Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Ağrı Dağı Milli Parkı'nda Rekreasyonel Faaliyetlerin Etkileri Üzerine Ziyaretçi Görüşlerinin Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 43 - 52, 30.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.51552/peyad.1131018

Öz

İlgi çekici rekreasyon alanlarından birisi de dağlık alanlardır. Bu alanların rekreasyonel amaçlı kullanımıyla, özellikle zirve tırmanışı, yürüyüş yolları ve kamp alanları gibi yoğun ziyaretçi faaliyetlerinin olduğu lokasyonlarda çevresel ve sosyal etkiler meydana gelebilir. Bu çalışma, Ağrı Dağı Milli Parkı’ında kullanıcılar tarafından algılanan sosyal ve çevresel etkileri ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Veriler, alanda yapılan ziyaretçi anketlerinden elde edilmiştir (n = 181). Algılanan kalabalık (sosyal etki), çevresel etkiler ve kullanıcı memnuniyeti göstergeler olarak seçilmiş ve analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın bulguları, ziyaretçilerin büyük bir kısmının çevresel etkileri rapor ettiğini göstermektedir; çöp varlığı, toprak ve bitki örtüsü hasarı, yürüyüş yollarının mevcut koşulları büyük bir sorun olarak görülmüş ve ziyaretçilerin büyük bir çoğunluğu ziyaretleri sırasında alanda biraz kalabalık hissettiklerini belirtmiştir. Memnuniyetin, ziyaretçilerin algıladığı kalabalık ile pozitif yönde ilişkili olduğu görülmüştür. Rekreasyon faaliyetleri sonucu oluşan çevresel ve sosyal etkilerin azaltılması ve kontrol edilebilmesi, ziyaretçi yönetimi ve çevresel eğitim programlarıyla mümkün kılınabilir ve bu doğrultuda alanla ilgili çözüm önerileri geliştirilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Arnberger, A. ve Mann, C. (2008). Crowding in Europe Forests: A Review of Recent Research and Implications for Forest Management and Policy. Forestry 81(4): 559-571.
  • Atik, M., Sayan, S., ve Karagüzel, O. (2009). Impact of Recreational Trampling on the Natural Vegetation in Termessos National Park, Antalya-Turkey. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 15(3): 249-258.
  • Berlitz, C. (1987). The Lost Ship of Noah. Putnam Press, New York, 167.
  • Cole, D.N. (2004). Impacts of Hiking and Camping on Soils and Vegetation: A review. In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism (pp. 41–60). New York: CABI.
  • Çakir, G., Müdessiroğlu, H., ve Kaya, L.G. (2016). Assessing the Effects of Long-term Recreational Activities on Landscape Changes in Abant Natural Park, Turkey. J. For. Res. 27(2):453–461.
  • Garthe, C. J. (2019). Early Recreation Ecology Research in Europe – Disciplinary Development and Review of German-language Research Results. Journal for Nature Conservation 51, 125718.
  • Graefe, A., Vaske, J.J., ve Kuss, F. (1984). Social Carrying Capacity: An Integration of Twenty Years of Research. Leisure Sciences 6(4): 395-431.
  • Haida, C., Rudusser, J., ve Tappeiner, U. (2016). Ecosystem Services in Mountain Regions: Experts' Perceptions and Research Intensity. Reg Environ Change 16:1989–2004.
  • Hammitt, W.E., ve Cole, D.N. (1998). Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management (2nd eds.) John Wiley, New York NY.
  • Heberlein, T.A., ve Vaske, J.J. (1977). Crowding and Visitor Conflict on the Bois Brule River. (Technical Report WIS WRC 77-04). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Water Resources Center.
