Araştırma Makalesi
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COVID-19 Pandemisinden Algılanan Ciddiyet Düzeyinin Boş Zaman Faaliyetlerine Katılım, Algılanan Boş Zaman Memnuniyeti ve Öznel İyi Oluş Üzerindeki Koşullu Etkilerinin Tespiti

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 3, 607 - 636, 01.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.1097133

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, bireylerin boş zaman faaliyetlerine katılım düzeylerinin, boş zaman faaliyetlerinden algılanan memnuniyet aracılığıyla öznel iyi oluşlarına etkisinin ve bu ilişkilerde COVID-19’dan algılanan ciddiyet düzeyinin düzenleyici rolünün incelenmesidir. Analiz için gerekli olan veriler, kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ile Türkiye’nin çeşitli illerinde çalışan 405 bireyden çevrimiçi anket yöntemi ile elde edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında geliştirilen hipotezler regresyon analizi, aracı etki analizi ve koşullu süreç analiziyle test edilmiştir. Aracı etki analizi sonucuna göre, boş zaman faaliyetlerinden algılanan memnuniyet değişkeninin aracı rolü tespit edilmiştir. Koşullu etki analizi sonucunda ise COVID-19’dan algılanan ciddiyet düzeyinin araştırmanın kavramsal modelinde yer alan değişkenler arasındaki doğrudan ve dolaylı ilişkiler üzerinde koşullu etkisinin bulunduğu belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, K. B.; Leibbrandt, S; Moon, H. (2011), “A Critical Review of the Literature on Social and Leisure Activity and Wellbeing in Later Life”, Ageing & Society, Vol.31, No.4: 683-712.
  • Ahadzadeh, A. S.; Sharif, S. P.; Ong, F. S.; Khong, K. W. (2015), “Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol.17, No.2: 1-19.
  • Alsalhe, T. A.; Aljaloud, S. O.; Chalghaf, N.; Guelmami, N.; Alhazza, D. W.; Azaiez, F.; Bragazzi, N. L. (2020), “Moderation Effect of Physical Activity on the Relationship between Fear of COVID-19 and General Distress: A Pilot Case Study in Arabic Countries”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol.11: 1-10.
  • Argan, M.; Pakiş, Ş.; Kesim, Ü.; Argan, M. T. (2020), “Flow in Home-Based Leisure during the COVID-19 Isolation: A Case Study for People Aged 65 and over In Turkey”, International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science, Vol.4, No.1: 5-17.
  • Beard, J. G.; Ragheb, M. G. (1980) “Measuring Leisure Satisfaction”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 12, No. 1: 20-33.
  • Bechard, L. E.; Bergelt, M.; Neudorf, B.; DeSouza, T. C.; Middleton, L. E. (2021), “Using the Health Belief Model to Understand Age Differences in Perceptions and Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 12: 1-13.
  • Bond, A. J.; Widdop, P.; Cockayne D.; Parnell D. (2021), “Prosumption, Networks and Value during a Global Pandemic: Lockdown Leisure and COVID-19, Leisure Sciences, 43(1-2), 70-77.
  • Carruthers, C.; Hood, C. D. (2007), “Building A Life of Meaning Through Therapeutic Recreation: The Leisure and Well-Being Model, Part I”, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Vol. 41, No.4: 276-297.
  • Chang, P. J.; Lin, Y.; Song, R. (2019). “Leisure Satisfaction Mediates the Relationships Between Leisure Settings, Subjective Well-Being, and Depression Among Middle-Aged Adults in Urban China”, Applied Research in Quality of Life, Vol.14: 1001-1017.
  • Chen, S. W. (2020). Factors Associated with Leisure Participation in Taiwanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). New York University Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York.
  • Chew, N. W.; Lee, G. K.; Tan, B. Y. (2020), “A Multinational, Multicentre Study on the Psychological Outcomes and Associated Physical Symptoms Amongst Healthcare Workers During COVID-19 Outbreak”, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 88: 559-565.
  • Chun, S.; Lee, Y.; Kim, B.; Heo, J. (2012), “The Contribution of Leisure Participation and Leisure Satisfaction to Stress-Related Growth”, Leisure Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 5: 436-449.
  • Clark, C.; Davila, A.; Regis, M.; Kraus, S. (2020), “Predictors of COVID-19 Voluntary Compliance Behaviors: An International Investigation”, Global Transitions, Vol: 2: 76-82.
