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Self Silencing in Young Women

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 428 - 440, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.798241

Öz

The concept of self silencing which has been taken attention mainly in the cross cultural contexts has been investigated for a while. Self silencing mainly experienced by women refers to the fact that women care more about the wishes, expectations and needs of others in their close relationships. Avoiding conflict, maintaining the relationship and obtaining a sense of trust seem to be the underlying factors. Additionally it is also proposed that women who suppress their own voices and put the voices of others to the fore, view themselves as sacrifices in relationships and have an externalized and divided self perception. In this study, the characteristics of self-silencing, the two-dimensional autobiographical model which is frequently mentioned in recent years, and self-silencing in the cultural and feminist context are reviewed. Relationship between self silencing and identity development, and gender roles in women are reviewed in this paper.

Kaynakça

  • Adams G, Plaut VC (2003) The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Friendship in North American and West African worlds. Personal Relationships, 10:333-347.
  • Adams GR, Marshall SK (1996) A developmental social psychology of identity: Understanding the person-in-context. Journal of Adolescence, 19:429-442.
  • Arnett JJ (2000) Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55:469-480.
  • Astbury J (2010) The social causes of Women’s depression: A question of right violated? In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):19-45. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Barclay LL (2004) The relationship of collectivist values orientation and psychological abuse from male partners to women’s self-silencing and personality style (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, The Union Institute & University.
  • Besser A, Flett GL, Davis RA (2003) Self-criticism, dependency, silencing the self, and loneliness: A test of a mediational model. Personality and Individual Differences, 35:1735–1752.
  • Besser A, Flett GL, Hewitt PL (2010) Silencing the self and personality vulnerabilities associated with depression. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):285-312. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Brazaitis SJ (1997) White racial identity attitudes as moderators of self-silencing in white women (Doctoral Dissertation). New York, Columbia University.
  • Can M (2019) Rasyonel bencillik ahlakı. Ankara, Elis yayınları.
  • Dainow A (2014) The influence of feminism on self-silencing and friendship quality in women’s same-sex friendships (Master Thesis). Canada, The University of Guelph.
  • Demir Kaya M (2019) Genç kadınlarda kendini susturma ve toplumsal cinsiyet rollerinin kimlik işlevleri üzerindeki etkisi (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul, Maltepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • Erikson EH (1994) Identity, youth and crisis. New York, Norton. (Reprinted from Identity, youth and crisis, 1968, New York, Norton)
  • Fivush R (2002) Voice and silence: A feminist model of autobiographical memory. In The mediated mind: Essays in honor of Katherine Nelson. (Eds J Lucariello, JA Hudson, R Fivush, PJ Bauer):1-38. Mahwah, Erlbaum.
  • Fossum JL (1996) A correlational study of feminist/womenist identity development and depression in women (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, University of Southern California.
  • Gayed EK (2003) Gender conceptualizations of the divine as related to women’s self-esteem and feminist identity (Doctoral Dissertation). Los Angeles, Alliant International University.
  • Gilligan C (2017) Kadının farklı sesi (Çeviri D Dinçer, F Arısan, M Elma). İstanbul, Pinhan Yayıncılık.
  • Gordon RA (2010) Drugs don’t talk: Do medication and biological psychiatry contribute to silencing the self? In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):47-72. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Harper MS, Welsh DP (2007) Keeping quiet: Self-silencing and its association with relational and individual functioning among adolescent romantic couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24:99–116.
  • Hasanoğlu A (2013) İlişkilerin günlük hayatı. İstanbul, Remzi kitabevi.
  • Horwitz A, White H (1987) Gender role orientations and styles of pathology among adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28:158–170.
  • Jack DC (1991) Silencing the self: Women and depression. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  • Jack DC (2003) The anger of hope and the anger of despair: How anger relates to women’s depression. In Situating sadness: Women and depression in social context. (Eds J Stoppard, L McMullen):62–87. New York, New York University Press.
  • Jack DC, Ali A (2010) Introduction: Culture, self-silencing, and depression: A contextual-relational perspective. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds. DC Jack, A Ali):3-17. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Jack DC, Dill D (1992) The silencing the self scale: Schemas of intimacy associated with depression in women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16:97-106.
  • Jordan J (1997) A relational perspective for understanding women’s development. In Women’s growth in diversity: Writings from the Stone Center. (Ed JV Jordan):9–24. New York, Guilford.