  • Huddart, D., ve Stott, T. (2019). Outdoor Recreation; Environmental Impacts and Management. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Switzerland.
  • Inglis, G.J., Johnson, V.I., ve Ponte, F. (1999). Crowding Norms in Marine Settings: A Case Study of Snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Management 24: 369–381.
  • Kendra, A.M., ve Hall, T.E. (2000). Is There a Shared Idea of “Wilderness” Among Outdoor Recreationists? Evidence from Three Recreation Sites. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS 15: 3.
  • Kim, S., ve Shelby, B. (1998). Norms for Behavior and Conditions in Two National Park Campgrounds in Korea. Environmental Management 22: 277–285.
  • Korkanç, S.Y. (2014). Impacts of Recreational Human Trampling on Selected Soil and Vegetation Properties of Aladag Natural Park, Turkey. Catena 113: 219–225.
  • Liddle, M. (1997). Recreation Ecology: The Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Lynch, H.F.B. (1897). Mountain Climbing: The Ascent of Mount Ararat. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Manning, R.E. (2007). Parks and Carrying Capacity: Commons Without Tragedy. Island Press. Washington DC.
  • Manning, R.E., Lime, D.W., Freimund, W.A., ve Pitt, D.G. (1996). Crowding Norms at Frontcountry Sites: A Visual Approach to Setting Standards of Quality. Leisure Sciences 18: 39-59.
  • Manning, R.E. (1999). Crowding and Carrying Capacity in Outdoor Recreation from Normative Standards to Standards of Quality. In E. L. Jackson & T. L. Burton (Eds.), Leisure studies: Prospects for the twenty-first century: 323–334. State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
  • Manning, R.E., Valliere, W., Wang, B., ve Jacobi, C. (1999). Crowding Norms: Alternative Measurement Approaches. Leisure Sciences 21: 219–229.
  • Manning, R.E. (2011). Indicators and Standards in Parks and Outdoor Recreation. In M. Budruk & R. Phillips (Eds.), Quality-of-life Community Indicators for Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management: 11–22. The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Marion. J. L., ve Cole, D.N. (1996). Spatial and Temporal Variation in Soil and Vegetation Impacts on Campsites: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Ecol. Applic. 6(2):520– 530.
  • Marion, J.L., ve Farrell, T.A. (2002). Management Practices that Concentrate Visitor Activities: Camping Impact Management at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Journal of Environmental Management 66(2): 201–212.
  • Marion, J.L., ve Reid, S.E. (2007). Minimizing Visitor Impacts to Protected Areas: The Efficacy of Low Impact Education Programs. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15: 5–27.
  • Martinson, K.S., ve Shelby, B. (1992). Encounter and Proximity Norms for Salmon Anglers in California and New Zealand. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 12: 559- 567.
  • Milli Parklar 13. Bölge Müdürlüğü. (2020). Ağrı Dağı Milli Parkı, Milli Parklar 13. Bölge Müdürlüğü, Erzurum. Erişim Adresi (17. 09. 2020): https://13.tarimorman.gov.tr/Menu/39/Milli-Parklar
  • Monz, C.A., Cole, D.N., Leung, Y.F., ve Marion, J.L. (2010). Sustaining Visitor Use in Protected Areas: Future Opportunities in Recreation Ecology Research Based on the USA Experience. Environmental Management 45(3): 551–562.
