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Islamic Monotheism and the Trinity

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 117 - 143, 06.08.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3360748

Öz

Christians and Muslims both believe that there is only one God, but they differ over how this God is one, with Muslims rejecting the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. This study first surveys Islamic arguments against the Trinity from the Qur’ān, historical corruption of doctrine, and reason. It then widens the scope of the discussion in order to find bridges between the Islamic and Christian doctrines of God. After explaining that the rationale behind the doctrine of the Trinity is that God saves in Christ, the study draws parallels between, on the one hand, the Islamic doctrines of the simplicity of God’s essence, the unity of God attributes, the uniqueness of God acts, and God’s exclusive worthiness of worship and, on the other hand, the Christian theological categories of the immanent Trinity and the economic Trinity, the doctrine of God as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and Christian devotion to Christ.

Kaynakça

  • Arberry, Arthur J. Avicenna on Theology. London: J. Murray, 1951.
  • ʿAta ur-Rahim, Muhammad. Jesus: A Prophet of Islam. Second ed. London: MWH London Publishers, 1979.
  • Ayers, Lewis. Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Four-Century Trinitarian Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Barth, Karl. Church ve Dogmatics. 1: 285-489. Second edition. Terc., G.W. Bromiley. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 2004.
  • Burrell, David Bakewell. Faith and Freedom: An Interfaith Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.
  • Burrell, David Bakewell. Freedom and Creation in Three Traditions. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame, 1993.
  • Burrell, David Bakewell. “Trinity in Judaism and Islam”. (Yayınlanmak üzere). Cambridge Companion to the Trinity. Ed. Peter Phan. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Chittick, William. The Sufi Path of Knowledge. Albany: State Univ. of New York, 1989.
  • Cragg, Kenneth. Jesus, and the Muslim: An Exploration. London: Allen & Unwin, 1985; yeniden basım Oxford: Oneworld, 1999.
  • Cragg, Kenneth. The Call of the Minaret. Second ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1985.
  • Fazlurrahman, Muhammad. Islam and Christianity in the Modern World: Being an Exposition of the Qur’anic View of Christinity in the Light of Modern Research. Delhi: Noor Publishing House, 1992.
  • Finger, Thomas. A Contemporary Anabaptist Theology: Biblical, Historical, Constructive. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004.
  • Frank, Richard MacDonough. “The Science of Kalām”. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 2 (1992): 7-37.
  • Funk, Robert Walter. Honest to Jesus. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1996.
  • Funk, Robert Walter. The Five Gospels. New York: Macmillan, 1993.
  • Goddard, Hugh. Muslim Perceptions of Christianity. London: Grey Seal Books, 1996.
  • Hanson, Richard Patrick Crosland. The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God. Edinburgh: T &T Clark, 1988.
  • Keleş, Hatice- Kılıç, Davut. “Mennonit Kilisesi’nin İnanç Esasları, Öğretileri ve Sakramentleri”. Turkish Studies 12/10 (2017): 165-184.
  • Hawting, Gerald. The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 2000.
  • Hoover, Jon. Ibn Taymiyya’s Theodicy of Perpetual Optimism. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • Hoover, Jon. “Revelation and the Islamic Doctrines of God”, Islamochristiana 30 (2004): 1-14. (Fransızca tercümesi için bkz, “La révélqtion et les doctrines musulmane et chrétienne sur Dieu”. Chemins de Dialogue: Penser la foi dans lʾesprit dʾAssise 28 (2006): 167-190).
  • İbn Sînâ. Er-Risâletü’l-ʿarşiyye fî hakaiki’t-tevhid ve isbatü’n-Nübüvve. Haydarabad: Matbaʿatü’l-dâʾira el-maʿârif el-ʿosmâniyye, 1353/1934-5.
  • İbn Sînâ. Et-Taʿlîkât. Thk. ʿAbdurrahmân el-Bedevi. Kahire: El-Hayʾa el-misriyye el-ʿāmma li-l-kitāb, 1973.
  • Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Real Jesus: The Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth of the Traditional Gospels. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996.
  • Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Revize edilmiş yeni basim. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 1991.
  • Kelly, John Norman Davidson. Early Christian Doctrines. Revize edilmiş yeni basımı. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1976.