  • Jordan J (2010) On the critical importance of relationships for women’s well-being. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):99-106. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Kağıtçıbaşı Ç (2010) Günümüzde insan ve insanlar. İstanbul, Evrim Yayınevi.
  • Kurtiş T (2010) Self-silencing and well -being among turkish women (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul, Koç Üniversitesi.
  • Kurtiş T, Soylu Yalçınkaya N, Adams G (2017) Silence in official representations of history: Implications for national identity and intergroup relations. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 5(2):608–629.
  • Laurent H, Powers S (2007) Emotion regulation in emerging adult couples: Temperament, attachment, and HPA response to conflict. Biological Psychology, 76:61–71.
  • Le Bon G (2009) Kitleler psikolojisi (Çeviri Y Ender). İstanbul, Hayat Yayınları.
  • Maji S, Dixit S (2018) Self-silencing and women’s health: A review. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1-11.
  • Marcia JE (2014) From industry to integrity. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 14:165–176.
  • Marcia JE, Josselson R (2013) Eriksonian personality research and its implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Personality, 81(6):617-629.
  • Mauthner NS (2010) ‘‘I wasn’t being true to myself’’: Women’s narratives of postpartum depression. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):459-484. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • McLean KC, Syed M (2017) Narrative identity. In Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development. (Eds S Hupp, J Jewll). Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Miller LT (1996) The self-silencing process in late adolescence: The relationship with depression and mother/doughter relationship (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, University of Cincinnati.
  • Morsunbul U, Crocetti E, Cok F, Meeus W (2016) Identity statuses and psychosocial functioning in Turkish youth: A person-centered approach. Journal of Adolescence, 47:145-155.
  • Neves S, Nogueira C (2010) Deconstructing gendered discourses of love, power, and violence in intimate relationships: Portuguese women’s experiences. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):241-259. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Özmen O, Sümer ZH (2011) Predictors of risk-taking behaviors among Turkish adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(1):4–9.
  • Reyes DY (2014) Ethnic differences in self-silencing and traditional Latino gender roles in Latina women (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, Walden University.
  • Russell EJ (2015) An exploration of the relationship of college women’s feminist identity development and their perceptions of their male romantic partners’ conformity to masculine norms (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, The University of Akron.
  • Schwartz SJ, Luyckx K, Crocetti E (2015) What have we learned since Schwartz (2001)?: A reappraisal of the field of identity development. In The Oxford handbook of identity development. (Eds KC McLean, M Syed):539-561. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Serafini TE, Adams GR (2002) Functions of identity: Scale construction and validation. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2(4):363–391.
  • Sikka A, Vaden Goad LG, Waldner LK (2010) Authentic self-expression: Gender, ethnicity, and culture. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):261-284. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Silva DD (2002) A study of Latino and Latina university students gender role expectations: Gender role conflict, acculturation, ethnic identity, and worldview (Doctoral Dissertation). New Mexico, New Mexico State University.
  • Smolak L (2010) Gender as culture: The meanings of self-silencing in women and men. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):129-146. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Thompson JM (1995) Silencing the self: Depressive symptomatology and close relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19:337–353.
  • Trimble JE, Scharron del Rio MR, Bernal G (2010) The itinerant researcher: Ethical and methodological issues in conducting cross-cultural cental cealth research. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):73-95. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Waterman AS (1990) Personal expressiveness: philosophical and psychological foundations. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11(1):47-73.
  • Waterman AS (1995) Identity development from adolescence to adulthood: An extension of theory and a review of research. Developmental Psychology, 18(39):341-358.
  • Witte TH, Sherman MF (2002) Silencing the self and feminist identity development. Psychological Reports, 90:1075-1083.
  • Woodhill BM, Samuels CA (2004) Desirable and undesirable androgyny: A prescription for the twenty-first century. Journal of Gender Studies, 13(1):15-42.
  • Worell J (2010) Foreword: Silence no more. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):xxiii-xxvii. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Zerzan J (2010) Ataerkillik, uygarlık ve toplumsal cinsiyetin kökenleri. İçinde Felsefelogos-Cinsiyetçilik. 49. İstanbul, Fesatoder Yayınları.
  • Zoellner T, Hedlund S (2010) Women’s self-silencing and depression in the socio-cultural context of Germany. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):107-127. New York, Oxford University Press.

