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FUTBOLCULARDA SLC6A4 PROMOTÖR POLİMORFİZMİNİN DAĞILIMI

Yıl 2021, Cilt 12, Sayı 3, 212 - 221, 20.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17155/omuspd.959572

Öz

İnsan psikolojisini etkileyen ve en önemli bir biyobelirteç olan serotonin, sporcunun atletik performansını da olumsuz yönde etkileyebilmektedir. Çalışmamızın amacı, sağlıklı profesyonel futbolcularda anksiyete ile bağlantılı SLC6A4 geni promotör bölgesinde “S” ve “L” allel dağılımının incelenmesidir. Çalışmamıza aktif olarak haftada en az 4 gün antrenman programı uygulayan 15-29 yaş arası 19 profesyonel futbolcu ve herhangi bir egzersiz programı uygulamayan (kontrol grubu) 45 birey katıldı. Gerekli etik kurul izinleri alındıktan sonra çalışma protokolunun sonuç ve çıktılarını anlatan onam formları katılımcılara imzalatıldı. Çalışmamıza katılan bireylerden daha sonra ağız içi epitel hücreleri alınarak DNA izolasyonu gerçekleştirildi. Tüm polimorfizmlerin genotiplemesi, polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu (PZR) metodu kullanılarak belirlendi. Çalışmamıza katılan futbolcularda SLC6A4 geninin LL, LS, SS genotiplerinin sayı ve yüzdeleri sırasıyla 11(%57,8), 4(%21,1), 4(%21,1) olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışma kohortumuzda L alleli 26 (%68,4), S alleli ise 12 (%31,6) oranında gözlemlenmiştir. Çalışma grubumuzda SLC6A4 geninin promotör bölgesi incelendiğinde, LL genotipi baskın olarak bulunurken, L alleli de S alleline göre daha yüksek oranda bulunmuştur. Kontrol grubunda ise aynı genotip sayı ve yüzdeleri sırası ile 12 (%26,7), 24 (%53,3) ve 9 (%20) olarak belirlenmiştir. Kontrol grubundaki allelik dağılımı ise L alleli 48(%53,3), S alleli 42 (%46,7) olarak gözlenmiştir. Sporcu grubu ile kontrol grubu arasında genotip dağılımlarında (p=0,0001) bulunurken, allelik dağılımlarında (p=0,0425) bulunarak her iki grup arasında da istatiksel açıdan anlamlı farklılık saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak çalışmamızda SLC6A4 promotör polimorfizmlerinin belirlenmesinin, sporcularda oluşan anksiyete ve bilişsel kaygı düzeyinin erken dönemde önlenmesine yardımcı olabileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Ateş, Ö., Çorak, A., Kulaksız, H., Sercan, C., Kapıcı S, Yüksel, İ, Ulucan, K. (2017). Sağlıklı Türk genç futbolcularda anksiyete ile ilişkili SLC6A4 geni promoter “S” ve “L” allellerini saptanması. J Neuro Behav Sci, 4(3), 95-98. doi: 10.5455/JNBS.1503660850.
  • Beitchman, J.H, Baldassarra, L., Mik, H., De Luca, V., King, N., Bender D, et al. (2006). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. Am J Psychiatry, 163, 1103–1105.
  • Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, TE., Taylor, A., Craig, IW., Harrington, H., et al. (2006). Influence of life stress on depression:moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.
  • Çorak, A., Kapıcı, S., Sercan, C., Akkoç, O., Ulucan, K. (2017). A pilot study for determination of anxiety related promoter “S” and “L” alleles in healthy Turkish athletes. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 63(5), 29-31.
  • Drabant, E.M, Ramel, W, Edge, M.D, Hyde LW, Kuo JR, Goldin PR, et al. (2012). Neural mechanisms underlying 5-HTTLPR-related sensitivity to acute stress. Am J Psychiatry, 169, 397-405.
  • Eken, B.F, Akpınaroğlu, C., Arslan, K.S, Sercan C, Ulucan, K. (2018). Genlerin sporda psikolojik faktörlerle ilişkisi. The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences, 5(1), 56-61. doi: 10.5455/JNBS.1516796381
  • Gerra, G., Garofano, L., Castaldini, L., Rovetto, F, Zaimovic, A., Moi, G., et al. (2005). Serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism genotype is associated with temperament, personality traits and illegal drugs use among adolescents. J Neural Transm, 112, 1397–1410.
