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BRICS Ülkeleri ve Türkiye'nin Kapsayıcı Kalkınma Performanslarının MULTIMOORA ile Belirlenmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 535 - 560, 01.08.2022

Öz

Bu çalışmada yeni jeostratejik güç olarak tanımlanan ve gelecekte dünya ekonomisinde küresel güç olarak daha etkin bir konumda olması öngörülen BRICS ülkeleri ve Türkiye’nin kapsayıcı kalkınma performansları ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla Çok Kriterli Karar Verme (ÇKKV) yöntemlerinden Oransal Analize Dayalı Çok Amaçlı Optimizasyon Yöntemi (MOORA) kullanılmıştır. Bu bağlamda BRICS ülkelerinin, Kapsayıcı Kalkınma Endeksini (IDI) oluşturan değişkenlerden yararlanılmış, kriterler Entropi metodu ile ağırlıklandırılmıştır. Ulaşılan en güncel yıl olarak IDI 2018 verilerinin analiz edildiği çalışmada, Kapsayıcı Kalkınma Performansı sıralaması MULTIMOORA metoduna göre yapılmıştır. Sonuç olarak en iyi performansa sahip olan ülkelerin Türkiye, Rusya ve Brezilya olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abraham, B. P (2020). "BRICS: The Political Economy of Non-Inclusive Growth". In B. P. Abraham &, P. Ray (Eds). The Political Economy of the BRICS Countries: 1-17 World Scientific.
  • Ademoğlu, Y. (2019). "BRICS neyi hedefliyor, hala bir anlam ifade ediyor mu?" Retrieved from https://tr.euronews.com/2019/11/14/brics-neyi-hedefliyor-hala-bir-anlam-ifade-ediyor-mu. (25.027.2021)
  • Ali, I. and J. Zhuang (2007). "Inclusive Growth Toward a Prosperous Asia: Policy Implications". Economics and Research Department Working Paper No. 97, Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/28210/wp097.pdf
  • Al- Jafari, K. M. (2018). "Determinants of Economic Growth in BRICS Countries: A Panel Data Analysis Approach". International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Vol.8, No.3: 29-38.
  • Anyanwu, J. C., (2014). "Determining the correlates of poverty for inclusive growth in Africa". European Economics Letters, Vol.3, No.1: 12-17.
  • Aslam, A., Naveed, A. and Shabbir, G. (2021). "Is it an institution, digital or social inclusion that matters for inclusive growth? A panel data analysis". Qual Quant, Vol.55: 333–355.
  • Bacik, G. (2013). "Turkey and the BRICS: Can Turkey Join the BRICS?". Turkish Studies, Vol.14, No.4: 758 –773. Besada, H., Winters, K. and Tok, E. (2013). "South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, challenges and prospects". Africa insight, Vol.42, No.4: 1-15.
  • BRICS (2018). "Envisioning inclusıve development through a socially responsive economy, Recommendatıons To The 10th Brıcs Leaders’ Summit, Johannesburg. Retrieved from http://www.nkibrics.ru/ckeditor_assets/attachments/5b3f2a086272690531480000/10th_brics_academic_forum_proposals.pdf?1530866184 (11. 05.2021).
  • BRICS (2017). "BRICS Mechanism Development Strategy Report", Centre for China in the World Economy, Tsinghua University, BRICS Economic Think Tank. Retrieved from http:// www. ccwe. tsinghua. edu.cn/ upload_files /file /20170904 /150449684177 1012 0 86.pdf.
  • Brauers, W. K. M. and Zavadskas, E. K. (2006). "The MOORA Method and its Application to Privatization in a Transition Economy". Control and Cybernetic, Vol.358, No. 2: 445-469.
  • Brauers, W. K. M., Ginevičius, R. and Podvezko, V. (2010). Regional development in Lithuania considering multiple objectives by the MOORA method. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol.16, No. 4: 613-640.
  • Brauers, W. K. M. and Zavadskas, E. K. (2010). "Project management by multimoora as an instrument for transition economies”, Informatica, Vol.23, No. 1: 1-25.
