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Determination of the Efficiency of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Bumblee bee in Open Field Conditions

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 92 - 98, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.54370/ordubtd.943156

Öz

In this study, the growth of Beauveria bassiana BIM-001 and Fusarium subglutinans 12A in Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) individuals and flowers of tomato were investigated under different conditions. The study was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, spore suspensions of both entomopathogenic fungi were sprayed on flowers of tomato in open field conditions. In the second stage, each entomopathogenic fungus isolate was applied to 50 B. terrestris individuals for 20 seconds with a spraying system at 1 atm pressure and the treated individuals were transferred to separate commercial hives. In the third stage, the spore suspension of both entomopathogenic fungus was prepared and left under laboratory conditions. In all three stages, first at intervals of 2 hours for 10 hours, then at 24., 48. and 72. hours, the worker bee, flower or spore suspension was taken into potato dextrose agar medium, and entomopathogenic fungi were re-isolated. As a results of the study, it was determined that the spores of both fungus isolate remained alive until the 10th hour after the first application in B. terrestris workers and tomato flowers. It was noted that hyphae development of both entomopathogenic fungi occurred in 24 hours in suspensions left under outdoor conditions, but any development was observed at other observation times. Growth of F. subglutinans 12A in flower at the 6th hour after entomopathogenic fungus applications were statistically different and remained at lower levels compared to other conditions. The development of B. bassiana BIM-001 in bees at the 8th hour was found to be lower and different (P˂0.05).