  • Golby, J., & Sheard, M. (2006). The relationship between genotype and positive psychological development in national-level swimmers. European Psychologist, 11, 143-148. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.11.2.143.
  • Klucken, T., Schweckendiek, J., Blecker, C., Walter B, Kuepper Y, Hennig J. (2015). The association between the 5-HTTLPR and neural correlates of fear conditioning and connectivity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 700–707.
  • Lesch, K.P., Balling U., Gross .J, Strauss, K., Wolozin, B.L., Murphy, D.L. (1994). Organisation of the human serotonin transporter gene. Journal Neural Transm (Vienna), 95, 157 –162.
  • Lesch, K.P, Merschdorf, U. (2000). Impulsivity, aggression, and serotonin: a molecular psychobiological perspective. Behav Science Law, 18, 581–604.
  • Lesch, KP. (2001). Serotonergic gene expression and depression:implications for developing novel antipdepressants. J Affect Disord, 62, 57–76.
  • Maliuchenko, N.V., Sysoeva, O.V., Vediakov, A.M., Timofeev MA, Portanova GV, Ivanitski AM, Tonevitski AG, & Kirpichnikov MP. (2007). Effect of 5HTT genetic polymorphism on aggression in athletes. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deiatelnosti Imeni I P, 57(3), 276-281.
  • Pezawas, L., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Drabant, E.M., Verchinski, B.A., Munoz, K.E, Kolachana, BS, et al. (2005). 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate–amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Natural Neuroscience, 8, 828– 834.
  • Popova, N.K. (2006). From genes to aggressive behavior: the role of serotonergic system. Bioessays, 28, 495–503.
  • Sanhueza, J.A., Zambrano, T., Bahamondes-Avila, C., Salazar, LA. (2016). Association of anxiety-related polymorphisms with sports performance in chilean long distance triathletes: a pilot study. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 554-561.
  • Saunders, C.J., Milander, L., Hew-Butler, T., Xenophontos, S.L., Cariolou, M.A., Anastassiades LC. (2006). Dipsogenic genes associated with weight changes during ironman triathlons. Human Molecular Genetics, 15, 2980–2987. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddl240.
  • Stahl, S.M. (1998). Basic psychoparmacology of antidepressant, part 1: Antidepressants have seven distinct mechanism of action. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(Suppl 4), 5-14.
  • Sysoeva, O.V, Maluchenko, N.V, Timofeeva, M.A., Portnova, G.V., Kulikova, M.A., Tonevitsky, A.G., Ivanitsky, A. M. (2008). Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: Study of synchronized swimming and control groups. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 72, 173–178.
  • Trushkin, E.V., Timofeeva, M.A., Sysoeva, O.V., Davydov, Y.I., Knicker, A., Struder, H. (2011). Association of Gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with parameters of simple and complex reaction times and critical flicker frequency threshold in athletes during exhaustive exercise. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine,150, 471- 447.
  • Ulucan, K., Yalcin, S., Akbas, B., Uyumaz, F., Konuk, M. (2014). Analysis of Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 Gene promoter polymorphism in young Turkish basketball players. Journal of Neurubehavioral Sciences, 1, 37-40.
  • Ulucan, K. (2016). Spor Genetiği Açısından Türk Sporcuların ACTN3 R577X Polimorfizm Literatür Özeti. Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences, 6, 44-47.
  • Yılmaz, Ö.Ö, Polat, T., Şilar, Ç., Gözler İ.Y., Kapıcı S., Dogan C.S., Eken, B.F., Ulucan K. (2020). Determinatıon Of The Anxiety – Related Slc6a4 Gene Promoter “S” And “L” Alleles In Football Players. The Journal Of Neurobehavioral Sciences, 7(3), 133-136.
  • Young, S.N. (2007). How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. Psychiatry Neuroscience, 32 (6), 394–399.

