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Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 3, 631 - 639, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.31362/patd.1074320

Öz

Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmalar yerlerine gelecek olan daimi dişlerde gelişimsel bozukluklara neden olabilmektedir. Bu durum süt dişi köklerinin apeksi ile bölgede gelişmekte olan daimi diş germi arasındaki yakın anatomik komşuluk ile açıklanmaktadır. Daimi dişlerde meydana gelen gelişimsel bozukluklar süt dişi travmasının tipi ve travma anında çocuğun yaşına bağlı olarak, minenin hafif mineralizasyon bozukluklarından daimi diş germinin sekestrasyonuna kadar değişebilmektedir. Bu nedenle süt dişi travmatik dental yaralanmaları sonrası daimi dişlerde görülebilecek olası gelişimsel bozuklukların etkilerini azaltmak için daimi dişler sürene kadar düzenli olarak klinik ve radyografik kontrollerin yapılması gerekmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Lam R. Epidemiology and outcomes of traumatic dental injuries: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J 2016;61:4-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/adj.123952.
  • Alaçam A. Travma nedeniyle oluşan diş yaralanmaları ve tedavileri. Alaçam T, ed. Endodonti. 2. Baskı. Ankara: Özyurt Yayınevi, 2012;985-1058.
  • Petti S, Glendor U, Andersson L. World traumatic dental injury prevalence and incidence, a meta-analysis One billion living people have had traumatic dental injuries. Dent Traumatol 2018;34:71-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12389
  • Glendor U. Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries - a 12 year review of the literature. Dent Traumatol 2008;24:603-611. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00696.x
  • Zaror C, Martínez-Zapata MJ, Abarca J, et al. Impact of traumatic dental injuries on quality of life in preschoolers and school children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2018;46:88-101. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12333
  • Sennhenn Kirchner S, Jacobs HG. Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition and effects on the permanent successors − a clinical follow-up study. Dent Traumatol 2006;22:237-241. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00383.x
  • Mahmoodi B, Rahimi-Nedjat R, Weusmann J, Azaripour A, Walter C, Willershausen B. Traumatic dental injuries in a university hospital: a four-year retrospective study. BMC Oral Health 2015;15:139. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-015-0124-5
  • World Health Organization. Application of the international classification of diseases to dentistry and stomatology, ICD-DA. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO, 1992. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241544678. Accessed November 17, 2021
  • Andersson L, Petti S, Day P, Kenny K, Glendor U, Andreasen JO. Classification, epidemiology and etiology. In Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM, Andersson L, editors, Textbook and color atlas of traumatic injuries to the teeth. 5 ed. Wiley-Blackwell. 2019;252-294.
  • Khandelwal V, Nayak UA, Nayak PA, Ninawe N. Prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among 3-17-year-old school children of Indore and correlating it with Kuppuswamy SES, occlusal relationship and ascertaining percentage of those seeking the treatment. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2018;33:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0061
  • Bastone EB, Freer TJ, McNamara JR. Epidemiology of dental trauma: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J 2000;45:2-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2000.tb00234.x
  • Kırzıoglu Z, Oz E. Changes in the aetiological factors of dental trauma in children over time: An 18-year retrospective study. Dent Traumatol 2019;35:259-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12478
  • Erdoğan Y, Çiftçi ZZ, Erken Güngör Ö, Karayilmaz H, Kirzioğlu Z. Evaluation the effects of home accidents to the traumatic dental injuries of the primary teeth. P J M H S 2021;15:3240-3243. https://doi.org/10.53350/pjmhs2115113240
  • Karayilmaz H, Kirzioglu Z, Erken Gungor O. Aetiology, treatment patterns and long-term outcomes of tooth avulsion in children and adolescents. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29:464-468. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.292.3283
  • de Paula Barros JN, De Araújo TAA, Soares TRC. Profiles of trauma in primary and permanent teeth of children and adolescents. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;43:5-10. https://doi.org/10.17796/1053-4625-43.1.2
  • Andersson L. Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries. J Endod 2013;39:2-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.11.021
  • Cairns AM, Mok JY, Welbury RR. Injuries to the head, face, mouth and neck in physically abused children in a community setting. Int J Paediatr Dent 2005;15:310-318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2005.00661.x
  • Gassner R, Tuli T, Hachl O, Rudisch A, Ulmer H. Cranio-maxillofacial trauma: a 10 year review of 9543 cases with 21067 injuries. J Cranio Maxillofac Surg 2003;31:51-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-5182(02)00168-3
  • Atabek D, Alacam A, Aydintug I, Konakoglu G. A retrospective study of traumatic dental injuries. Dent Traumatol 2014;30:154-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12057
  • Toprak ME, Tuna EB, Seymen F, Gencay K. Traumatic dental injuries in Turkish children, Istanbul. Dent Traumatol 2014;30:280-284. 