  • Brauers, Willem Karel M. and Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras (2012). "Robustness of MULTIMOORA: A Method for Multi-Objective Optimization", Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol.16, No.1: 5-24.
  • Chatterjee, S. (2005). "Poverty reduction strategies—lessons from the Asian and Pacific region on inclusive development". Asian Development Review, Vol.22, No.1: 12–44.
  • Chistik, O.F. and Eliseev, V.A. (2019). "The Index of Inclusive Development in Formation of the New Concept of Economic Growth", SHS Web of Conferences 62, 05002.
  • Dai, E. (2016). "China’s inclusive development strategy and its effect on regional disparity". Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol.14, No.3: 263-278.
  • Daniels, C.U., Ustyuzhantseva, O.V., and Yao, W. (2017). "Innovation for inclusive development, public policy support and triple helix: perspectives from BRICS". African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, No.9: 513 - 527.
  • Deniz, E. (2019). "Güney Afrika’yı uluslararası hiyerarşide konumlandırmak: yeni yükselen orta ölçekli güç". Uluslararası Afro-Avrasya Araştırmaları Dergisi, Vol.4, No.7: 63-73.
  • Dilek, Ş., İstikbal, D. and Yanartaş, M. (2018). "Küresel ekonomide yeni bir güç odağı: “Brics”" . Seta Analiz, No. 256: 7-20.
  • Eğilmez, M. (2018), Değişim Sürecinde Türkiye Osmanlı'dan Cumhuriyet'e Sosyo-Ekonomik Bir Değerlendirme, İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
  • Emirkadı, Ö. (2019). "Kapsayıcı Kalkınma Endeksi ve Türkiye’nin Gösterdiği Sosyoekonomik Gelişim Süreci Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Economics Literature, Vol.1, No.2: 84-100.
  • Gladun, E. (2018). "BRICS Development Through Socially Responsive Economy", BriCs law Journal, Vol.5, No.3: 152–159.
  • Gu, J., and N. Kitano (2018). Emerging Economies and the Changing Dynamics of Development Cooperation, Introduction to the special Issue. IDS Bulletin, Vol.49, No.3: 1-12.
  • Gumede, V. (2018). Social policy for inclusive development in Africa. Third World Quarterly, Vol.39, No.1: 122-139.
  • Gupta, J., Pouw, N. R., and Ros-Tonen, M. A. (2015). "Towards an elaborated theory of inclusive development". The European Journal of Development Research, Vol.27, No.4: 541-559.
  • Hasmath, R. (2015), "The Paradigms of Inclusive Growth, Development and Welfare Policy". In R. Hasmath (Ed.). The Inclusive Growth, Development and Welfare Policy A Critical Assessment, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Hawksworth, J. and Cookson, G. (2010). The World in 2050. Beyond the BRICs: a broader look at emerging markets. Price Water House Coopers. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/la/en/publications/assets/world_2050_brics.pdf. (16 May 2021).
  • Hickey, S. (2013). "Thinking about the politics of inclusive development: Towards a relational approach". ESID Working Paper No 1, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2425235.
  • İstikbal D., Dilek Ş.and Yanartaş M. (2019). "Dönüşen dünya düzeninde “BRICS” ve Türkiye’ye etkisi". IJAR, Vol.4. No.7: 47-62.
  • Imam Raza, A. (2018). Inclusive Development Index 2018: Performance Analysis of BRICS Economies. Retrieved from https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/inclusive-development-index-2018-and-brics-economies-performance-for-ias-1516865164-1. (20 August 2021).
  • Johnson, B., and Andersen, A. D. (Eds.) (2012). Learning, Innovation and Inclusive Development: New perspectives on economic development strategy and development aid. Aalborg Universitetsforlag. Globelics Thematic Report Vol. 2011/2012.
  • Lowe, P. (2016). "The rise of the BRICS in the global economy". Teaching geography, Vol.41, No.2: 50-53.
  • Meyer, D. F., and Meyer, N. (2019). "Assessment of Inclusive Growth performance: A comparative analysis of the BRICS countries". Acta Universitatis Danubius. ØEconomica, Vol.15, No.4: 191-207.