  • Needham, M.D., Rollins, R.B., ve Wood, C.J.B. (2004). Site-Specific Encounters, Norms and Crowding of Summer Visitors at Alpine Ski Areas. Int. J. Tourism Res. 6 :421–437.
  • Newsome, D., Moore. S., ve Dowling, R. (2002). Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management. London: Channel View.
  • Olive, N.D., ve Marion, J.L. (2009). The Influence of Use-Related, Environmental, and Managerial Factors on Soil Loss from Recreational Trails. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1483–1493.
  • Parrot, W.F. (1834). Reise Zum Ararat. Berlin.
  • Rubruck, W. (1900). Eastern Parts of the World. (Trs: William Woodville Rockhill). The Hakluyt Society, London.
  • Schirpke, U, Tasser, E., ve Tappeiner, U. (2013). Predicting Scenic Beauty of Mountain Regions. Landscape and Urban Planning 111: 1–12.
  • Schirpke, U., Meisch, C., Marsoner, T., ve Tappeiner, U. (2018). Revealing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Outdoor Recreation in the European Alps and Their Surroundings. Ecosystem Services 31: 336-350.
  • Shelby, B., Vaske, J.J., ve Heberlein, T.A. (1989). Comparative Analysis of Crowding in Multiple Locations: Results from Fifteen Years of Research. Leisure Sciences 11: 269–291.
  • Sumanapala, D., ve Wolf, I.D. (2019). Recreational Ecology: A Review of Research and Gap Analysis. Environments 6: 81.
  • Wagar, J.A. (1964). The Carrying Capacity of Wild Lands for Recreation. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. Forest Science Monograph 7.
  • Williams, R.S., ve Ferrigno, J.G. (1991). Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa. In: Williams, R.S., Ferrigno JG (Eds.), Satellite Image Atlas of the World. USGS Professional Paper 1386 G.
  • Van Riper, C.J., Manning, R.E., ve Reigner, N. (2010). Perceived Impacts of Outdoor Recreation on The Summit of Cascade Mountain, New York, Adirondack. Journal of Environmental Studies. 16(1):10.
  • Vaske, J.J., Donnelly, M.P., Heberlein, T.A., ve Shelby, B. (1982). Differences in Reported Satisfaction Ratings by Consumptive and Non-consumptive Recreationists. Journal of Leisure Research 14: 195–206.
  • Vaske, J.J., Beaman, J., Stanley, R., ve Grenier, M. (1996). Importance Performance and Segmentation: Where do we go from here? Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 5(3): 225-240.
  • Vaske, J.J., Donnelly,M.P., ve Whittaker, D. (2000). Tourism, National Parks and Impact Management. In R. Butler & S. Boyd (Eds.), Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications (pp. 203- 222). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Vaske, J.J., ve Donnelly, M.P. (2002). Generalizing the Encounter – Norm – Crowding Relationship. Leisure Sciences 24: 255–269.
  • Vaske, J.J. (2019). Indicators and Standards for Quality Visitor Experiences at City of Fort Collins Foothills Natural Areas, Technical Report. CSU, Human Dimensions of Natural Resources. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Yu-Fai, L., ve Lee, J.H. (2003). Recreation Ecology and Visitor Carrying Capacity Management: Implications for Protected Areas in East Asia. Korean J. Ecol., 26(2): 53-58.
  • Yulu, A. (2018). Friedrich Parrot’un Ağrı Dağı Araştırma Keşif Gezisi. Coğrafya Dergisi 38: 49-58.