  • Conner, M.; Norman P. (2005), “Predicting Health Behaviour: A Social Cognition Approach. Predicting Health Behaviour”, (Ed. M. Conner & P. Norman), Predicting Health Behaviour London: McGraw-Hill.
  • Deng, S., Wang, W., Xie, P., Chao, Y. ve Zhu, J. (2020). Perceived severity of COVID-19 and post-pandemic consumption willingness: The roles of boredom and sensation-seeking. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1-10.
  • Doğaner, S.; Balcı, V. (2018), “Effect of Regular Physical Activity on Individuals’ Stress, Happiness and Leisure Satisfaction Levels”, Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, Vol.16, No. 3: 132-148.
  • Eskiler, E.; Yıldız, Y.; Ayhan, C. (2019), “The Effect of Leisure Benefits on Leisure Satisfaction: Extreme Sports”, Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, Vol. 21, No. 1: 16-20.
  • Hair, JF, Tomas, G., Hult, M., Ringle, C. ve Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  • Hao, F.; Tan, W.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Zou, Y.; Hu, Y.; Luo, X.; Jiang, X.; McIntyree, R. S.; Tran, B.; Sun, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ho, R.; Ho, C.; Tam, W. (2020), “Do Psychiatric Patients Experience More Psychiatric Symptoms During COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown? A Case-Control Study with Service and Research Implications for Immunopsychiatry”, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 87: 100-106.
  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis. A Regression-Based Approach, New York: Guilford publications.
  • Ito, E.; Walker, G. J.; Liu, H.; Mitas, O. (2017), “A Cross-Cultural/National Study of Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese University Students' Leisure Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being”, Leisure Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 2: 186-204.
  • Kaya, S. (2016), “The Relationship Between Leisure Satisfaction and Happiness Among College Students”. Universal Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 4, No. 3: 622-631.
  • Kekäläinen, T. (2019), Leisure Activities and Well-Being in Midlife and Older Age with Special Reference to Physical Activity and Resistance Training”, JYU Dissertations, 56.
  • Kim, J. H.; Brown, S. L; Yang, H. (2019), “Types of Leisure, Leisure Motivation, and Well-Being in University Students”, World Leisure Journal, Vol. 61, No. 1: 43-57.
  • Kim, S.; Kim, S. (2020), “Analysis of the Impact of Health Beliefs and Resource Factors on Preventive Behaviors against the COVID-19 Pandemic”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1-21.
  • Ku, P. W.; Fox, K. R.; Chen, L. J. (2016), “Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Research”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 127: 1349-1361.
  • Ku, P. W.; Fox, K. R.; McKenna, J. (2008), “Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 87: 445-460.
  • Kuykendall, L.; Boemerman, L.; Zhu, Z. (2018). The Importance of Leisure for Subjective Well-Being. (Ed. E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.
  • Kuykendall, L.; Tay, L.; Ng, V. (2015), “Leisure Engagement and Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 141, No. 2: 364-403.
  • Lee, E. Y.; Yi, K. J.; Walker, G. J.; Spence, J. C. (2017), “Preferred Leisure Type, Value Orientations, and Psychological Well-Being Among East Asian Youth”, Leisure Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 4: 355-375.
  • Leversen, I.; Danielsen, A. G.; Birkeland, M. S.; Samdal, O. (2012). “Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction”, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 41: 1588-1599.
  • Li, J. B.; Yang, A.; Dou, K.; Wang, L. X.; Zhang, M. C.; Lin, X. Q. (2020), “Chinese Public’s Knowledge, Perceived Severity, and Perceived Controllability of COVID-19 and Their Associations with Emotional and Behavioural Reactions, Social Participation, and Precautionary Behaviour: A National Survey” BMC Public Health, Vol. 20: 1-14.
  • Li, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Lin, C. T. (2019), “Leisure Participation Behavior and Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Adults: An Empirical Study of Tai Chi Chuan in China”, Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 16, No. 18: 1-19.
  • Liu, H.; Yu, B. (2015), “Serious Leisure, Leisure Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being of Chinese University Students”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 122: 159-174.
  • Menard, J.; Foucreault, A.; Stevens, C.; Trépanier, S. G.; Flaxman, P. (2017), “Daily Fluctuations in Office-Based Workers’ Leisure Activities and Well-Being”, International Journal of Psycholigical Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1: 47-61.