Genç Kadınlarda Kendini Susturma

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 428 - 440, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.798241

Öz

Kültürlerarası bağlamda dikkat çeken kendini susturma kavramı, bir süredir incelenmektedir. Kendini susturma daha çok kadınların yakın ilişkilerinde başkalarının istek, beklenti ve ihtiyaçlarını kendininkinin önünde tutmasını ve kendi istekleri karşısında sessiz kalmalarını ifade etmektedir. Bu duruşun gerisinde çatışmadan kaçınma, ilişkiyi sürdürme çabası ve güven duygusu kazanma gibi amaçlar yer almaktadır. Bununla beraber kendi sesini bastıran ve başkalarının sesliliğini ya da beklentilerini ön plana alan kadınların kendilerini ilişkilerde kurban olarak gördüğü, dışsallaştırılmış ve bölünmüş bir benlik algısına sahip olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada kendini susturmaya ilişkin özellikler, son yıllarda sıklıkla karşılaşılan iki boyutlu otobiyografik model sunulmakta ve kendini susturmaya ilişkin kültürel ve feminist bağlam ele alınmaktadır. Ayrıca kadınlarda kendini susturma ile kimlik gelişimi arasındaki ilişkiler ve kadınlarda kendini susturma ile toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri arasındaki ilişkiler gözden geçirilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Adams G, Plaut VC (2003) The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Friendship in North American and West African worlds. Personal Relationships, 10:333-347.
  • Adams GR, Marshall SK (1996) A developmental social psychology of identity: Understanding the person-in-context. Journal of Adolescence, 19:429-442.
  • Arnett JJ (2000) Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55:469-480.
  • Astbury J (2010) The social causes of Women’s depression: A question of right violated? In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):19-45. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Barclay LL (2004) The relationship of collectivist values orientation and psychological abuse from male partners to women’s self-silencing and personality style (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, The Union Institute & University.
  • Besser A, Flett GL, Davis RA (2003) Self-criticism, dependency, silencing the self, and loneliness: A test of a mediational model. Personality and Individual Differences, 35:1735–1752.
  • Besser A, Flett GL, Hewitt PL (2010) Silencing the self and personality vulnerabilities associated with depression. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):285-312. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Brazaitis SJ (1997) White racial identity attitudes as moderators of self-silencing in white women (Doctoral Dissertation). New York, Columbia University.
  • Can M (2019) Rasyonel bencillik ahlakı. Ankara, Elis yayınları.
  • Dainow A (2014) The influence of feminism on self-silencing and friendship quality in women’s same-sex friendships (Master Thesis). Canada, The University of Guelph.
  • Demir Kaya M (2019) Genç kadınlarda kendini susturma ve toplumsal cinsiyet rollerinin kimlik işlevleri üzerindeki etkisi (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul, Maltepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • Erikson EH (1994) Identity, youth and crisis. New York, Norton. (Reprinted from Identity, youth and crisis, 1968, New York, Norton)
  • Fivush R (2002) Voice and silence: A feminist model of autobiographical memory. In The mediated mind: Essays in honor of Katherine Nelson. (Eds J Lucariello, JA Hudson, R Fivush, PJ Bauer):1-38. Mahwah, Erlbaum.
  • Fossum JL (1996) A correlational study of feminist/womenist identity development and depression in women (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, University of Southern California.
  • Gayed EK (2003) Gender conceptualizations of the divine as related to women’s self-esteem and feminist identity (Doctoral Dissertation). Los Angeles, Alliant International University.
  • Gilligan C (2017) Kadının farklı sesi (Çeviri D Dinçer, F Arısan, M Elma). İstanbul, Pinhan Yayıncılık.
  • Gordon RA (2010) Drugs don’t talk: Do medication and biological psychiatry contribute to silencing the self? In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):47-72. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Harper MS, Welsh DP (2007) Keeping quiet: Self-silencing and its association with relational and individual functioning among adolescent romantic couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24:99–116.
  • Hasanoğlu A (2013) İlişkilerin günlük hayatı. İstanbul, Remzi kitabevi.
  • Horwitz A, White H (1987) Gender role orientations and styles of pathology among adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28:158–170.
  • Jack DC (1991) Silencing the self: Women and depression. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
  • Jack DC (2003) The anger of hope and the anger of despair: How anger relates to women’s depression. In Situating sadness: Women and depression in social context. (Eds J Stoppard, L McMullen):62–87. New York, New York University Press.
  • Jack DC, Ali A (2010) Introduction: Culture, self-silencing, and depression: A contextual-relational perspective. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds. DC Jack, A Ali):3-17. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Jack DC, Dill D (1992) The silencing the self scale: Schemas of intimacy associated with depression in women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16:97-106.
  • Jordan J (1997) A relational perspective for understanding women’s development. In Women’s growth in diversity: Writings from the Stone Center. (Ed JV Jordan):9–24. New York, Guilford.