 https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12092
  • Gümüş H, Öztürk G, Kürem B. Profiles of traumatic dental injuries among children aged 0-15 years in Cappadocia, Turkey: a retrospective cohort study. Dent Traumatol 2021;37:419-429. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12648
  • Lalloo R. Risk factors for major injuries to the face and teeth. Dent Traumatol 2003;19:12-14. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-9657.2003.00139.x
  • Gupta S, Kumar-Jindal S, Bansal M, Singla A. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and role of incisal overjet and inadequate lip coverage as risk factors among 4-15 years old government school children in Baddi-Barotiwala Area, Himachal Pradesh, India. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16:960-965. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.4317/medoral.17265
  • Glendor U. Aetiology and risk factors related to traumatic dental injuries--a review of the literature. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:19-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00694.x
  • Day PF, Flores MT, O'Connell A, et al. International association of dental traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 3. Injuries in the primary dentition. Dent Traumatol 2020;36:343-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12576
  • Vieira Andrade RG, Siqueira MB, Gomes GB, et al. Impact of traumatic dental injury on the quality of life of young children: a case-control study. Int Dent J 2015;65:261-268. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12182
  • Feldens CA, Day P, Borges TS, Feldens EG, Kramer PF. Enamel fracture in the primary dentition has no impact on children's quality of life: implications for clinicians and researchers. Dent Traumatol 2016;32:103-109. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12222
  • Bendo CB, Paiva SM, Abreu MH, Figueiredo LD, Vale MP. Impact of traumatic dental injuries among adolescents on family's quality of life: a population-based study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2014;24:387-396. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12083
  • Ruslin M, Wolff J, Boffano P, Brand HS, Forouzanfar T. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study. Dent Traumatol 2015;31:318-323. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12176
  • Lenzi MM, Alexandria AK, Ferreira DM, Maia LC. Does trauma in the primary dentition cause sequelae in permanent successors? A systematic review. Dent Traumatol 2015;31:79-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12149
  • Borum MK, Andreasen JO. Sequelae of trauma to primary maxillary incisors. I. Complications in the primary dentition. Dent Traumatol 1998;14:31-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1998.tb00806.x
  • Orders ML, Koch G. Developmental disturbances in permanent successors after injuries to maxillary primary incisors. Eur J Pediatr Dent 2001;2:165-172.
  • Rocha MJ, Cardoso M. Survival analysis of endodontically treated traumatized primary teeth. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:340-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00470.x
  • Ritwik P, Massey C, Hagan J. Epidemiology and outcomes of dental trauma cases from an urban pediatric emergency department. Dent Traumatol 2015;31:97-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12148
  • Alhaddad B, Rózsa NK, Tarján I. Dental trauma in children in Budapest. A retrospective study. Eur J Paediat Dent 2019;20:111-115. https://doi.org/10.23804/ejpd.2019.20.02.05
  • Zhang Y, Zhu Y, Su W, Zhou Z, Jin Y, Wang X. A retrospective study of pediatric traumatic dental injuries in Xi'an, China. Dent Traumatol 2014;30:211-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12075
  • Patnana AK, Chugh A, Chugh VK, Kumar P, Vanga NRV, Singh S. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dent Traumatol 2021;37:383-399. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12640
  • Piovesan C, Guedes RS, Casagrande L, Ardenghi TM. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children. Braz Oral Res 2012;26:464-470. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-83242012000500014
  • Elbay M, Elbay ÜŞ, Uğurel C, Kaya C. Bir üniversite hastanesindeki pedodonti kliniğine başvuran 156 dental travma olgusunun değerlendirilmesi: Retrospektif araştırma. Selcuk Dent J 2016;3:48-55. https://doi.org/10.15311/1441.272586
  • von Arx T. Developmental disturbances of permanent teeth following trauma to the primary dentition. Aust Dent J 1993;38:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.1993.tb05444.x
  • Jacomo DRES, Campos V. Prevalence of sequelae in the permanent anterior teeth after trauma in their predecessors: a longitudinal study of 8 years. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:300-304. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2009.00764.x
  • Smith RJ, Rapp R. A cephalometric study of the developmental relationship between primary and permanent maxillary central incisor teeth. ASDC J Dent Child 1980;47:36-41.