  • Ncube, M., Shimeles, A. and Verdier-Chouchane, A. (2012). "South Africa’s Quest for Inclusive Development", Working Paper Series No:150, African Development Bank: Tunis, Tunisia.
  • PWC (2015). "The World in 2050 Will the shift in global economic power continue?". Retrieved fromhttps://www.ab.gov.tr/files/ardb/evt/1_avrupa_birligi/1_6_raporlar/1_3_diger/economy/PWC_world_in_2050-february-2015.pdf. (20.August.2021).
  • Radulescu, I. G., Panait, M., and Voica, C. (2014). "BRICS countries challenge to the world economy new trends", Procedia economics and finance, Vol.8: 605-613.
  • Sachs, I. (2004). "Inclusive Development Strategy in an Era of Globalization". Working Paper No. 35, Policy Integration Department, World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization, Geneva: International Labour Office. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.464.6665&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  • Sandalcılar, A.R. (2012). BRIC ülkelerinde ekonomik büyüme ve ihracat arasındaki ilişki: Panel eşbütünleşme ve panel nedensellik. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.17, No.1: 161-179.
  • Santiago, F. (2020). "The role of industrial policies in the BRICS economic integration process". Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series UNIDO, Viena. Retrieved from https://www.unido.org/api/opentext/documents/download/16531301/unido-file-16531301
  • Singh, T. (2019). "BRICS 2019: Economic Growth for an Innovative Future". Retrieved from https://www.investindia.gov.in/team-india-blogs/brics-2019-economic-growth-innovative-future.
  • The Inclusive Development Index 2018, "Summary and Data Highlights", Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-inclusive-development-index-2018
  • Thompson, L., and Wet, P. T. D. (2018). "BRICS civil society initiatives: Towards the inclusion of affected communities in collective development?". Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, Vol.3, No.5-6: 745-764.
  • United Nations (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development Our Common Future. Retrieved from https://www.are.admin.ch/are/en/home/media/publications/sustainable-development/brundtland-report.html
  • Xing, L. (2019), “The International political economy of the BRICS in a changing world order: attitudes and actualities”, In L. Xing (Ed.) The International Political Economy of BRICS. London: Routledge.
  • Vadra, R. (2017). "Knowledge economy in BRICS: A case of South Africa". Journal of the knowledge economy, Vol.8, No.4: 1229-1240.
  • Van Gent, S. (2017). "Beyond buzzwords: What is «inclusive development»". Synthesis report, INCLUDE Secretariat. Hague, Netherlands. Retrieved from https://includeplatform.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Beyond-buzzwords.pdf
  • World Economic Forum (2017). "The inclusive growth and development report 2017, The Report presents a new global index, the Inclusive Development Index". Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-inclusivegrowth-and-development-report-2017
  • World Economic Forum (2018). "The Inclusive Development Index 2018 Summary and Data. Highlights". Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Forum_IncGrwth_2018.pdf (28.04.2021).
  • Yavilioğlu, C. (2002). "Kalkinmanin Anlambilimsel Tarihi ve Kavramsal Kökenleri". Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.3, No.1: 59-77.
  • Statista (2019). "Top 20 Countries worldwide in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/264623/leading-export-countries-worldwide/.
  • https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/ / (03.04.2021).