Kaynakça

  • Al-mazra’awi, M. S., Shipp, L., Broadbent, B. ve Kevan, P. (2006). Biological control of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) vectored Beauveria bassiana in greenhouse sweet pepper. Biological Control, 37, 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIOCONTROL.2005.11.014
  • Barbosa, W. F., De Meyer, L., Guedes, R. N. C. ve Smagghe, G. (2015.) Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Ecotoxicology, 24, 130–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-014-1365-9
  • Blacquiere, T., Smagghe, G., Van Gestel, C. A. M. ve Mommaerts, V. (2012). Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk-assessment. Ecotoxicology, 21, 973–992. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-012-0863-x
  • Bryden, J., Gill, R. J., Mitton, R. A. A., Raine, N. E. ve Jansen, V. A. A. (2013). Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure. Ecology Letters, 16, 1463–1469. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12188
  • Bugeme, D. M., Maniania, N. K., Knapp, M. ve Boga, H. I. (2008). Effect of temperature on virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to Tetranychus evansi. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 46, 275–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-9179-1
  • Cantrell, C. L., Dayan, F. E. ve Duke, S. O. (2012). Natural products as sources for new pesticides. Journal of Natural Products, 75, 1231–1242. https://doi.org/10.1021/np300024u
  • Dafni, A., Kevan, P., Gross, C. L. ve Goka, K. (2010). Bombus terrestris, pollinator, invasive and pest: An assessment of problems associated with its widespread introductions for commercial purposes. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 45(1), 101–113. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2010.101
  • Free, J. B. (1993). Insect pollination of crops 2nd ed. Academic Pres.
  • Garrido-Jurado, I., Torrent, J., Barron, V., Corpas, A. ve Quesada-Moraga, E. (2011). Soil properties affect the availability, movement, and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi conidia against puparia of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Biological Control, 58, 277–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.05.017
  • Goettel, M. S., Poprawski, T. J., Vandenberg, J. D., Li, Z. ve Roberts, D. W. (1990). Safety to nontarget invertebrates of fungal biocontrol agents. Laird, M., Lacey, L. A. ve Davidson, E. W. (Eds.), Safety of Microbial Insecticides, (pp. 209–229) CRC Press.
  • Goulson, D. (2003). Bumblebees-Their Behaviour and Ecology. Oxford University Press.
  • Hajek, A. E., Carruthers, R. I. ve Soper, R. S. (1990). Temperature and moisture relations of sporulation and germination by Entomophaga mainaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), a fungal pathogen of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environmental Entomology, 19, 85-90.
  • Heinrich, B. (1979.) Bumblebee Economics. Harvard University Press.
  • Ignoffo, C. M., Garcia, C. ve Gardner, W. A. (1985). Temperature stability of wet and dry conidia of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson. Environmental Entomology, 14, 87-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/14.1.87
  • Ihara, F., Toyama, M., Mishiro, K. ve Yaginuma, K. (2008). Laboratory studies on the infection of stink bugs with Metarhizium anisopliae strain FRM515. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 43(4), 503–509. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2008.503
  • Inglis, G. D., Duke, G. M., Kawchuk, L. M. ve Goettel, M. S. (1999). Influence of oscillating temperatures on the competitive infection and colonization of the migratory grasshopper by Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium flavoviride. Biological Control, 14(1), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1006/BCON.1998.0666
  • Jaronski, S. T. (2010). Ecological factors in the inundative use of fungal entomopathogens. BioControl, 55, 159–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3966-8_12
  • Kevan, P. G. (1999). Pollinators as bioindicators of the state of the environment: species, activity and diversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 74, 373–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00044-4
  • Kevan, P. G., Al-mazra’awi, M. S., Sutton, J. C., Tam, L., Boland, G., Broadbent, B., Thomson, S. V. ve Brewer, G. J. (2003). Using pollinators to deliver biological control agents against crop pests. Downer, R. A., Mueninghov, J. C. ve Volgas, G. C. (Eds.), Pesticide Formulations and Delivery Systems: Meeting the Challenges of the Current Crop Protection Industry, American Society for Testing and Materials International, West Conshohocken, PA. ASTM STP 1430
  • Klein, A. M., Vaissie`re, B. E., Cane, J. H., SteffanDewenter, I., Cunningham, S. A., Kremen, C. ve Tscharntke, T. (2007). Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3721
  • Lewis, L., Berry, E. C., Obrycki, J. J. ve Bing, L. A. (1996). Aptness of insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis and carbofuran) with the endophytic Beauveria bassiana, in suppressing larval populations of the European corn borer. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 57, 27–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(95)01011-4
  • Ment, D. G., Gindin Glazer, I., Perl, S., Elad, D. ve Samish, M. (2010). The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the formation of Metarhizium anisopliae chlamydospores in tick eggs. Fungal biology, 114, 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2009.10.005
  • Mishra, S., Kumar, P. ve Malik, A. (2015). Effect of temperature and humidity on pathogenicity of native Beauveria bassiana isolate against Musca domestica L. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39(4), 697–704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0408-0
  • Poprawski, T. J., Carruthers, R. I., Speese, I. I. I. J., Vacek C & Wendel L (1997) Early-season applications of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and introduction of the hemipteran predator, Perillus bioculatus for control of Colorado potato beetle. Biology Control, 10, 48–57.
  • Shipp, L., Elliot, D., Gillespie, D. ve Brodeur, J. (2007). From chemical to biological control in Canadian greenhouse crops. Vincent, C., Goettel, M. S. ve Lazarovits, G. (Eds.), Biological Control, A Global Perspective, (pp. 118–127), CAB International, UK.
  • Smagghe, G., Deknopper, J., Meeus, I. ve Mommaerts, V. (2013). Dietary chlorantraniliprole suppresses reproduction in worker bumblebees. Pest Management Science, 69, 787–791. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3504
  • Tang, L. C. ve Hou, R. F. (2001). Effects of environmental factors on virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 125, 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0418.2001.00544.x
  • Williams, P. H. ve Osborne, J. L. (2009). Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie, 40, 367–387. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009025
  • Wilson, W. M., Ibarra, J. E., Oropeza, A., Hernández, M. A., Toledo-Hernández, R. A. ve Toledo, J. (2017). Infection of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adults During Emergence from Soil Treated with Beauveria bassiana Under Various Texture, Humidity, and Temperature Conditions. Florida Entomologist, 100(3), 503-508. https://doi.org/10. 1653/024.100.0302
  • Wu, J. Y., Anelli, C. M. ve Sheppard, W. S. (2011). Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) development and longevity. PLoS ONE, 6, e14720. van Lenteren, J. C. (2007). Biological control for insect pests in greenhouses: an unexpected success. Vincent, C., Goettel, M. S. ve Lazarovits, G. (Eds.), Biological Control, A Global Perspective, (pp. 105–117), CAB International, UK
  • Villaverde, J. J., Sevilla-Moran, B., Sandin-Espana, P., Lopez-Goti, C. ve Alonso-Prados, J. L. (2014). Biopesticides in the framework of the European Pesticide Regulation (EC). Pest Management Science, 70, 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3663