  • Lash, Nicholas. Easter in Ordinary: Reflections on Human Experience and the Knowledge of God. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame, 1990.
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.
  • Michel. Thomas. A Muslim Theologian’s Response to Christianity: Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Jawab al-Sahih. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, 1984.
  • Molnar, Paul. Divine Freedom and the Doctrine of the Immanent Trinity: In Dialogue with Karl Barth and Contemporary Theology. London: T & T Clark, 2002.
  • Moltmann, Jurgen. The Trinity and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Moucarry, Chawkat. Faith to Faith: Christianity & Islam in Dialogue. Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 2001.
  • Mutahhari, Murtada. Understanding Islamic Sciences. London: Islamic College for Advanced Studies, 2002.
  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. “The Doctrine of the Trinity and the Unity of Church”. Theology Today 3 (October 1946), 371-384.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Jesus in the Qur’ān. London: Faber and Faber, 1965, yeniden basım Oxford: Oneworld, 1995.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Cild 1. The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1971.
  • Peskes, Eshter ve Ende, W. “Wahhabiyya”. The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition, Leiden: Brill, 1960-2009, 11:39-47.
  • Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. The Fundementals of Tawheed (Islamic Monotheism). Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House, 1997.
  • Rahner, Karl. “Oneness and Threefoldness of God in Discussion with Islam”. Theological Investigations, Vol. 18 (New York: Crossroad, 1983), 105-121.
  • Rahner, Karl. “Remarks on the Dogmatic Treatise ‘De Trinitate’”. Theological Investigations, 4: 77-102. London: Daryon, Longman & Todd, 1996.
  • Reimer, Allen James. “Introduction: Revelation and Authority: Shiʾah Muslim-Mennonite Christian Dialogue II”. CGR 24/1 Winter 2006: 4-11.
  • Reimer, Allen James. “Trinitarian Orthodoxy, Constantinianims, and Radical Protestant Theology”. Mennonite and Classical Theology: Dogmatic Foundations for Christian Ethics (Kitchener: Pandora Press, 2001): 247-271.
  • Reynolds, Gabriel Said. A Muslim Theologian in the Sectarian Milieu: ʿAbd al-Jabbār and the Critique of Christian Origins. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
  • Sâbûnî, Muhammed ʿAlī. Saffetü’t-Tefâsir. 3 cild. Beyrut: Dârü’l-Kerîm, 1981.
  • Simons, Menno. “Confessions of the Triune God”. The Complete Writings of Menno Simons. Terc. Leonard Verduin ve ed. John Christian Wenger. Scottdale: Herald, 1956.
  • Slomp, Jan. Theological Review of the Near East School of Theology 3/2 (Nov. 1980), 35-39.
  • Snyder, Arnold. “Anabaptist History and Theology: History or Heresy?” CGR 16/1 (Winter 1998): 37-59.
  • Swanson, Mark. “The Trinity in Christian-Muslim Conversation”. Dialog: A Journal of Theology 44/3 (2005), 256-261.
  • Thomas, David. Anti-Christian Polemic in Early Islam: Abū ʿĪsā al-Warrāq’s Against the Trinity. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.
  • Thomas, David. “Trinity”. Encyclopedia of the Qur’ān. Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden: Brill, 2001-2006, 5:368-372.
  • Thomas, David. “Tathlīth”. The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. Leiden: Brill, 1954-2004, 10:373-375.
  • Thomas, David. “The Doctrine of the Trinity in the Early Abbasid Era”. Islamic Interpretations of Christianity. Ed. Llyod Ridgeon. 78-98. Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2001.
  • Volf, Miroslav ve Welkers, Micheal. Eds. God’s Life in Trinity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2006.
  • Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic Creeds: A Selection. Edinburgh: Univ. of Edinburgh, 1994.
  • Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic Philosophy and Theology: An Extended Survey. Second edition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1985.
  • Wilson, Andrew Norman. Paul: The Mind of the Apostle. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.
  • Wilson, Andrew Norman. Jesus. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992.
  • Wright, Tom. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? Oxford: Lion Publishing, 1997.
  • Yoder, John Howard. The Politics of Jesus. Second edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994.
  • Zebiri, Kate. Muslims and Christians Face to Face. Oxford: Oneworld, 1997.
  • Zein, Muhammad Faruk. Christianity, Islam and Orientalism. London: Saqi Books, 2003.