DISTRIBUTION OF SLC6A4 PROMOTOR POLYMOPHISM IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS

Yıl 2021, Cilt 12, Sayı 3, 212 - 221, 20.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17155/omuspd.959572

Öz

Serotonin, which is the most important biomarker affecting human psychology, can also negatively affect the athletic performance of the athlete. The aim of our study was to examine the distribution of “S” and “L” alleles in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene associated with anxiety in healthy professional football players. 19 professional football players between the ages of 15-29 who actively used a training program for at least 4 days a week and 45 individuals who did not use any exercise program (control group) participated in our study. After obtaining the necessary ethics committee permissions, consent forms describing the results and outcomes of the study protocol were signed by the participants. Afterwards, intraoral epithelial cells were taken from individuals who participated in our study, and DNA isolation was performed. Genotyping of all polymorphisms was determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The numbers and percentages of the LL, LS, SS genotypes of the SLC6A4 gene in the football players participating in our study were determined as 11 (57.8%), 4 (21.1%), and 4 (21.1%), respectively. In our study cohort, 26 (68.4%) L allele and 12 (31.6%) S allele were observed. When the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was examined in our study cohort, LL genotype was found to be dominant, while the L allele was found to be higher than the S allele. In the control group, the same genotype number and percentages were determined as 12 (26.7%), 24 (53.3%) and 9 (20%), respectively. In the control group, the allelic distribution was observed as 48 (53.3%) for the L allele and 42 (46.7%) for the S allele. While genotype distributions (p=0.0001) were found between the athlete group and the control group, statistically significant difference was found between both groups by their allelic distribution (p=0.0425). As a result, it was concluded in our study that the determination of SLC6A4 promoter polymorphisms may help prevent anxiety and cognitive anxiety in athletes in the early period.