Entomopatojen Fungusların Açık Alan Koşullarında Bombus Arısı Üzerindeki Etkinliğinin Belirlenmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 92 - 98, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.54370/ordubtd.943156

Öz

Bu çalışmada Beauveria bassiana BIM-001 ve Fusarium subglutinans 12A izolatının farklı koşullar altında Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) ergin işçi bireyleri ve domates bitkilerinin çiçeklerinde gelişimi ve bu ortamlarda canlı kalma başarısının belirlenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Çalışma üç farklı aşamada gerçekleştirilmiştir. Birinci aşamada, açık alan koşullarında bulunan domates bitkilerinin çiçeklerine her iki entomopatojen fungusa ait spor süspansiyonlarının püskürtme yöntemiyle uygulanmıştır. İkinci aşamada, her bir entomopatojen fungus izolatı (Efi) 50 adet B. terrestris işçi bireyine 1 atm basınçta püskürtme yapabilen sistem yardımıyla 20 sn süreyle (0.5 ml) uygulanmış ve uygulama yapılan bireyler ayrı ticari kovanlara aktarılmıştır. Üçüncü aşamada ise her iki Efi’ına ait spor süspansiyonu laboratuvar koşullarında hazırlanmış ve bu ortam koşullarında bırakılmıştır. Her 3 aşamada da önce 10 saat boyunca 2 saat aralıkla, daha sonra 24., 48. ve 72. saatlerde işçi arı, çiçek ya da spor süspansiyonu patates dekstroz agar ortamına alınarak entomopatojen fungusların reizolasyonları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre; B. terrestris işçi arıları ve domates çiçeklerinde ilk uygulamadan sonra 10. saate kadar her iki fungus izolat sporlarının canlı kalarak gelişebildiği belirlenmiştir. Dış ortam koşullarında bırakılan süspansiyonlarda ilk 24 saatte her iki entomopatojen fungusa ait hif gelişiminin meydana geldiği ancak, diğer gözlem zamanlarında herhangi bir gelişimin olmadığı kaydedilmiştir. Entomopatojen fungus uygulamalarından sonra 6. saatte F. subglutinans 12A’nın çiçekte gelişimi diğer ortamlara göre istatistiki olarak farklı ve daha düşük seviyelerde kalmıştır. Uygulamadan sonra 8. saatte ise B. bassiana BIM-001’in işçi arılarda gelişimi daha düşük ve farklı bulunmuştur (P˂0.05).