  • Mo, P. K. H.; Fong, V. W. I.; Song, B.; Di, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L. (2021), ”Association of Perceived Threat, Negative Emotions, and Self-Efficacy with Mental Health and Personal Protective Behavior Among Chinese Pregnant Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Survey Study”. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 23, No. 4: 1-19.
  • Morse, K. F.; Fine, P. A.; Friedlander, K. J. (2021), “Creativity and Leisure During COVID-19: Examining the Relationship Between Leisure Activities, Motivations, and Psychological Well-Being”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 12: 1-22.
  • Newman, D. B.; Tay, L.; Diener, E. (2014), “Leisure and Subjective Well-Being: A Model of Psychological Mechanisms as Mediating Factors”, Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 15: 555-578.
  • Podsakoff, P. M.; MacKenzie, S. B.; Lee, J. Y.; Podsakoff, N. P. (2003), “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of The Literature and Recommended Remedies”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, No. 5: 879-903.
  • Pontin, E.; Schwannauer, M.; Tai, S.; Kinderman, P. (2013), “A UK Validation of A General Measure of Subjective Well-Being: The Modified BBC Subjective Well-Being Scale (BBC-SWB)”, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Vol. 11: 150.
  • Przepiorka, A. M.; Blachnio, A. P. (2017), “The Relationships Between Personality Traits and Leisure Time Activities: Development of the Leisure Time Activity Questionnaire (LTAQ)”, Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 7; No. 6: 1035-1046.
  • Ragheb, M. G. (1980), “Interrelationships Among Leisure Participation Leisure Satisfaction and Leisure attitudes”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 12, No. 2: 138-149.
  • Ragheb, M. G.; Griffith, C. A. (1982), “The Contribution of Leisure Participation and Leisure Satisfaction to Life Satisfaction of Older Persons”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 14, No. 4: 295-306.
  • Richardson, H. A.; Simmering, M. J.; Sturman, M. C. (2009), “A Tale of Three Perspectives: Examining Post Hoc Statistical Techniques for Detection and Correction of Common Method Variance”, Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 12, No. 4: 762-800.
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The Investigation of the Conditional Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Leisure Time Activities, Leisure Time Satisfaction, and Subjective Well-Being

Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 3, 607 - 636, 01.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.1097133

Öz

The purpose of this study is to investigate how engagement in leisure time activities influences subjective well-being via perceived leisure satisfaction, as well as the moderating role of perceived severity of COVID-19 in these associations. The data for the analysis were collected using a convenience sample approach from 405 people working in various areas of Turkey via an online survey. Regression analysis, mediating effect analysis, and conditional process analysis were used to examine the hypotheses. The mediation analysis result reveals that leisure time satisfaction plays a mediating role in the relationship between leisure time activities' participation level and subjective well-being. The results of the conditional process analysis demonstrate that the perceived severity of COVID-19 has a conditional influence on the direct and indirect relations between the variables in the conceptual model of the research.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, K. B.; Leibbrandt, S; Moon, H. (2011), “A Critical Review of the Literature on Social and Leisure Activity and Wellbeing in Later Life”, Ageing & Society, Vol.31, No.4: 683-712.
  • Ahadzadeh, A. S.; Sharif, S. P.; Ong, F. S.; Khong, K. W. (2015), “Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol.17, No.2: 1-19.
  • Alsalhe, T. A.; Aljaloud, S. O.; Chalghaf, N.; Guelmami, N.; Alhazza, D. W.; Azaiez, F.; Bragazzi, N. L. (2020), “Moderation Effect of Physical Activity on the Relationship between Fear of COVID-19 and General Distress: A Pilot Case Study in Arabic Countries”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol.11: 1-10.
  • Argan, M.; Pakiş, Ş.; Kesim, Ü.; Argan, M. T. (2020), “Flow in Home-Based Leisure during the COVID-19 Isolation: A Case Study for People Aged 65 and over In Turkey”, International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science, Vol.4, No.1: 5-17.
  • Beard, J. G.; Ragheb, M. G. (1980) “Measuring Leisure Satisfaction”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 12, No. 1: 20-33.
  • Bechard, L. E.; Bergelt, M.; Neudorf, B.; DeSouza, T. C.; Middleton, L. E. (2021), “Using the Health Belief Model to Understand Age Differences in Perceptions and Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 12: 1-13.
  • Bond, A. J.; Widdop, P.; Cockayne D.; Parnell D. (2021), “Prosumption, Networks and Value during a Global Pandemic: Lockdown Leisure and COVID-19, Leisure Sciences, 43(1-2), 70-77.