İslâmî Monoteizm ve Teslîs

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 117 - 143, 06.08.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3360748

Öz

Hem Hıristiyanlar hem de Müslümanlar sadece bir Tanrı olduğuna inanmakta, fakat Müslümanların Hıristiyan teslis doktrinini reddetmesiyle Tanrı’nın birliğinin mahiyeti hakkında ayrışmaktadırlar. Bu çalışma ilk olarak teslîse karşı Kur’ân’dan, tarihsel tahrif doktrininden ve akıldan üretilen argümanları araştırmaktadır. Sonrasında, bu inceleme, İslâm ve Hıristiyan Tanrı doktrini arasında bir köprü kurmak amacıyla çalışmanın çerçevesini genişletmektedir. Teslîs doktrinin arkasındaki Tanrı’nın Îsâ Mesîh aracılığıyla insanlığı nasıl kurtardığına dair rasyonel bir izah sunduktan sonra bu çalışma, bir yandan Tanrı’nın zâtının yalınlığı, sıfatlarının birliği, fiillerinin eşsizliği ve sadece Tanrı’nın ibadet edilmeye layık oluşu hakkındaki İslâmî doktrinler ile içkin ve ekonomik teslîsin Hıristiyan teolojik kategorileri, Baba, oğul ve Kutsal Ruh olarak Tanrı doktrini ve Hıristiyanların Îsâ Mesîh’e adanmışlığı arasında paralel hususlara dikkat çekmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Arberry, Arthur J. Avicenna on Theology. London: J. Murray, 1951.
  • ʿAta ur-Rahim, Muhammad. Jesus: A Prophet of Islam. Second ed. London: MWH London Publishers, 1979.
  • Ayers, Lewis. Nicaea and its Legacy: An Approach to Four-Century Trinitarian Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Barth, Karl. Church ve Dogmatics. 1: 285-489. Second edition. Terc., G.W. Bromiley. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 2004.
  • Burrell, David Bakewell. Faith and Freedom: An Interfaith Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.
  • Burrell, David Bakewell. Freedom and Creation in Three Traditions. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame, 1993.
  • Burrell, David Bakewell. “Trinity in Judaism and Islam”. (Yayınlanmak üzere). Cambridge Companion to the Trinity. Ed. Peter Phan. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Chittick, William. The Sufi Path of Knowledge. Albany: State Univ. of New York, 1989.
  • Cragg, Kenneth. Jesus, and the Muslim: An Exploration. London: Allen & Unwin, 1985; yeniden basım Oxford: Oneworld, 1999.
  • Cragg, Kenneth. The Call of the Minaret. Second ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1985.
  • Fazlurrahman, Muhammad. Islam and Christianity in the Modern World: Being an Exposition of the Qur’anic View of Christinity in the Light of Modern Research. Delhi: Noor Publishing House, 1992.
  • Finger, Thomas. A Contemporary Anabaptist Theology: Biblical, Historical, Constructive. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004.
  • Frank, Richard MacDonough. “The Science of Kalām”. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 2 (1992): 7-37.
  • Funk, Robert Walter. Honest to Jesus. San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1996.
  • Funk, Robert Walter. The Five Gospels. New York: Macmillan, 1993.
  • Goddard, Hugh. Muslim Perceptions of Christianity. London: Grey Seal Books, 1996.
  • Hanson, Richard Patrick Crosland. The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God. Edinburgh: T &T Clark, 1988.
  • Keleş, Hatice- Kılıç, Davut. “Mennonit Kilisesi’nin İnanç Esasları, Öğretileri ve Sakramentleri”. Turkish Studies 12/10 (2017): 165-184.
  • Hawting, Gerald. The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni. Press, 2000.
  • Hoover, Jon. Ibn Taymiyya’s Theodicy of Perpetual Optimism. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • Hoover, Jon. “Revelation and the Islamic Doctrines of God”, Islamochristiana 30 (2004): 1-14. (Fransızca tercümesi için bkz, “La révélqtion et les doctrines musulmane et chrétienne sur Dieu”. Chemins de Dialogue: Penser la foi dans lʾesprit dʾAssise 28 (2006): 167-190).
  • İbn Sînâ. Er-Risâletü’l-ʿarşiyye fî hakaiki’t-tevhid ve isbatü’n-Nübüvve. Haydarabad: Matbaʿatü’l-dâʾira el-maʿârif el-ʿosmâniyye, 1353/1934-5.
  • İbn Sînâ. Et-Taʿlîkât. Thk. ʿAbdurrahmân el-Bedevi. Kahire: El-Hayʾa el-misriyye el-ʿāmma li-l-kitāb, 1973.
  • Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Real Jesus: The Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth of the Traditional Gospels. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996.
  • Kamali, Mohammad Hashim. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Revize edilmiş yeni basim. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 1991.
  • Kelly, John Norman Davidson. Early Christian Doctrines. Revize edilmiş yeni basımı. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1976.
  • Lash, Nicholas. Easter in Ordinary: Reflections on Human Experience and the Knowledge of God. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame, 1990.
  • Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.