Kaynakça

  • Al-mazra’awi, M. S., Shipp, L., Broadbent, B. ve Kevan, P. (2006). Biological control of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) vectored Beauveria bassiana in greenhouse sweet pepper. Biological Control, 37, 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BIOCONTROL.2005.11.014
  • Barbosa, W. F., De Meyer, L., Guedes, R. N. C. ve Smagghe, G. (2015.) Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Ecotoxicology, 24, 130–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-014-1365-9
  • Blacquiere, T., Smagghe, G., Van Gestel, C. A. M. ve Mommaerts, V. (2012). Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk-assessment. Ecotoxicology, 21, 973–992. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-012-0863-x
  • Bryden, J., Gill, R. J., Mitton, R. A. A., Raine, N. E. ve Jansen, V. A. A. (2013). Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure. Ecology Letters, 16, 1463–1469. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12188
  • Bugeme, D. M., Maniania, N. K., Knapp, M. ve Boga, H. I. (2008). Effect of temperature on virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to Tetranychus evansi. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 46, 275–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-008-9179-1
  • Cantrell, C. L., Dayan, F. E. ve Duke, S. O. (2012). Natural products as sources for new pesticides. Journal of Natural Products, 75, 1231–1242. https://doi.org/10.1021/np300024u
  • Dafni, A., Kevan, P., Gross, C. L. ve Goka, K. (2010). Bombus terrestris, pollinator, invasive and pest: An assessment of problems associated with its widespread introductions for commercial purposes. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 45(1), 101–113. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2010.101
  • Free, J. B. (1993). Insect pollination of crops 2nd ed. Academic Pres.
  • Garrido-Jurado, I., Torrent, J., Barron, V., Corpas, A. ve Quesada-Moraga, E. (2011). Soil properties affect the availability, movement, and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi conidia against puparia of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Biological Control, 58, 277–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.05.017
  • Goettel, M. S., Poprawski, T. J., Vandenberg, J. D., Li, Z. ve Roberts, D. W. (1990). Safety to nontarget invertebrates of fungal biocontrol agents. Laird, M., Lacey, L. A. ve Davidson, E. W. (Eds.), Safety of Microbial Insecticides, (pp. 209–229) CRC Press.
  • Goulson, D. (2003). Bumblebees-Their Behaviour and Ecology. Oxford University Press.
  • Hajek, A. E., Carruthers, R. I. ve Soper, R. S. (1990). Temperature and moisture relations of sporulation and germination by Entomophaga mainaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), a fungal pathogen of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environmental Entomology, 19, 85-90.
  • Heinrich, B. (1979.) Bumblebee Economics. Harvard University Press.
  • Ignoffo, C. M., Garcia, C. ve Gardner, W. A. (1985). Temperature stability of wet and dry conidia of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson. Environmental Entomology, 14, 87-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/14.1.87
  • Ihara, F., Toyama, M., Mishiro, K. ve Yaginuma, K. (2008). Laboratory studies on the infection of stink bugs with Metarhizium anisopliae strain FRM515. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 43(4), 503–509. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2008.503
  • Inglis, G. D., Duke, G. M., Kawchuk, L. M. ve Goettel, M. S. (1999). Influence of oscillating temperatures on the competitive infection and colonization of the migratory grasshopper by Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium flavoviride. Biological Control, 14(1), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1006/BCON.1998.0666
  • Jaronski, S. T. (2010). Ecological factors in the inundative use of fungal entomopathogens. BioControl, 55, 159–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3966-8_12
  • Kevan, P. G. (1999). Pollinators as bioindicators of the state of the environment: species, activity and diversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 74, 373–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00044-4
  • Kevan, P. G., Al-mazra’awi, M. S., Sutton, J. C., Tam, L., Boland, G., Broadbent, B., Thomson, S. V. ve Brewer, G. J. (2003). Using pollinators to deliver biological control agents against crop pests. Downer, R. A., Mueninghov, J. C. ve Volgas, G. C. (Eds.), Pesticide Formulations and Delivery Systems: Meeting the Challenges of the Current Crop Protection Industry, American Society for Testing and Materials International, West Conshohocken, PA. ASTM STP 1430