  • Güngör ÖE, Köylüoğlu Zİ, Karayılmaz H, Şahin İ. Çocuklarda süt dişi travmasına bağlı daimi dişte oluşan gelişimsel anomaliler. Turkiye Klinikleri J Dental Sci Cases 2015;1:177-182. https://doi.org/10.5336/dentalcase.2015-45310
  • Ben Bassat Y, Fuks A, Brin I, Zilberman Y. Effect of trauma to the primary incisor on their permanent successors in different developmental stages. Pediatr Dent 1985;7:37-40.
  • Diab M, elBadrawy HE. Intrusion injuries of primary incisors. Part III: Effects on the permanent successors. Quintessence Int 2000;31:377-384.
  • Andreasen JO, Ravn JJ. The effect of traumatic injuries to primary teeth on their permanent successors. II. A clinical and radiographic follow-up study of 213 teeth. Scand J Dent Res 1971;79:284-294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1971.tb02014.x
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Effects of traumatic dental injuries to primary dentition on permanent teeth

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 3, 631 - 639, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.31362/patd.1074320

Öz

Traumatic dental injuries to the primary dentition may cause developmental disturbances on the permanent successors. This can be explained by the close anatomical relationship between the apices of primary teeth and the tooth germs of permanent teeth. Depending on the type of the traumatic injury and child’s age at the time of the trauma, different developmental disturbances to permanent successors may occur, ranging from a mild disturbance in the mineralization of enamel to sequestration of the entire permanent tooth germ. Therefore, periodic clinical and radiographic follows-up should be performed until the eruption of permanent teeth to reduce the effects of possible developmental disturbances on the permanent teeth following trauma in their predecessors.

Kaynakça

  • Lam R. Epidemiology and outcomes of traumatic dental injuries: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J 2016;61:4-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/adj.123952.
  • Alaçam A. Travma nedeniyle oluşan diş yaralanmaları ve tedavileri. Alaçam T, ed. Endodonti. 2. Baskı. Ankara: Özyurt Yayınevi, 2012;985-1058.
  • Petti S, Glendor U, Andersson L. World traumatic dental injury prevalence and incidence, a meta-analysis One billion living people have had traumatic dental injuries. Dent Traumatol 2018;34:71-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12389
  • Glendor U. Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries - a 12 year review of the literature. Dent Traumatol 2008;24:603-611. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00696.x
  • Zaror C, Martínez-Zapata MJ, Abarca J, et al. Impact of traumatic dental injuries on quality of life in preschoolers and school children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2018;46:88-101. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12333
  • Sennhenn Kirchner S, Jacobs HG. Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition and effects on the permanent successors − a clinical follow-up study. Dent Traumatol 2006;22:237-241. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00383.x
  • Mahmoodi B, Rahimi-Nedjat R, Weusmann J, Azaripour A, Walter C, Willershausen B. Traumatic dental injuries in a university hospital: a four-year retrospective study. BMC Oral Health 2015;15:139. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-015-0124-5
  • World Health Organization. Application of the international classification of diseases to dentistry and stomatology, ICD-DA. 3rd ed. Geneva: WHO, 1992. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241544678. Accessed November 17, 2021
  • Andersson L, Petti S, Day P, Kenny K, Glendor U, Andreasen JO. Classification, epidemiology and etiology. In Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM, Andersson L, editors, Textbook and color atlas of traumatic injuries to the teeth. 5 ed. Wiley-Blackwell. 2019;252-294.