Kaynakça

  • Ateş, Ö., Çorak, A., Kulaksız, H., Sercan, C., Kapıcı S, Yüksel, İ, Ulucan, K. (2017). Sağlıklı Türk genç futbolcularda anksiyete ile ilişkili SLC6A4 geni promoter “S” ve “L” allellerini saptanması. J Neuro Behav Sci, 4(3), 95-98. doi: 10.5455/JNBS.1503660850.
  • Beitchman, J.H, Baldassarra, L., Mik, H., De Luca, V., King, N., Bender D, et al. (2006). Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and persistent, pervasive childhood aggression. Am J Psychiatry, 163, 1103–1105.
  • Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, TE., Taylor, A., Craig, IW., Harrington, H., et al. (2006). Influence of life stress on depression:moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.
  • Çorak, A., Kapıcı, S., Sercan, C., Akkoç, O., Ulucan, K. (2017). A pilot study for determination of anxiety related promoter “S” and “L” alleles in healthy Turkish athletes. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 63(5), 29-31.
  • Drabant, E.M, Ramel, W, Edge, M.D, Hyde LW, Kuo JR, Goldin PR, et al. (2012). Neural mechanisms underlying 5-HTTLPR-related sensitivity to acute stress. Am J Psychiatry, 169, 397-405.
  • Eken, B.F, Akpınaroğlu, C., Arslan, K.S, Sercan C, Ulucan, K. (2018). Genlerin sporda psikolojik faktörlerle ilişkisi. The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences, 5(1), 56-61. doi: 10.5455/JNBS.1516796381
  • Gerra, G., Garofano, L., Castaldini, L., Rovetto, F, Zaimovic, A., Moi, G., et al. (2005). Serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism genotype is associated with temperament, personality traits and illegal drugs use among adolescents. J Neural Transm, 112, 1397–1410.
  • Golby, J., & Sheard, M. (2006). The relationship between genotype and positive psychological development in national-level swimmers. European Psychologist, 11, 143-148. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.11.2.143.
  • Klucken, T., Schweckendiek, J., Blecker, C., Walter B, Kuepper Y, Hennig J. (2015). The association between the 5-HTTLPR and neural correlates of fear conditioning and connectivity. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 700–707.
  • Lesch, K.P., Balling U., Gross .J, Strauss, K., Wolozin, B.L., Murphy, D.L. (1994). Organisation of the human serotonin transporter gene. Journal Neural Transm (Vienna), 95, 157 –162.
  • Lesch, K.P, Merschdorf, U. (2000). Impulsivity, aggression, and serotonin: a molecular psychobiological perspective. Behav Science Law, 18, 581–604.
  • Lesch, KP. (2001). Serotonergic gene expression and depression:implications for developing novel antipdepressants. J Affect Disord, 62, 57–76.
  • Maliuchenko, N.V., Sysoeva, O.V., Vediakov, A.M., Timofeev MA, Portanova GV, Ivanitski AM, Tonevitski AG, & Kirpichnikov MP. (2007). Effect of 5HTT genetic polymorphism on aggression in athletes. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deiatelnosti Imeni I P, 57(3), 276-281.
  • Pezawas, L., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Drabant, E.M., Verchinski, B.A., Munoz, K.E, Kolachana, BS, et al. (2005). 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate–amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Natural Neuroscience, 8, 828– 834.
  • Popova, N.K. (2006). From genes to aggressive behavior: the role of serotonergic system. Bioessays, 28, 495–503.
  • Sanhueza, J.A., Zambrano, T., Bahamondes-Avila, C., Salazar, LA. (2016). Association of anxiety-related polymorphisms with sports performance in chilean long distance triathletes: a pilot study. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 554-561.
  • Saunders, C.J., Milander, L., Hew-Butler, T., Xenophontos, S.L., Cariolou, M.A., Anastassiades LC. (2006). Dipsogenic genes associated with weight changes during ironman triathlons. Human Molecular Genetics, 15, 2980–2987. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddl240.
  • Stahl, S.M. (1998). Basic psychoparmacology of antidepressant, part 1: Antidepressants have seven distinct mechanism of action. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(Suppl 4), 5-14.
  • Sysoeva, O.V, Maluchenko, N.V, Timofeeva, M.A., Portnova, G.V., Kulikova, M.A., Tonevitsky, A.G., Ivanitsky, A. M. (2008). Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: Study of synchronized swimming and control groups. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 72, 173–178.
  • Trushkin, E.V., Timofeeva, M.A., Sysoeva, O.V., Davydov, Y.I., Knicker, A., Struder, H. (2011). Association of Gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with parameters of simple and complex reaction times and critical flicker frequency threshold in athletes during exhaustive exercise. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine,150, 471- 447.
  • Ulucan, K., Yalcin, S., Akbas, B., Uyumaz, F., Konuk, M. (2014). Analysis of Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 Gene promoter polymorphism in young Turkish basketball players. Journal of Neurubehavioral Sciences, 1, 37-40.
  • Ulucan, K. (2016). Spor Genetiği Açısından Türk Sporcuların ACTN3 R577X Polimorfizm Literatür Özeti. Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences, 6, 44-47.
  • Yılmaz, Ö.Ö, Polat, T., Şilar, Ç., Gözler İ.Y., Kapıcı S., Dogan C.S., Eken, B.F., Ulucan K. (2020). Determinatıon Of The Anxiety – Related Slc6a4 Gene Promoter “S” And “L” Alleles In Football Players. The Journal Of Neurobehavioral Sciences, 7(3), 133-136.
  • Young, S.N. (2007). How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. Psychiatry Neuroscience, 32 (6), 394–399.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Başak Funda EKEN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Marmara Üniversitesi, Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri, Tıbbi Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü
0000-0002-2690-8071
Türkiye


Tolga POLAT>
Marmara Üniversitesi, Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri, Tıbbi Biyoloji ve Genetik
0000-0002-2064-6613
Türkiye


Canan SERCAN DOĞAN>
Marmara Üniversitesi, Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri, Tıbbi Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü
0000-0002-2218-2234
Türkiye


Şehkar OKTAY>
Marmara Üniversitesi, Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri, Biyokimya Bölümü
0000-0002-2878-288X
Türkiye


Beste TACAL ASLAN>
Marmara Üniversitesi, Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri, Tıbbi Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü
0000-0001-5271-7917
Türkiye


Korkut ULUCAN>
Marmara Üniversitesi, Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi, Temel Tıp Bilimleri, Tıbbi Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü
0000-0002-1304-9386
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 20 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 2 Temmuz 2021
Kabul Tarihi 26 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 12, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Eken, B. F. , Polat, T. , Sercan Doğan, C. , Oktay, Ş. , Tacal Aslan, B. & Ulucan, K. (2021). FUTBOLCULARDA SLC6A4 PROMOTÖR POLİMORFİZMİNİN DAĞILIMI . Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi , 12 (3) , 212-221 . DOI: 10.17155/omuspd.959572