on the Size of Shadow Economies", Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 39, No. 6: 620-638.
  • Buehn, A.; Farzanegan, M. R. (2013), "Impact of Education on the Shadow Economy: Institutions Matter", Economics Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 3: 2052-2063.
  • Capasso, S.; Jappelli, T. (2013), "Financial Development and the Underground Economy", Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 101: 167-178.
  • Carter, M. (1984), "Issues in the Hidden Economy-A Survey", The Economic Record, Vol. 60, No. 3: 209-221.
  • Ciutiene, R.; Meiliene, E.; Savaneviciene, A.; Vaitkevicius, S. (2015), "Interdependence Between Human Capital and the Power of a Shadow Economy: Lithuanian Case Study", Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 21, No. 3: 460-482.
  • Davidescu, A. A. (2015), "The Relationship Between Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate: A ARDL Causality Analysis for the Case of Romania", Romanian Statistical Review, Vol. 4: 46-62.
  • Dellanno, R. (2007), "The Shadow Economy in Portugal: An Analysis with the MIMIC Approach", Journal of Applied Economics, Vol. 10, No. 2: 253-277.
  • Dellanno, R.; Solomon, O. H. (2008), "Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate in USA: Is There a Structural Relationship? An Empirical Analysis", Applied Economics, Vol. 40, No. 19: 2537-2555.
  • Din, B. H.; Habibullah, M. S.; Hamid, B. A. (2019), "Re-estimation and Modelling Shadow Economy in Malaysia: Does Financial Development Mitigate Shadow Economy?", International Journal of Business and Society, Vol. 20, No. 3: 1062-1075.
  • Dobre, I.; Alexandru, A. A. (2009), "The Impact of Unemployment on the Dimension of Shadow Economy in Spain: A Structural Equation Approach", European Research Studies, Vol. 12, No.4: 179-197.
  • Dreher, A.; Kotosogiannis, C.; McCorriston, S. (2009), "How do Institutions Affects Corruption and the Shadow Economy?", International Tax and Public Finance, Vol. 16: 773-796.
  • Driscoll, J. C.; Kraay, A. C. (1998), "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Spatially Dependent Panel Data", Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 80, No. 4: 549-560.
  • Elgin, C.; Kose, M. A.; Ohnsorge, F.; Yu, S. (2021), “Understanding Informality”, MPRA Paper No. 109490.
  • Erlat, H. (2015), Panel Data: A Selective Survey, Ankara: Middle East Technical University.
  • Esposito, A.; Zaleski, P. A. (1999), "Economic Freedom and the Quality of Life: An Empirical Analysis", Constitutional Political Economy, Vol. 10: 185-197.
  • Feenstra, R. C.; Inklaar, R.; Timmer, M. P. (2015), "The Next Generation of the Penn World Table", American Economic Review, Vol. 105, No. 10: 3150-3182.
  • Feige, E. L. (1979), "How Big is the Irregular Economy?", Challenge, Vol. 22, No. 5: 5-13.
  • Feige, E. L. (1996), "Overseas Holdings of U.S. Currency and the Underground Economy", Exploring the Underground Economy: Studies of Illegal and Unreported Activity, (Ed. S. Pozo), W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Michigan: 5-62.
  • Frees, E. W. (1995), "Assessing Cross-sectional Correlation in Panel Data", Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 69: 393-414.
  • Friedman, M. (1937), "The Use of Ranks to Avoid the Assumption of Normality Implicit in the Analysis of Variance", Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 32, No. 200: 675-701.
  • Gershuny, J. I. (1979), "The Informal Economy: Its Role in Post-industrial Society", Futures, Vol. 11, No. 1: 3-15.
  • Gerxhani, K. (2004), "The Informal Sector in Developed and Less Developed Countries: A Literature Survey", Public Choice, Vol. 120: 267-300.
  • Gerxhani, K.; Werfhorst, H. G. (2013), "The Effect of Education on Informal Sector Participation in a Post-Communist Country", European Sociological Review, Vol. 29, No. 3: 464-476.
  • Gezer, M. A. (2020), "The Impact of Economic Freedom on Human Development in European Transition Economies", Economic Computation and Cybernetics Studies and Research, Vol. 54, No. 3: 161-178.
  • Gupta, M. R. (1993), "Rural-urban Migration, Informal Sector and Development Policies", Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 41: 137-151.
  • Hansen, B. E. (1999), "Threshold Effects in Non-Dynamic Panels: Estimation, Testing, and Inference", Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 93: 345-368.
  • Hart, K. (1973), "Informal Income Opportunities and Urban Employment in Ghana", The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1: 61-89.
  • Henri, N. (2018), "Does Financial Development Reduce the Size of the Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan African Countries?", MPRA Paper No. 89851.
  • Hsiao, C. (2014), Analysis of Panel Data, 3. Edition, Cambridge University Press: New York.