Determining the Inclusive Development Performances of the BRICS Countries and Turkey with MULTIMOORA

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 535 - 560, 01.08.2022

Öz

In this study, the inclusive development performances of the BRICS countries and Turkey, which are defined as the new geostrategic power and are expected to be more effective as a global power in the world economy in the future, have been tried to be measured. For this purpose, Multi Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) technique has been followed. In this context, the variables that make up the Inclusive Development Index (IDI) of the BRICS countries were used and the criteria were weighted with the Entropy method. In our study, the most recent IDI 2018 data have been analyzed and the Inclusive Development Performance ranking was made according to the MULTIMOORA method. As a result, it has been found that the countries having the best performances are Turkey, Russia and Brasil.

Kaynakça

  • Abraham, B. P (2020). "BRICS: The Political Economy of Non-Inclusive Growth". In B. P. Abraham &, P. Ray (Eds). The Political Economy of the BRICS Countries: 1-17 World Scientific.
  • Ademoğlu, Y. (2019). "BRICS neyi hedefliyor, hala bir anlam ifade ediyor mu?" Retrieved from https://tr.euronews.com/2019/11/14/brics-neyi-hedefliyor-hala-bir-anlam-ifade-ediyor-mu. (25.027.2021)
  • Ali, I. and J. Zhuang (2007). "Inclusive Growth Toward a Prosperous Asia: Policy Implications". Economics and Research Department Working Paper No. 97, Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/28210/wp097.pdf
  • Al- Jafari, K. M. (2018). "Determinants of Economic Growth in BRICS Countries: A Panel Data Analysis Approach". International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, Vol.8, No.3: 29-38.
  • Anyanwu, J. C., (2014). "Determining the correlates of poverty for inclusive growth in Africa". European Economics Letters, Vol.3, No.1: 12-17.
  • Aslam, A., Naveed, A. and Shabbir, G. (2021). "Is it an institution, digital or social inclusion that matters for inclusive growth? A panel data analysis". Qual Quant, Vol.55: 333–355.
  • Bacik, G. (2013). "Turkey and the BRICS: Can Turkey Join the BRICS?". Turkish Studies, Vol.14, No.4: 758 –773. Besada, H., Winters, K. and Tok, E. (2013). "South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, challenges and prospects". Africa insight, Vol.42, No.4: 1-15.
  • BRICS (2018). "Envisioning inclusıve development through a socially responsive economy, Recommendatıons To The 10th Brıcs Leaders’ Summit, Johannesburg. Retrieved from http://www.nkibrics.ru/ckeditor_assets/attachments/5b3f2a086272690531480000/10th_brics_academic_forum_proposals.pdf?1530866184 (11. 05.2021).
  • BRICS (2017). "BRICS Mechanism Development Strategy Report", Centre for China in the World Economy, Tsinghua University, BRICS Economic Think Tank. Retrieved from http:// www. ccwe. tsinghua. edu.cn/ upload_files /file /20170904 /150449684177 1012 0 86.pdf.
  • Brauers, W. K. M. and Zavadskas, E. K. (2006). "The MOORA Method and its Application to Privatization in a Transition Economy". Control and Cybernetic, Vol.358, No. 2: 445-469.
  • Brauers, W. K. M., Ginevičius, R. and Podvezko, V. (2010). Regional development in Lithuania considering multiple objectives by the MOORA method. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol.16, No. 4: 613-640.
  • Brauers, W. K. M. and Zavadskas, E. K. (2010). "Project management by multimoora as an instrument for transition economies”, Informatica, Vol.23, No. 1: 1-25.
  • Brauers, Willem Karel M. and Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras (2012). "Robustness of MULTIMOORA: A Method for Multi-Objective Optimization", Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol.16, No.1: 5-24.
  • Chatterjee, S. (2005). "Poverty reduction strategies—lessons from the Asian and Pacific region on inclusive development". Asian Development Review, Vol.22, No.1: 12–44.
  • Chistik, O.F. and Eliseev, V.A. (2019). "The Index of Inclusive Development in Formation of the New Concept of Economic Growth", SHS Web of Conferences 62, 05002.
  • Dai, E. (2016). "China’s inclusive development strategy and its effect on regional disparity". Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol.14, No.3: 263-278.
  • Daniels, C.U., Ustyuzhantseva, O.V., and Yao, W. (2017). "Innovation for inclusive development, public policy support and triple helix: perspectives from BRICS". African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, No.9: 513 - 527.
  • Deniz, E. (2019). "Güney Afrika’yı uluslararası hiyerarşide konumlandırmak: yeni yükselen orta ölçekli güç". Uluslararası Afro-Avrasya Araştırmaları Dergisi, Vol.4, No.7: 63-73.
  • Dilek, Ş., İstikbal, D. and Yanartaş, M. (2018). "Küresel ekonomide yeni bir güç odağı: “Brics”" . Seta Analiz, No. 256: 7-20.
  • Eğilmez, M. (2018), Değişim Sürecinde Türkiye Osmanlı'dan Cumhuriyet'e Sosyo-Ekonomik Bir Değerlendirme, İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi.
  • Emirkadı, Ö. (2019). "Kapsayıcı Kalkınma Endeksi ve Türkiye’nin Gösterdiği Sosyoekonomik Gelişim Süreci Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Economics Literature, Vol.1, No.2: 84-100.
  • Gladun, E. (2018). "BRICS Development Through Socially Responsive Economy", BriCs law Journal, Vol.5, No.3: 152–159.
  • Gu, J., and N. Kitano (2018). Emerging Economies and the Changing Dynamics of Development Cooperation, Introduction to the special Issue. IDS Bulletin, Vol.49, No.3: 1-12.
  • Gumede, V. (2018). Social policy for inclusive development in Africa. Third World Quarterly, Vol.39, No.1: 122-139.
  • Gupta, J., Pouw, N. R., and Ros-Tonen, M. A. (2015). "Towards an elaborated theory of inclusive development". The European Journal of Development Research, Vol.27, No.4: 541-559.