  • Khandelwal V, Nayak UA, Nayak PA, Ninawe N. Prevalence of traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among 3-17-year-old school children of Indore and correlating it with Kuppuswamy SES, occlusal relationship and ascertaining percentage of those seeking the treatment. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2018;33:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0061
  • Bastone EB, Freer TJ, McNamara JR. Epidemiology of dental trauma: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J 2000;45:2-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2000.tb00234.x
  • Kırzıoglu Z, Oz E. Changes in the aetiological factors of dental trauma in children over time: An 18-year retrospective study. Dent Traumatol 2019;35:259-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12478
  • Erdoğan Y, Çiftçi ZZ, Erken Güngör Ö, Karayilmaz H, Kirzioğlu Z. Evaluation the effects of home accidents to the traumatic dental injuries of the primary teeth. P J M H S 2021;15:3240-3243. https://doi.org/10.53350/pjmhs2115113240
  • Karayilmaz H, Kirzioglu Z, Erken Gungor O. Aetiology, treatment patterns and long-term outcomes of tooth avulsion in children and adolescents. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29:464-468. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.292.3283
  • de Paula Barros JN, De Araújo TAA, Soares TRC. Profiles of trauma in primary and permanent teeth of children and adolescents. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;43:5-10. https://doi.org/10.17796/1053-4625-43.1.2
  • Andersson L. Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries. J Endod 2013;39:2-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.11.021
  • Cairns AM, Mok JY, Welbury RR. Injuries to the head, face, mouth and neck in physically abused children in a community setting. Int J Paediatr Dent 2005;15:310-318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2005.00661.x
  • Gassner R, Tuli T, Hachl O, Rudisch A, Ulmer H. Cranio-maxillofacial trauma: a 10 year review of 9543 cases with 21067 injuries. J Cranio Maxillofac Surg 2003;31:51-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-5182(02)00168-3
  • Atabek D, Alacam A, Aydintug I, Konakoglu G. A retrospective study of traumatic dental injuries. Dent Traumatol 2014;30:154-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12057
  • Toprak ME, Tuna EB, Seymen F, Gencay K. Traumatic dental injuries in Turkish children, Istanbul. Dent Traumatol 2014;30:280-284. 
 https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12092
  • Gümüş H, Öztürk G, Kürem B. Profiles of traumatic dental injuries among children aged 0-15 years in Cappadocia, Turkey: a retrospective cohort study. Dent Traumatol 2021;37:419-429. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12648
  • Lalloo R. Risk factors for major injuries to the face and teeth. Dent Traumatol 2003;19:12-14. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-9657.2003.00139.x
  • Gupta S, Kumar-Jindal S, Bansal M, Singla A. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and role of incisal overjet and inadequate lip coverage as risk factors among 4-15 years old government school children in Baddi-Barotiwala Area, Himachal Pradesh, India. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16:960-965. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.4317/medoral.17265
  • Glendor U. Aetiology and risk factors related to traumatic dental injuries--a review of the literature. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:19-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00694.x
  • Day PF, Flores MT, O'Connell A, et al. International association of dental traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 3. Injuries in the primary dentition. Dent Traumatol 2020;36:343-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12576
  • Vieira Andrade RG, Siqueira MB, Gomes GB, et al. Impact of traumatic dental injury on the quality of life of young children: a case-control study. Int Dent J 2015;65:261-268. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12182
  • Feldens CA, Day P, Borges TS, Feldens EG, Kramer PF. Enamel fracture in the primary dentition has no impact on children's quality of life: implications for clinicians and researchers. Dent Traumatol 2016;32:103-109. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12222
  • Bendo CB, Paiva SM, Abreu MH, Figueiredo LD, Vale MP. Impact of traumatic dental injuries among adolescents on family's quality of life: a population-based study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2014;24:387-396. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12083
  • Ruslin M, Wolff J, Boffano P, Brand HS, Forouzanfar T. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study. Dent Traumatol 2015;31:318-323. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12176
  • Lenzi MM, Alexandria AK, Ferreira DM, Maia LC. Does trauma in the primary dentition cause sequelae in permanent successors? A systematic review. Dent Traumatol 2015;31:79-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12149
  • Borum MK, Andreasen JO. Sequelae of trauma to primary maxillary incisors. I. Complications in the primary dentition. Dent Traumatol 1998;14:31-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1998.tb00806.x
  • Orders ML, Koch G. Developmental disturbances in permanent successors after injuries to maxillary primary incisors. Eur J Pediatr Dent 2001;2:165-172.