  • IMF (2021), Financial Development Index Database, International Monetary Fund, https://data.imf.org, (Access: 24.12.2021).
  • Johnston, J.; Dinardo, J. (1997), Econometrics Method, 4. Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York.
  • Kar, M.; Nazlıoğlu, Ş.; Ağır, H. (2011), "Financial Development and Economic Growth Nexus in the MENA Countries: Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis", Economic Modelling, Vol. 28: 685-693.
  • Kelmanson, B.; Kirabaeva, K.; Medina, L.; Mircheva, B.; Weiss, J. (2019), "Explaining the Shadow Economy in Europe: Size, Causes and Policy Options", IMF Working Papers: Washington DC.
  • Maddah, M.; Sobhani, B. (2014), "The Effective Factors on Informality in Developing Countries: Panel Data Model", International Journal of Regional Development, Vol. 1, No. 1: 12-25.
  • Medina, L.; Schneider, F. (2018), "Shadow Economies Around the World: What did we Learn over the Last 20 Years?", IMF Working Papers: Washington DC.
  • Menyah, K.; Nazlioglu, S.; Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2014), "Financial Development, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in African Countries: New Insights from a Panel Causality Approach", Economic Modelling, Vol. 37: 386-394.
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2021), "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels", Empirical Economics, Vol. 60: 13-50.
  • Porta, R. L.; Shleifer, A. (2014), “Informality and Development”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 28. No. 3: 109-126.
  • PWT (2021), Penn World Table, 10. Version, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, https://www.rug.nl, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • Saafi, S.; Mohamed, M. H.; Farhat, A. (2015), “Is There a Causal Relationship Between Unemployment and Informal Economy in Tunisia: Evidence from Linear and Non-linear Granger Causality”, Economic Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 2: 1191-1204.
  • Sahay, R.; Cihak, M.; Ndiaye, P.; Barajas, A.; Bi, R.; Ayala, D.; ...; Yousefi, S. R. (2015), “Rethinking Financial Deepening: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets”, IMF Staff Discussion Note: Washington DC.
  • Sahnoun, M.; Abdennadher, C. (2019), “The Nexus Between Unemployment Rate and Shadow Economy: A Comparative Analysis of Developed and Developing Countries Using a Simultoneous Equation Model”, Kiel Institute for the World Economy: Kiel.
  • Schneider, F. (2005), “Shadow Economies Around the World: What do we Really Know?”, European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 21: 598-642.
  • Schneider, F.; Enste, D. H. (2000), “Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences”, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 38, No. 1: 77-114.
  • Singh, A.; Jain-Chandra, S.; Mohommad, A. (2012), "Inclusive Growth, Institutions, and the Underground Economy", IMF Working Papers: Washington DC.
  • Sweidan, O. (2017), “Economic Freedom and the Informal Economy”, Global Economy Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4.
  • Tanzi, V. (1980), “The Underground Economy in the United States: Estimates and Implications”, PSL Quarterly Review, Vol. 33 No. 135: 427-453.
  • Tedds, L. M.; Giles, D. E. (2000), “Modelling the Underground Economies in Canada and New Zealand: A Comparative Analysis”, University of Victoria, Econometrics Working Papers 0003.
  • The Heritage (2021), 2021 Index of Economic Freedom, The Heritage Foundation, https://www.heritage.org, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • The World Bank (2021), Informal Economy Database, The World Bank, https://www.worldbank.org, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • Toda, H. Y.; Yamamoto, T. (1995), “Statistical Inferences in Vector Auto-regressions with Possibly Integrated Processes”, Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 66: 225-250.
  • Todaro, M. P. (1969), “A Model of Labor Migration and Unemployment in Less Developed Countries”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 59, No. 1: 138-148.
  • Wang, Q. (2015), “Fixed-effect Panel Threshold Model Using Stata”, The Stata Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1: 121-134.
  • WDI (2021), World Development Indicators Databank, The World Bank, https://databank.worldbank.org, (Access: 23.12.2021).
  • Wooldridge, J. M. (2013), “Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach”, 5. Edition, South-Western Cengage Learning: Ohio.
  • Wu, D. F.; Schneider, F. (2019), “Nonlinearity Between the Shadow Economy and Level of Development”, IMF Working Paper: Washington DC.
  • Yereli, A. B.; Seçilmiş, İ. E.; Başaran, A. (2007), “Shadow Economy and Public Debt Sustainability in Turkey”, Economic Annals, Vol. 52, No. 173: 85-104.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Mesut Alper GEZER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
DUMLUPINAR UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9157-8833
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ağustos 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Ocak 2022
Kabul Tarihi 5 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Gezer, M. A. (2022). Informal Economy at the European Territory: Evidence from Panel Threshold Fixed Effect Models . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 17 (2) , 387-409 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/oguiibf/issue/70614/1056946