  • Michel. Thomas. A Muslim Theologian’s Response to Christianity: Ibn Taymiyya’s al-Jawab al-Sahih. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, 1984.
  • Molnar, Paul. Divine Freedom and the Doctrine of the Immanent Trinity: In Dialogue with Karl Barth and Contemporary Theology. London: T & T Clark, 2002.
  • Moltmann, Jurgen. The Trinity and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Moucarry, Chawkat. Faith to Faith: Christianity & Islam in Dialogue. Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 2001.
  • Mutahhari, Murtada. Understanding Islamic Sciences. London: Islamic College for Advanced Studies, 2002.
  • Niebuhr, Helmut Richard. “The Doctrine of the Trinity and the Unity of Church”. Theology Today 3 (October 1946), 371-384.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Jesus in the Qur’ān. London: Faber and Faber, 1965, yeniden basım Oxford: Oneworld, 1995.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Cild 1. The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1971.
  • Peskes, Eshter ve Ende, W. “Wahhabiyya”. The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition, Leiden: Brill, 1960-2009, 11:39-47.
  • Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. The Fundementals of Tawheed (Islamic Monotheism). Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House, 1997.
  • Rahner, Karl. “Oneness and Threefoldness of God in Discussion with Islam”. Theological Investigations, Vol. 18 (New York: Crossroad, 1983), 105-121.
  • Rahner, Karl. “Remarks on the Dogmatic Treatise ‘De Trinitate’”. Theological Investigations, 4: 77-102. London: Daryon, Longman & Todd, 1996.
  • Reimer, Allen James. “Introduction: Revelation and Authority: Shiʾah Muslim-Mennonite Christian Dialogue II”. CGR 24/1 Winter 2006: 4-11.
  • Reimer, Allen James. “Trinitarian Orthodoxy, Constantinianims, and Radical Protestant Theology”. Mennonite and Classical Theology: Dogmatic Foundations for Christian Ethics (Kitchener: Pandora Press, 2001): 247-271.
  • Reynolds, Gabriel Said. A Muslim Theologian in the Sectarian Milieu: ʿAbd al-Jabbār and the Critique of Christian Origins. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
  • Sâbûnî, Muhammed ʿAlī. Saffetü’t-Tefâsir. 3 cild. Beyrut: Dârü’l-Kerîm, 1981.
  • Simons, Menno. “Confessions of the Triune God”. The Complete Writings of Menno Simons. Terc. Leonard Verduin ve ed. John Christian Wenger. Scottdale: Herald, 1956.
  • Slomp, Jan. Theological Review of the Near East School of Theology 3/2 (Nov. 1980), 35-39.
  • Snyder, Arnold. “Anabaptist History and Theology: History or Heresy?” CGR 16/1 (Winter 1998): 37-59.
  • Swanson, Mark. “The Trinity in Christian-Muslim Conversation”. Dialog: A Journal of Theology 44/3 (2005), 256-261.
  • Thomas, David. Anti-Christian Polemic in Early Islam: Abū ʿĪsā al-Warrāq’s Against the Trinity. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.
  • Thomas, David. “Trinity”. Encyclopedia of the Qur’ān. Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden: Brill, 2001-2006, 5:368-372.
  • Thomas, David. “Tathlīth”. The Encyclopedia of Islam. New Edition. Leiden: Brill, 1954-2004, 10:373-375.
  • Thomas, David. “The Doctrine of the Trinity in the Early Abbasid Era”. Islamic Interpretations of Christianity. Ed. Llyod Ridgeon. 78-98. Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2001.
  • Volf, Miroslav ve Welkers, Micheal. Eds. God’s Life in Trinity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2006.
  • Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic Creeds: A Selection. Edinburgh: Univ. of Edinburgh, 1994.
  • Watt, William Montgomery. Islamic Philosophy and Theology: An Extended Survey. Second edition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1985.
  • Wilson, Andrew Norman. Paul: The Mind of the Apostle. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.
  • Wilson, Andrew Norman. Jesus. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992.
  • Wright, Tom. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? Oxford: Lion Publishing, 1997.
  • Yoder, John Howard. The Politics of Jesus. Second edition. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994.
  • Zebiri, Kate. Muslims and Christians Face to Face. Oxford: Oneworld, 1997.
  • Zein, Muhammad Faruk. Christianity, Islam and Orientalism. London: Saqi Books, 2003.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Bilimi
Bölüm Tercümeler
Yazarlar

Jon HOOVER Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)

Çevirmenler

Zeynep YÜCEDOĞRU

Yayımlanma Tarihi 6 Ağustos 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 12 Haziran 2019
Kabul Tarihi 23 Haziran 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD Hoover, Jon . "İslâmî Monoteizm ve Teslîs". Çev. Zeynep Yücedoğru. Oksident 1 / 1 (Ağustos 2019): 117-143 . https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3360748