Evaluation Of Visitor Perceptions Of Environmental And Social Impacts At Mount Ararat National Park

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 43 - 52, 30.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.51552/peyad.1131018

Öz

One of the attractive outdoor recreation settings is mountain environments. However, recreational use of these areas may degrade their natural environment, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like the summits, trails, and campsites. This study aims to explore perceived recreational social and environmental impacts on Mount Ararat. Data were obtained from on-site surveys of visitors (n = 181). Perceived crowding, perceived environmental impacts, and satisfaction was chosen as indicators to analyze. The study's findings showed that most visitors reported environmental impacts; litter, soil and vegetation damage, trail conditions as a big problem in the area, and most visitors reported they felt slightly crowded during their visit. Satisfaction was positively related to visitors' perceived crowding. Reducing and controlling the environmental and social impacts resulting from recreational activities can be made possible by visitor management and environmental education programs, and solutions have been developed in this direction. 

Kaynakça

  • Arnberger, A. ve Mann, C. (2008). Crowding in Europe Forests: A Review of Recent Research and Implications for Forest Management and Policy. Forestry 81(4): 559-571.
  • Atik, M., Sayan, S., ve Karagüzel, O. (2009). Impact of Recreational Trampling on the Natural Vegetation in Termessos National Park, Antalya-Turkey. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 15(3): 249-258.
  • Berlitz, C. (1987). The Lost Ship of Noah. Putnam Press, New York, 167.
  • Cole, D.N. (2004). Impacts of Hiking and Camping on Soils and Vegetation: A review. In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental Impacts of Ecotourism (pp. 41–60). New York: CABI.
  • Çakir, G., Müdessiroğlu, H., ve Kaya, L.G. (2016). Assessing the Effects of Long-term Recreational Activities on Landscape Changes in Abant Natural Park, Turkey. J. For. Res. 27(2):453–461.
  • Garthe, C. J. (2019). Early Recreation Ecology Research in Europe – Disciplinary Development and Review of German-language Research Results. Journal for Nature Conservation 51, 125718.
  • Graefe, A., Vaske, J.J., ve Kuss, F. (1984). Social Carrying Capacity: An Integration of Twenty Years of Research. Leisure Sciences 6(4): 395-431.
  • Haida, C., Rudusser, J., ve Tappeiner, U. (2016). Ecosystem Services in Mountain Regions: Experts' Perceptions and Research Intensity. Reg Environ Change 16:1989–2004.
  • Hammitt, W.E., ve Cole, D.N. (1998). Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management (2nd eds.) John Wiley, New York NY.
  • Heberlein, T.A., ve Vaske, J.J. (1977). Crowding and Visitor Conflict on the Bois Brule River. (Technical Report WIS WRC 77-04). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Water Resources Center.
  • Huddart, D., ve Stott, T. (2019). Outdoor Recreation; Environmental Impacts and Management. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Switzerland.
  • Inglis, G.J., Johnson, V.I., ve Ponte, F. (1999). Crowding Norms in Marine Settings: A Case Study of Snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Management 24: 369–381.
  • Kendra, A.M., ve Hall, T.E. (2000). Is There a Shared Idea of “Wilderness” Among Outdoor Recreationists? Evidence from Three Recreation Sites. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS 15: 3.
  • Kim, S., ve Shelby, B. (1998). Norms for Behavior and Conditions in Two National Park Campgrounds in Korea. Environmental Management 22: 277–285.
  • Korkanç, S.Y. (2014). Impacts of Recreational Human Trampling on Selected Soil and Vegetation Properties of Aladag Natural Park, Turkey. Catena 113: 219–225.
  • Liddle, M. (1997). Recreation Ecology: The Ecological Impact of Outdoor Recreation and Ecotourism Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Lynch, H.F.B. (1897). Mountain Climbing: The Ascent of Mount Ararat. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Manning, R.E. (2007). Parks and Carrying Capacity: Commons Without Tragedy. Island Press. Washington DC.
  • Manning, R.E., Lime, D.W., Freimund, W.A., ve Pitt, D.G. (1996). Crowding Norms at Frontcountry Sites: A Visual Approach to Setting Standards of Quality. Leisure Sciences 18: 39-59.
  • Manning, R.E. (1999). Crowding and Carrying Capacity in Outdoor Recreation from Normative Standards to Standards of Quality. In E. L. Jackson & T. L. Burton (Eds.), Leisure studies: Prospects for the twenty-first century: 323–334. State College, PA: Venture Publishing.
  • Manning, R.E., Valliere, W., Wang, B., ve Jacobi, C. (1999). Crowding Norms: Alternative Measurement Approaches. Leisure Sciences 21: 219–229.
  • Manning, R.E. (2011). Indicators and Standards in Parks and Outdoor Recreation. In M. Budruk & R. Phillips (Eds.), Quality-of-life Community Indicators for Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management: 11–22. The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Marion. J. L., ve Cole, D.N. (1996). Spatial and Temporal Variation in Soil and Vegetation Impacts on Campsites: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Ecol. Applic. 6(2):520– 530.
