Araştırma Makalesi
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Dinler Tarihinde Bir Mukayese Örneği: G. Parrinder’in Bakış Açısıyla Avatara ve Enkarnasyon

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 41 - 58, 06.08.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3360696

Öz

Mukayeseli metot, Dinler Tarihi alanında yapılan çalışmalarda sıkça uygulanan bir araştırma yöntemidir. Bu yöntem sayesinde farklı dinlere ait inanç ve uygulamalar arasındaki benzerlikler ve farklılıklar ortaya konulabilmektedir. Ayrıca değişik dinlerdeki kavramların geçirdiği anlamsal değişikliklerin tespiti de yapılabilmektedir. Bir takım benzer ve farklı yönleri ihtiva ettiği ileri sürülen avatara ve enkarnasyon öğretisi bu konuda önemli bir örnek teşkil etmektedir. Bu makalede, G. Parrinder’in bakış açısıyla, Hintlilerin avatara öğretisi ile Hıristiyanların enkarnasyon inancı arasındaki benzerlik ve farklılık iddialarını ortaya koymaya gayret edeceğiz. 

Kaynakça

  • Akhilananda, Swami. Hindu View of Christ. New York: Philosophical Library, 1949.
  • Arslan, Hammet. Bir Din Araştırıcısı Olarak Geoffrey Parrinder: Hayatı, Kişiliği ve Dinler Tarihine Katkıları. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2004.
  • Bassuk, Daniel E. Incarnation in Hinduism and Christianity. U.S.A.: Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1987.
  • Baş, Bilal. “Athanasius’un Kurtuluş Doktrininde Yaratılış ve İnkarnasyon’un Yeri”. Kutadgubilig 16 (2009): 255-276.
  • Bhaktivedanta, Abhay C. (çev.). Śrīmad Bhāgavatam. 30 cilt, New York: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1972-1980.
  • Bryant, Edwin F. Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Cemil, Kutlutürk. “Hinduizm’e Göre Tanrı Vişnu’nun Yeryüzünde Bedenlenmesinin (Avatara/Hulûl) Temel Nedenleri”. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 55 (2015): 141-160.
  • Cole, W. Owen. Understanding Sikhism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2004.
  • Cort, John E. “Bhakti in the Early Jain Tradition: Understanding Devotional Religion in South Asia”. History of Religions 42/1 (2002): 59-86.
  • Cross, Richard. The Metaphysics of the Incarnation: Thomas Aquinas to Duns Scotus. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Çalışkan, Sevda (çev.). Bagavadgita. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi, 2001.
  • Eng, Lai Ah. Religious Diversity in Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008.
  • Farquhar, J. N. Permanent lessons of the Gita. Londra: Christian Literature Society for India, 1912.
  • Forward, Martin. A Bag of Needments: Geoffrey Parrinder and the Study of Religion. Bern: P. Lang, 1998.
  • Ghose, Aurobindo. The Life Divine. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1982.
  • Ghose, S. Aurobindo. Essays on the Gita. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 2003.
  • González, Justo L. Essential Theological Terms. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2005.
  • Griffith, Ralph Thomas Hotchkin (çev.). The Hymns of the Rigveda. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Pub., 1973.
  • Guru Grand Sahib: English Translation of Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Arizona: Hand Made Books, t.y.
  • Harshananda, Swami. A Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism. 3 cilt, Bangalore: Sri Ramakrishna Math, 2008.
  • Jones, Constance & James D. Ryan. Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Pub., 2006.
  • Kapoor, S. S. & M. K. Kapoor. “Composition 8-10”. Dasam Granth, Hemkunt, 2009.
  • Kelting, M. Whitney. “Candanbala’s Tears: Recovering the Emotional Life of Jainism”. Numen 54/2 (2007): 109-137.
  • Kim, Sebastian C. H. Christian Theology in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Kinsley, David. “Avatara”. Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Lindsay Jones, U.S.A.: Thomson & Gale, 2005, 2: 707–708.
  • Kutlutürk, Cemil. “Hindu Dinî Geleneğinde Rama Avatarasının Örnekliği”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 55/1 (2014): 17-34.
  • Kutlutürk, Cemil. Hinduizm’de Avatar İnancı. Ankara: Otto, 2018.
  • Lochtefeld, James. “Avatar”. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, 2002, 1: 72-73.
  • Macauliffe, M. A. The Sikh Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909.
  • Macauliffe, M. A. (ed.). The Sikh Religion: A Symposium. Calcutta: Susil Gupta, 1958.
  • Matchett, Freda. Kṛṣṇa: Lord or Avatāra?: The Relationship Between Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu. U.K.: Psychology Press, 2001.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. “Buddhism and Jainism”. Contemporary Review 36 (1879): 644-664.
  • Müller, F. Max (ed.). “The Questions of King Milinda (I-II)”. Sacred Books of the East, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1890-1894, c. 35-36.
  • Nesbitt, Eleanor M. Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Oduyoye, Mercy Amba & Hendrik M. Vroom (ed.). One Gospel - Many Cultures: Case Studies and Reflections on Cross-Cultural Theology. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi, 2003.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. “And is it True?”. Religious Studies 8/1 (1972): 15-27.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Avatar and Incarnation. Londra: Faber and Faber, 1970.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Comparative Religion. Londra: Sheldon Press, 1976.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. “Dahomey Half a Century Ago”. Journal of Religion in Africa 19/3 (1989): 264–273.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Encountering World Religions: Questions of Religious Truth. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1987.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. The Christian Debate: Light from the East. Londra: Gollancz, 1964.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. The Indestructible Soul: The Nature of Man and Life After Death in Indian Thought. Londra: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. “Thematic Comparison”. The World’s Religious Traditions: Current Perspectives in Religious Studies: Essays in Honour of Wilfred Cantwell Smith, ed. Frank Whaling, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1984, 240-256.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Upanishads, Gita and Bible: A Comparative Study of Hindu and Christian Scriptures. 2. bs., Londra: Sheldon Press, 1975.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey (ed.). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Worship in the World’s Religions. Londra: Faber and Faber, 1961.
  • Pashaura Singh & Norman Gerald Barrier. Sikhism and History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Sarvepalli Rādhākṛṣṇana. The Bhagavadgītā. Londra: George Allen & Unwin, 1948.
  • Shackle, Christopher & Arvind-pal Singh Mandair. Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. New York: Routledge, 2005.
  • Sheth, Noel. “Hindu Avatra and Christian Incarnation: A Comparison”. Philosophy East and West 52/1 (2002): 98–125, https://doi.org/10.1353/pew.2002.0005.
  • Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man. New York: Mentor Books, 1959.
  • Smith, James K. A. Speech and Theology: Language and the Logic of Incarnation. Londra; New York: Routledge, 2002.
  • Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. The Meaning and End of Religion. Londra: Macmillan, 1963.
  • Walsh, Judith E. A Brief History of India. New York: Facts on File, 2006.
  • Wiley, Kristi. “Ahimsa and Compassion in Jainism”. Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues, ed. Peter Flügel, Londra: Routledge, 2006, 438-455.
  • Yitik, Ali İhsan. “Hinduizm’de Din ve Din Anlayışı: Dharma Kavramı”. Dinler Tarihi Araştırmaları II, Ankara: Türkiye Dinler Tarihi Derneği Yayınları, 2000, 309-319.
  • Zaehner, Robert Charles. At Sundry Times: An Essay in the Comparison of Religions. Londra: Faber and Faber, 1958.