  • Carruthers, C.; Hood, C. D. (2007), “Building A Life of Meaning Through Therapeutic Recreation: The Leisure and Well-Being Model, Part I”, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Vol. 41, No.4: 276-297.
  • Chang, P. J.; Lin, Y.; Song, R. (2019). “Leisure Satisfaction Mediates the Relationships Between Leisure Settings, Subjective Well-Being, and Depression Among Middle-Aged Adults in Urban China”, Applied Research in Quality of Life, Vol.14: 1001-1017.
  • Chen, S. W. (2020). Factors Associated with Leisure Participation in Taiwanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). New York University Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York.
  • Chew, N. W.; Lee, G. K.; Tan, B. Y. (2020), “A Multinational, Multicentre Study on the Psychological Outcomes and Associated Physical Symptoms Amongst Healthcare Workers During COVID-19 Outbreak”, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 88: 559-565.
  • Chun, S.; Lee, Y.; Kim, B.; Heo, J. (2012), “The Contribution of Leisure Participation and Leisure Satisfaction to Stress-Related Growth”, Leisure Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 5: 436-449.
  • Clark, C.; Davila, A.; Regis, M.; Kraus, S. (2020), “Predictors of COVID-19 Voluntary Compliance Behaviors: An International Investigation”, Global Transitions, Vol: 2: 76-82.
  • Conner, M.; Norman P. (2005), “Predicting Health Behaviour: A Social Cognition Approach. Predicting Health Behaviour”, (Ed. M. Conner & P. Norman), Predicting Health Behaviour London: McGraw-Hill.
  • Deng, S., Wang, W., Xie, P., Chao, Y. ve Zhu, J. (2020). Perceived severity of COVID-19 and post-pandemic consumption willingness: The roles of boredom and sensation-seeking. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1-10.
  • Doğaner, S.; Balcı, V. (2018), “Effect of Regular Physical Activity on Individuals’ Stress, Happiness and Leisure Satisfaction Levels”, Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, Vol.16, No. 3: 132-148.
  • Eskiler, E.; Yıldız, Y.; Ayhan, C. (2019), “The Effect of Leisure Benefits on Leisure Satisfaction: Extreme Sports”, Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, Vol. 21, No. 1: 16-20.
  • Hair, JF, Tomas, G., Hult, M., Ringle, C. ve Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  • Hao, F.; Tan, W.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, X.; Zou, Y.; Hu, Y.; Luo, X.; Jiang, X.; McIntyree, R. S.; Tran, B.; Sun, J.; Zhang, Z.; Ho, R.; Ho, C.; Tam, W. (2020), “Do Psychiatric Patients Experience More Psychiatric Symptoms During COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown? A Case-Control Study with Service and Research Implications for Immunopsychiatry”, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 87: 100-106.
  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis. A Regression-Based Approach, New York: Guilford publications.
  • Ito, E.; Walker, G. J.; Liu, H.; Mitas, O. (2017), “A Cross-Cultural/National Study of Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese University Students' Leisure Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being”, Leisure Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 2: 186-204.
  • Kaya, S. (2016), “The Relationship Between Leisure Satisfaction and Happiness Among College Students”. Universal Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 4, No. 3: 622-631.
  • Kekäläinen, T. (2019), Leisure Activities and Well-Being in Midlife and Older Age with Special Reference to Physical Activity and Resistance Training”, JYU Dissertations, 56.
  • Kim, J. H.; Brown, S. L; Yang, H. (2019), “Types of Leisure, Leisure Motivation, and Well-Being in University Students”, World Leisure Journal, Vol. 61, No. 1: 43-57.
  • Kim, S.; Kim, S. (2020), “Analysis of the Impact of Health Beliefs and Resource Factors on Preventive Behaviors against the COVID-19 Pandemic”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1-21.
  • Ku, P. W.; Fox, K. R.; Chen, L. J. (2016), “Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Research”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 127: 1349-1361.
  • Ku, P. W.; Fox, K. R.; McKenna, J. (2008), “Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 87: 445-460.
  • Kuykendall, L.; Boemerman, L.; Zhu, Z. (2018). The Importance of Leisure for Subjective Well-Being. (Ed. E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.
  • Kuykendall, L.; Tay, L.; Ng, V. (2015), “Leisure Engagement and Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 141, No. 2: 364-403.