  • Marion, J.L., ve Farrell, T.A. (2002). Management Practices that Concentrate Visitor Activities: Camping Impact Management at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Journal of Environmental Management 66(2): 201–212.
  • Marion, J.L., ve Reid, S.E. (2007). Minimizing Visitor Impacts to Protected Areas: The Efficacy of Low Impact Education Programs. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15: 5–27.
  • Martinson, K.S., ve Shelby, B. (1992). Encounter and Proximity Norms for Salmon Anglers in California and New Zealand. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 12: 559- 567.
  • Milli Parklar 13. Bölge Müdürlüğü. (2020). Ağrı Dağı Milli Parkı, Milli Parklar 13. Bölge Müdürlüğü, Erzurum. Erişim Adresi (17. 09. 2020): https://13.tarimorman.gov.tr/Menu/39/Milli-Parklar
  • Monz, C.A., Cole, D.N., Leung, Y.F., ve Marion, J.L. (2010). Sustaining Visitor Use in Protected Areas: Future Opportunities in Recreation Ecology Research Based on the USA Experience. Environmental Management 45(3): 551–562.
  • Needham, M.D., Rollins, R.B., ve Wood, C.J.B. (2004). Site-Specific Encounters, Norms and Crowding of Summer Visitors at Alpine Ski Areas. Int. J. Tourism Res. 6 :421–437.
  • Newsome, D., Moore. S., ve Dowling, R. (2002). Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management. London: Channel View.
  • Olive, N.D., ve Marion, J.L. (2009). The Influence of Use-Related, Environmental, and Managerial Factors on Soil Loss from Recreational Trails. Journal of Environmental Management 90:1483–1493.
  • Parrot, W.F. (1834). Reise Zum Ararat. Berlin.
  • Rubruck, W. (1900). Eastern Parts of the World. (Trs: William Woodville Rockhill). The Hakluyt Society, London.
  • Schirpke, U, Tasser, E., ve Tappeiner, U. (2013). Predicting Scenic Beauty of Mountain Regions. Landscape and Urban Planning 111: 1–12.
  • Schirpke, U., Meisch, C., Marsoner, T., ve Tappeiner, U. (2018). Revealing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Outdoor Recreation in the European Alps and Their Surroundings. Ecosystem Services 31: 336-350.
  • Shelby, B., Vaske, J.J., ve Heberlein, T.A. (1989). Comparative Analysis of Crowding in Multiple Locations: Results from Fifteen Years of Research. Leisure Sciences 11: 269–291.
  • Sumanapala, D., ve Wolf, I.D. (2019). Recreational Ecology: A Review of Research and Gap Analysis. Environments 6: 81.
  • Wagar, J.A. (1964). The Carrying Capacity of Wild Lands for Recreation. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. Forest Science Monograph 7.
  • Williams, R.S., ve Ferrigno, J.G. (1991). Glaciers of the Middle East and Africa. In: Williams, R.S., Ferrigno JG (Eds.), Satellite Image Atlas of the World. USGS Professional Paper 1386 G.
  • Van Riper, C.J., Manning, R.E., ve Reigner, N. (2010). Perceived Impacts of Outdoor Recreation on The Summit of Cascade Mountain, New York, Adirondack. Journal of Environmental Studies. 16(1):10.
  • Vaske, J.J., Donnelly, M.P., Heberlein, T.A., ve Shelby, B. (1982). Differences in Reported Satisfaction Ratings by Consumptive and Non-consumptive Recreationists. Journal of Leisure Research 14: 195–206.
  • Vaske, J.J., Beaman, J., Stanley, R., ve Grenier, M. (1996). Importance Performance and Segmentation: Where do we go from here? Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 5(3): 225-240.
  • Vaske, J.J., Donnelly,M.P., ve Whittaker, D. (2000). Tourism, National Parks and Impact Management. In R. Butler & S. Boyd (Eds.), Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications (pp. 203- 222). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Vaske, J.J., ve Donnelly, M.P. (2002). Generalizing the Encounter – Norm – Crowding Relationship. Leisure Sciences 24: 255–269.
  • Vaske, J.J. (2019). Indicators and Standards for Quality Visitor Experiences at City of Fort Collins Foothills Natural Areas, Technical Report. CSU, Human Dimensions of Natural Resources. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Yu-Fai, L., ve Lee, J.H. (2003). Recreation Ecology and Visitor Carrying Capacity Management: Implications for Protected Areas in East Asia. Korean J. Ecol., 26(2): 53-58.
  • Yulu, A. (2018). Friedrich Parrot’un Ağrı Dağı Araştırma Keşif Gezisi. Coğrafya Dergisi 38: 49-58.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mimarlık
Yayınlanma Tarihi Yaz
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

M. Bihter BİNGÜL BULUT> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KIRIKKALE UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF FINE ARTS, DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE PLANNING
0000-0003-4496-8198
Türkiye


Adem YULU>
IĞDIR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8037-259X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Temmuz 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Bingül Bulut, M. B. & Yulu, A. (2022). Ağrı Dağı Milli Parkı'nda Rekreasyonel Faaliyetlerin Etkileri Üzerine Ziyaretçi Görüşlerinin Değerlendirilmesi . Türkiye Peyzaj Araştırmaları Dergisi , 5 (1) , 43-52 . DOI: 10.51552/peyad.1131018