A Comparative Case in the History of Religions: Avatara and Incarnation from G. Parrinder’s Point of View

Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1, 41 - 58, 06.08.2019
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3360696

Öz

The comparative method is a research method that is frequently applied in the field of History of Religions. Thanks to this method, similarities and differences between beliefs and practices of different religions can be revealed. Besides, semantic changes of some terms in different religions can be determined. In this regard, the case of avatara and incarnation doctrines, which contain a number of similarities and differences, is an important example. In this article, from G. Parrinder's point of view, we will try to put forward the claims of similarities and differences between the Indians' doctrine of avatara and the Christians’ doctrine of the incarnation.

Kaynakça

  • Akhilananda, Swami. Hindu View of Christ. New York: Philosophical Library, 1949.
  • Arslan, Hammet. Bir Din Araştırıcısı Olarak Geoffrey Parrinder: Hayatı, Kişiliği ve Dinler Tarihine Katkıları. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2004.
  • Bassuk, Daniel E. Incarnation in Hinduism and Christianity. U.S.A.: Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1987.
  • Baş, Bilal. “Athanasius’un Kurtuluş Doktrininde Yaratılış ve İnkarnasyon’un Yeri”. Kutadgubilig 16 (2009): 255-276.
  • Bhaktivedanta, Abhay C. (çev.). Śrīmad Bhāgavatam. 30 cilt, New York: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1972-1980.
  • Bryant, Edwin F. Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Cemil, Kutlutürk. “Hinduizm’e Göre Tanrı Vişnu’nun Yeryüzünde Bedenlenmesinin (Avatara/Hulûl) Temel Nedenleri”. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 55 (2015): 141-160.
  • Cole, W. Owen. Understanding Sikhism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2004.
  • Cort, John E. “Bhakti in the Early Jain Tradition: Understanding Devotional Religion in South Asia”. History of Religions 42/1 (2002): 59-86.
  • Cross, Richard. The Metaphysics of the Incarnation: Thomas Aquinas to Duns Scotus. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Çalışkan, Sevda (çev.). Bagavadgita. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi, 2001.
  • Eng, Lai Ah. Religious Diversity in Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008.
  • Farquhar, J. N. Permanent lessons of the Gita. Londra: Christian Literature Society for India, 1912.
  • Forward, Martin. A Bag of Needments: Geoffrey Parrinder and the Study of Religion. Bern: P. Lang, 1998.
  • Ghose, Aurobindo. The Life Divine. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1982.
  • Ghose, S. Aurobindo. Essays on the Gita. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 2003.
  • González, Justo L. Essential Theological Terms. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2005.
  • Griffith, Ralph Thomas Hotchkin (çev.). The Hymns of the Rigveda. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Pub., 1973.
  • Guru Grand Sahib: English Translation of Siri Guru Granth Sahib. Arizona: Hand Made Books, t.y.
  • Harshananda, Swami. A Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism. 3 cilt, Bangalore: Sri Ramakrishna Math, 2008.
  • Jones, Constance & James D. Ryan. Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Pub., 2006.
  • Kapoor, S. S. & M. K. Kapoor. “Composition 8-10”. Dasam Granth, Hemkunt, 2009.
  • Kelting, M. Whitney. “Candanbala’s Tears: Recovering the Emotional Life of Jainism”. Numen 54/2 (2007): 109-137.
  • Kim, Sebastian C. H. Christian Theology in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Kinsley, David. “Avatara”. Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Lindsay Jones, U.S.A.: Thomson & Gale, 2005, 2: 707–708.
  • Kutlutürk, Cemil. “Hindu Dinî Geleneğinde Rama Avatarasının Örnekliği”. Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 55/1 (2014): 17-34.
  • Kutlutürk, Cemil. Hinduizm’de Avatar İnancı. Ankara: Otto, 2018.
  • Lochtefeld, James. “Avatar”. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, 2002, 1: 72-73.
  • Macauliffe, M. A. The Sikh Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909.
  • Macauliffe, M. A. (ed.). The Sikh Religion: A Symposium. Calcutta: Susil Gupta, 1958.