  • Lee, E. Y.; Yi, K. J.; Walker, G. J.; Spence, J. C. (2017), “Preferred Leisure Type, Value Orientations, and Psychological Well-Being Among East Asian Youth”, Leisure Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 4: 355-375.
  • Leversen, I.; Danielsen, A. G.; Birkeland, M. S.; Samdal, O. (2012). “Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction”, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 41: 1588-1599.
  • Li, J. B.; Yang, A.; Dou, K.; Wang, L. X.; Zhang, M. C.; Lin, X. Q. (2020), “Chinese Public’s Knowledge, Perceived Severity, and Perceived Controllability of COVID-19 and Their Associations with Emotional and Behavioural Reactions, Social Participation, and Precautionary Behaviour: A National Survey” BMC Public Health, Vol. 20: 1-14.
  • Li, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Lin, C. T. (2019), “Leisure Participation Behavior and Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Adults: An Empirical Study of Tai Chi Chuan in China”, Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 16, No. 18: 1-19.
  • Liu, H.; Yu, B. (2015), “Serious Leisure, Leisure Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being of Chinese University Students”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. 122: 159-174.
  • Menard, J.; Foucreault, A.; Stevens, C.; Trépanier, S. G.; Flaxman, P. (2017), “Daily Fluctuations in Office-Based Workers’ Leisure Activities and Well-Being”, International Journal of Psycholigical Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1: 47-61.
  • Mo, P. K. H.; Fong, V. W. I.; Song, B.; Di, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L. (2021), ”Association of Perceived Threat, Negative Emotions, and Self-Efficacy with Mental Health and Personal Protective Behavior Among Chinese Pregnant Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Survey Study”. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 23, No. 4: 1-19.
  • Morse, K. F.; Fine, P. A.; Friedlander, K. J. (2021), “Creativity and Leisure During COVID-19: Examining the Relationship Between Leisure Activities, Motivations, and Psychological Well-Being”, Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 12: 1-22.
  • Newman, D. B.; Tay, L.; Diener, E. (2014), “Leisure and Subjective Well-Being: A Model of Psychological Mechanisms as Mediating Factors”, Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 15: 555-578.
  • Podsakoff, P. M.; MacKenzie, S. B.; Lee, J. Y.; Podsakoff, N. P. (2003), “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of The Literature and Recommended Remedies”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, No. 5: 879-903.
  • Pontin, E.; Schwannauer, M.; Tai, S.; Kinderman, P. (2013), “A UK Validation of A General Measure of Subjective Well-Being: The Modified BBC Subjective Well-Being Scale (BBC-SWB)”, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Vol. 11: 150.
  • Przepiorka, A. M.; Blachnio, A. P. (2017), “The Relationships Between Personality Traits and Leisure Time Activities: Development of the Leisure Time Activity Questionnaire (LTAQ)”, Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 7; No. 6: 1035-1046.
  • Ragheb, M. G. (1980), “Interrelationships Among Leisure Participation Leisure Satisfaction and Leisure attitudes”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 12, No. 2: 138-149.
  • Ragheb, M. G.; Griffith, C. A. (1982), “The Contribution of Leisure Participation and Leisure Satisfaction to Life Satisfaction of Older Persons”, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 14, No. 4: 295-306.
  • Richardson, H. A.; Simmering, M. J.; Sturman, M. C. (2009), “A Tale of Three Perspectives: Examining Post Hoc Statistical Techniques for Detection and Correction of Common Method Variance”, Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 12, No. 4: 762-800.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Mutlu Yüksel AVCILAR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Osmaniye Korkut Ata Üniversitesi
0000-0001-5621-2377
Türkiye


Mehmet Fatih AÇAR>
OSMANİYE KORKUT ATA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, İŞLETME BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-5459-093X
Türkiye


Bahar KARACA>
B&B Consultancy and Coachin
0000-0001-9790-3182
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 1 Nisan 2022
Kabul Tarihi 23 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 17, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Avcılar, M. Y. , Açar, M. F. & Karaca, B. (2022). COVID-19 Pandemisinden Algılanan Ciddiyet Düzeyinin Boş Zaman Faaliyetlerine Katılım, Algılanan Boş Zaman Memnuniyeti ve Öznel İyi Oluş Üzerindeki Koşullu Etkilerinin Tespiti . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 17 (3) , 607-636 . DOI: 10.17153/oguiibf.1097133