  • Klein, A. M., Vaissie`re, B. E., Cane, J. H., SteffanDewenter, I., Cunningham, S. A., Kremen, C. ve Tscharntke, T. (2007). Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 303–313. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3721
  • Lewis, L., Berry, E. C., Obrycki, J. J. ve Bing, L. A. (1996). Aptness of insecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis and carbofuran) with the endophytic Beauveria bassiana, in suppressing larval populations of the European corn borer. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 57, 27–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(95)01011-4
  • Ment, D. G., Gindin Glazer, I., Perl, S., Elad, D. ve Samish, M. (2010). The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the formation of Metarhizium anisopliae chlamydospores in tick eggs. Fungal biology, 114, 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2009.10.005
  • Mishra, S., Kumar, P. ve Malik, A. (2015). Effect of temperature and humidity on pathogenicity of native Beauveria bassiana isolate against Musca domestica L. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39(4), 697–704. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0408-0
  • Poprawski, T. J., Carruthers, R. I., Speese, I. I. I. J., Vacek C & Wendel L (1997) Early-season applications of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and introduction of the hemipteran predator, Perillus bioculatus for control of Colorado potato beetle. Biology Control, 10, 48–57.
  • Shipp, L., Elliot, D., Gillespie, D. ve Brodeur, J. (2007). From chemical to biological control in Canadian greenhouse crops. Vincent, C., Goettel, M. S. ve Lazarovits, G. (Eds.), Biological Control, A Global Perspective, (pp. 118–127), CAB International, UK.
  • Smagghe, G., Deknopper, J., Meeus, I. ve Mommaerts, V. (2013). Dietary chlorantraniliprole suppresses reproduction in worker bumblebees. Pest Management Science, 69, 787–791. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3504
  • Tang, L. C. ve Hou, R. F. (2001). Effects of environmental factors on virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lep., Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 125, 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0418.2001.00544.x
  • Williams, P. H. ve Osborne, J. L. (2009). Bumblebee vulnerability and conservation world-wide. Apidologie, 40, 367–387. https://doi.org/10.1051/apido/2009025
  • Wilson, W. M., Ibarra, J. E., Oropeza, A., Hernández, M. A., Toledo-Hernández, R. A. ve Toledo, J. (2017). Infection of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adults During Emergence from Soil Treated with Beauveria bassiana Under Various Texture, Humidity, and Temperature Conditions. Florida Entomologist, 100(3), 503-508. https://doi.org/10. 1653/024.100.0302
  • Wu, J. Y., Anelli, C. M. ve Sheppard, W. S. (2011). Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) development and longevity. PLoS ONE, 6, e14720. van Lenteren, J. C. (2007). Biological control for insect pests in greenhouses: an unexpected success. Vincent, C., Goettel, M. S. ve Lazarovits, G. (Eds.), Biological Control, A Global Perspective, (pp. 105–117), CAB International, UK
  • Villaverde, J. J., Sevilla-Moran, B., Sandin-Espana, P., Lopez-Goti, C. ve Alonso-Prados, J. L. (2014). Biopesticides in the framework of the European Pesticide Regulation (EC). Pest Management Science, 70, 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3663

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Asiye UZUN (Sorumlu Yazar)
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, BİTKİ KORUMA BÖLÜMÜ, BİTKİ KORUMA PR.
0000-0002-4822-4762
Türkiye


Görkem YANIK
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-4616-1283
Türkiye


İsmail Yaşhan BULUŞ
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-4418-588X
Türkiye


Ayhan GÖSTERİT
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, ZOOTEKNİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-9686-7992
Türkiye


Ozan DEMİRÖZER
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, BİTKİ KORUMA BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-7240-8898
Türkiye


Şerife Evrim ARICI
ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ZİRAAT FAKÜLTESİ, BİTKİ KORUMA BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-5453-5869
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 11, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Uzun, A. , Yanık, G. , Buluş, İ. Y. , Gösterit, A. , Demirözer, O. & Arıcı, Ş. E. (2021). Entomopatojen Fungusların Açık Alan Koşullarında Bombus Arısı Üzerindeki Etkinliğinin Belirlenmesi . Ordu Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , 11 (2) , 92-98 . DOI: 10.54370/ordubtd.943156