  • Matchett, Freda. Kṛṣṇa: Lord or Avatāra?: The Relationship Between Kṛṣṇa and Viṣṇu. U.K.: Psychology Press, 2001.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. “Buddhism and Jainism”. Contemporary Review 36 (1879): 644-664.
  • Müller, F. Max (ed.). “The Questions of King Milinda (I-II)”. Sacred Books of the East, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1890-1894, c. 35-36.
  • Nesbitt, Eleanor M. Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Oduyoye, Mercy Amba & Hendrik M. Vroom (ed.). One Gospel - Many Cultures: Case Studies and Reflections on Cross-Cultural Theology. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi, 2003.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. “And is it True?”. Religious Studies 8/1 (1972): 15-27.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Avatar and Incarnation. Londra: Faber and Faber, 1970.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Comparative Religion. Londra: Sheldon Press, 1976.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. “Dahomey Half a Century Ago”. Journal of Religion in Africa 19/3 (1989): 264–273.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Encountering World Religions: Questions of Religious Truth. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1987.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. The Christian Debate: Light from the East. Londra: Gollancz, 1964.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. The Indestructible Soul: The Nature of Man and Life After Death in Indian Thought. Londra: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. “Thematic Comparison”. The World’s Religious Traditions: Current Perspectives in Religious Studies: Essays in Honour of Wilfred Cantwell Smith, ed. Frank Whaling, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1984, 240-256.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Upanishads, Gita and Bible: A Comparative Study of Hindu and Christian Scriptures. 2. bs., Londra: Sheldon Press, 1975.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey (ed.). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983.
  • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Worship in the World’s Religions. Londra: Faber and Faber, 1961.
  • Pashaura Singh & Norman Gerald Barrier. Sikhism and History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Sarvepalli Rādhākṛṣṇana. The Bhagavadgītā. Londra: George Allen & Unwin, 1948.
  • Shackle, Christopher & Arvind-pal Singh Mandair. Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. New York: Routledge, 2005.
  • Sheth, Noel. “Hindu Avatra and Christian Incarnation: A Comparison”. Philosophy East and West 52/1 (2002): 98–125, https://doi.org/10.1353/pew.2002.0005.
  • Smith, Huston. The Religions of Man. New York: Mentor Books, 1959.
  • Smith, James K. A. Speech and Theology: Language and the Logic of Incarnation. Londra; New York: Routledge, 2002.
  • Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. The Meaning and End of Religion. Londra: Macmillan, 1963.
  • Walsh, Judith E. A Brief History of India. New York: Facts on File, 2006.
  • Wiley, Kristi. “Ahimsa and Compassion in Jainism”. Studies in Jaina History and Culture: Disputes and Dialogues, ed. Peter Flügel, Londra: Routledge, 2006, 438-455.
  • Yitik, Ali İhsan. “Hinduizm’de Din ve Din Anlayışı: Dharma Kavramı”. Dinler Tarihi Araştırmaları II, Ankara: Türkiye Dinler Tarihi Derneği Yayınları, 2000, 309-319.
  • Zaehner, Robert Charles. At Sundry Times: An Essay in the Comparison of Religions. Londra: Faber and Faber, 1958.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Din Bilimi
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Hammet ARSLAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MUĞLA SITKI KOÇMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSLAMİ İLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-4703-9952
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 6 Ağustos 2019
Başvuru Tarihi 13 Haziran 2019
Kabul Tarihi 21 Haziran 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 1, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

ISNAD Arslan, Hammet . "Dinler Tarihinde Bir Mukayese Örneği: G. Parrinder’in Bakış Açısıyla Avatara ve Enkarnasyon". Oksident 1 / 1 (Ağustos 2019): 41-58 . https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3360696