  • Rocha MJ, Cardoso M. Survival analysis of endodontically treated traumatized primary teeth. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:340-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2006.00470.x
  • Ritwik P, Massey C, Hagan J. Epidemiology and outcomes of dental trauma cases from an urban pediatric emergency department. Dent Traumatol 2015;31:97-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12148
  • Alhaddad B, Rózsa NK, Tarján I. Dental trauma in children in Budapest. A retrospective study. Eur J Paediat Dent 2019;20:111-115. https://doi.org/10.23804/ejpd.2019.20.02.05
  • Zhang Y, Zhu Y, Su W, Zhou Z, Jin Y, Wang X. A retrospective study of pediatric traumatic dental injuries in Xi'an, China. Dent Traumatol 2014;30:211-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12075
  • Patnana AK, Chugh A, Chugh VK, Kumar P, Vanga NRV, Singh S. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dent Traumatol 2021;37:383-399. https://doi.org/10.1111/edt.12640
  • Piovesan C, Guedes RS, Casagrande L, Ardenghi TM. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children. Braz Oral Res 2012;26:464-470. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-83242012000500014
  • Elbay M, Elbay ÜŞ, Uğurel C, Kaya C. Bir üniversite hastanesindeki pedodonti kliniğine başvuran 156 dental travma olgusunun değerlendirilmesi: Retrospektif araştırma. Selcuk Dent J 2016;3:48-55. https://doi.org/10.15311/1441.272586
  • von Arx T. Developmental disturbances of permanent teeth following trauma to the primary dentition. Aust Dent J 1993;38:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.1993.tb05444.x
  • Jacomo DRES, Campos V. Prevalence of sequelae in the permanent anterior teeth after trauma in their predecessors: a longitudinal study of 8 years. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:300-304. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2009.00764.x
  • Smith RJ, Rapp R. A cephalometric study of the developmental relationship between primary and permanent maxillary central incisor teeth. ASDC J Dent Child 1980;47:36-41.
  • Güngör ÖE, Köylüoğlu Zİ, Karayılmaz H, Şahin İ. Çocuklarda süt dişi travmasına bağlı daimi dişte oluşan gelişimsel anomaliler. Turkiye Klinikleri J Dental Sci Cases 2015;1:177-182. https://doi.org/10.5336/dentalcase.2015-45310
  • Ben Bassat Y, Fuks A, Brin I, Zilberman Y. Effect of trauma to the primary incisor on their permanent successors in different developmental stages. Pediatr Dent 1985;7:37-40.
  • Diab M, elBadrawy HE. Intrusion injuries of primary incisors. Part III: Effects on the permanent successors. Quintessence Int 2000;31:377-384.
  • Andreasen JO, Ravn JJ. The effect of traumatic injuries to primary teeth on their permanent successors. II. A clinical and radiographic follow-up study of 213 teeth. Scand J Dent Res 1971;79:284-294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1971.tb02014.x
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Tıp
Yayınlanma Tarihi Temmuz 2022
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Arif BOLACA> (Sorumlu Yazar)
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DİŞ HEKİMLİĞİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-0786-1503
Türkiye


Yıldırım ERDOĞAN>
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DİŞ HEKİMLİĞİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-5054-1812
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Temmuz 2022
Kabul Tarihi 18 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { patd1074320, journal = {Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi}, eissn = {1308-0865}, address = {Pamukkale Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Eğitim Blokları Kınıklı kampüsü 20070 Kınıklı, Denizli}, publisher = {Pamukkale Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {15}, number = {3}, pages = {631 - 639}, doi = {10.31362/patd.1074320}, title = {Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri}, key = {cite}, author = {Bolaca, Arif and Erdoğan, Yıldırım} }
APA Bolaca, A. & Erdoğan, Y. (2022). Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri . Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi , 15 (3) , 631-639 . DOI: 10.31362/patd.1074320
MLA Bolaca, A. , Erdoğan, Y. "Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri" . Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi 15 (2022 ): 631-639 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/patd/issue/68347/1074320>
Chicago Bolaca, A. , Erdoğan, Y. "Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri". Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi 15 (2022 ): 631-639
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri AU - Arif Bolaca , Yıldırım Erdoğan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.31362/patd.1074320 DO - 10.31362/patd.1074320 T2 - Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 631 EP - 639 VL - 15 IS - 3 SN - -1308-0865 M3 - doi: 10.31362/patd.1074320 UR - https://doi.org/10.31362/patd.1074320 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri %A Arif Bolaca , Yıldırım Erdoğan %T Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri %D 2022 %J Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi %P -1308-0865 %V 15 %N 3 %R doi: 10.31362/patd.1074320 %U 10.31362/patd.1074320
ISNAD Bolaca, Arif , Erdoğan, Yıldırım . "Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri". Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi 15 / 3 (Temmuz 2022): 631-639 . https://doi.org/10.31362/patd.1074320
AMA Bolaca A. , Erdoğan Y. Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri. Pam Tıp Derg. 2022; 15(3): 631-639.
Vancouver Bolaca A. , Erdoğan Y. Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri. Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi. 2022; 15(3): 631-639.
IEEE A. Bolaca ve Y. Erdoğan , "Süt dişlenme döneminde meydana gelen travmatik dental yaralanmaların daimi dişler üzerindeki etkileri", Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi, c. 15, sayı. 3, ss. 631-639, Tem. 2022, doi:10.31362/patd.1074320
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