  • Hasmath, R. (2015), "The Paradigms of Inclusive Growth, Development and Welfare Policy". In R. Hasmath (Ed.). The Inclusive Growth, Development and Welfare Policy A Critical Assessment, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Hawksworth, J. and Cookson, G. (2010). The World in 2050. Beyond the BRICs: a broader look at emerging markets. Price Water House Coopers. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/la/en/publications/assets/world_2050_brics.pdf. (16 May 2021).
  • Hickey, S. (2013). "Thinking about the politics of inclusive development: Towards a relational approach". ESID Working Paper No 1, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2425235.
  • İstikbal D., Dilek Ş.and Yanartaş M. (2019). "Dönüşen dünya düzeninde “BRICS” ve Türkiye’ye etkisi". IJAR, Vol.4. No.7: 47-62.
  • Imam Raza, A. (2018). Inclusive Development Index 2018: Performance Analysis of BRICS Economies. Retrieved from https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/inclusive-development-index-2018-and-brics-economies-performance-for-ias-1516865164-1. (20 August 2021).
  • Johnson, B., and Andersen, A. D. (Eds.) (2012). Learning, Innovation and Inclusive Development: New perspectives on economic development strategy and development aid. Aalborg Universitetsforlag. Globelics Thematic Report Vol. 2011/2012.
  • Lowe, P. (2016). "The rise of the BRICS in the global economy". Teaching geography, Vol.41, No.2: 50-53.
  • Meyer, D. F., and Meyer, N. (2019). "Assessment of Inclusive Growth performance: A comparative analysis of the BRICS countries". Acta Universitatis Danubius. ØEconomica, Vol.15, No.4: 191-207.
  • Ncube, M., Shimeles, A. and Verdier-Chouchane, A. (2012). "South Africa’s Quest for Inclusive Development", Working Paper Series No:150, African Development Bank: Tunis, Tunisia.
  • PWC (2015). "The World in 2050 Will the shift in global economic power continue?". Retrieved fromhttps://www.ab.gov.tr/files/ardb/evt/1_avrupa_birligi/1_6_raporlar/1_3_diger/economy/PWC_world_in_2050-february-2015.pdf. (20.August.2021).
  • Radulescu, I. G., Panait, M., and Voica, C. (2014). "BRICS countries challenge to the world economy new trends", Procedia economics and finance, Vol.8: 605-613.
  • Sachs, I. (2004). "Inclusive Development Strategy in an Era of Globalization". Working Paper No. 35, Policy Integration Department, World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization, Geneva: International Labour Office. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.464.6665&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  • Sandalcılar, A.R. (2012). BRIC ülkelerinde ekonomik büyüme ve ihracat arasındaki ilişki: Panel eşbütünleşme ve panel nedensellik. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.17, No.1: 161-179.
  • Santiago, F. (2020). "The role of industrial policies in the BRICS economic integration process". Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series UNIDO, Viena. Retrieved from https://www.unido.org/api/opentext/documents/download/16531301/unido-file-16531301
  • Singh, T. (2019). "BRICS 2019: Economic Growth for an Innovative Future". Retrieved from https://www.investindia.gov.in/team-india-blogs/brics-2019-economic-growth-innovative-future.
  • The Inclusive Development Index 2018, "Summary and Data Highlights", Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-inclusive-development-index-2018
  • Thompson, L., and Wet, P. T. D. (2018). "BRICS civil society initiatives: Towards the inclusion of affected communities in collective development?". Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal, Vol.3, No.5-6: 745-764.
  • United Nations (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development Our Common Future. Retrieved from https://www.are.admin.ch/are/en/home/media/publications/sustainable-development/brundtland-report.html
  • Xing, L. (2019), “The International political economy of the BRICS in a changing world order: attitudes and actualities”, In L. Xing (Ed.) The International Political Economy of BRICS. London: Routledge.
  • Vadra, R. (2017). "Knowledge economy in BRICS: A case of South Africa". Journal of the knowledge economy, Vol.8, No.4: 1229-1240.
  • Van Gent, S. (2017). "Beyond buzzwords: What is «inclusive development»". Synthesis report, INCLUDE Secretariat. Hague, Netherlands. Retrieved from https://includeplatform.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Beyond-buzzwords.pdf
  • World Economic Forum (2017). "The inclusive growth and development report 2017, The Report presents a new global index, the Inclusive Development Index". Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-inclusivegrowth-and-development-report-2017
  • World Economic Forum (2018). "The Inclusive Development Index 2018 Summary and Data. Highlights". Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Forum_IncGrwth_2018.pdf (28.04.2021).
  • Yavilioğlu, C. (2002). "Kalkinmanin Anlambilimsel Tarihi ve Kavramsal Kökenleri". Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.3, No.1: 59-77.
  • Statista (2019). "Top 20 Countries worldwide in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/264623/leading-export-countries-worldwide/.
  • https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/ / (03.04.2021).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Dilek MURAT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi
0000-0002-5667-8094
Türkiye


Simla GÜZEL>
TEKİRDAĞ NAMIK KEMAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5249-8873
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ağustos 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Ocak 2022
Kabul Tarihi 9 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Murat, D. & Güzel, S. (2022). Determining the Inclusive Development Performances of the BRICS Countries and Turkey with MULTIMOORA . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 17 (2) , 535-560 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/oguiibf/issue/70614/1063414