  • Jordan J (2010) On the critical importance of relationships for women’s well-being. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):99-106. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Kağıtçıbaşı Ç (2010) Günümüzde insan ve insanlar. İstanbul, Evrim Yayınevi.
  • Kurtiş T (2010) Self-silencing and well -being among turkish women (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul, Koç Üniversitesi.
  • Kurtiş T, Soylu Yalçınkaya N, Adams G (2017) Silence in official representations of history: Implications for national identity and intergroup relations. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 5(2):608–629.
  • Laurent H, Powers S (2007) Emotion regulation in emerging adult couples: Temperament, attachment, and HPA response to conflict. Biological Psychology, 76:61–71.
  • Le Bon G (2009) Kitleler psikolojisi (Çeviri Y Ender). İstanbul, Hayat Yayınları.
  • Maji S, Dixit S (2018) Self-silencing and women’s health: A review. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1-11.
  • Marcia JE (2014) From industry to integrity. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 14:165–176.
  • Marcia JE, Josselson R (2013) Eriksonian personality research and its implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Personality, 81(6):617-629.
  • Mauthner NS (2010) ‘‘I wasn’t being true to myself’’: Women’s narratives of postpartum depression. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):459-484. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • McLean KC, Syed M (2017) Narrative identity. In Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development. (Eds S Hupp, J Jewll). Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Miller LT (1996) The self-silencing process in late adolescence: The relationship with depression and mother/doughter relationship (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, University of Cincinnati.
  • Morsunbul U, Crocetti E, Cok F, Meeus W (2016) Identity statuses and psychosocial functioning in Turkish youth: A person-centered approach. Journal of Adolescence, 47:145-155.
  • Neves S, Nogueira C (2010) Deconstructing gendered discourses of love, power, and violence in intimate relationships: Portuguese women’s experiences. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):241-259. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Özmen O, Sümer ZH (2011) Predictors of risk-taking behaviors among Turkish adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(1):4–9.
  • Reyes DY (2014) Ethnic differences in self-silencing and traditional Latino gender roles in Latina women (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, Walden University.
  • Russell EJ (2015) An exploration of the relationship of college women’s feminist identity development and their perceptions of their male romantic partners’ conformity to masculine norms (Doctoral Dissertation). USA, The University of Akron.
  • Schwartz SJ, Luyckx K, Crocetti E (2015) What have we learned since Schwartz (2001)?: A reappraisal of the field of identity development. In The Oxford handbook of identity development. (Eds KC McLean, M Syed):539-561. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Serafini TE, Adams GR (2002) Functions of identity: Scale construction and validation. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2(4):363–391.
  • Sikka A, Vaden Goad LG, Waldner LK (2010) Authentic self-expression: Gender, ethnicity, and culture. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):261-284. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Silva DD (2002) A study of Latino and Latina university students gender role expectations: Gender role conflict, acculturation, ethnic identity, and worldview (Doctoral Dissertation). New Mexico, New Mexico State University.
  • Smolak L (2010) Gender as culture: The meanings of self-silencing in women and men. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):129-146. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Thompson JM (1995) Silencing the self: Depressive symptomatology and close relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19:337–353.
  • Trimble JE, Scharron del Rio MR, Bernal G (2010) The itinerant researcher: Ethical and methodological issues in conducting cross-cultural cental cealth research. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):73-95. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Waterman AS (1990) Personal expressiveness: philosophical and psychological foundations. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11(1):47-73.
  • Waterman AS (1995) Identity development from adolescence to adulthood: An extension of theory and a review of research. Developmental Psychology, 18(39):341-358.
  • Witte TH, Sherman MF (2002) Silencing the self and feminist identity development. Psychological Reports, 90:1075-1083.
  • Woodhill BM, Samuels CA (2004) Desirable and undesirable androgyny: A prescription for the twenty-first century. Journal of Gender Studies, 13(1):15-42.
  • Worell J (2010) Foreword: Silence no more. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):xxiii-xxvii. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Zerzan J (2010) Ataerkillik, uygarlık ve toplumsal cinsiyetin kökenleri. İçinde Felsefelogos-Cinsiyetçilik. 49. İstanbul, Fesatoder Yayınları.
  • Zoellner T, Hedlund S (2010) Women’s self-silencing and depression in the socio-cultural context of Germany. In Silencing the self across cultures. (Eds DC Jack, A Ali):107-127. New York, Oxford University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Meva DEMİR KAYA (Sorumlu Yazar)
ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ, PSİKOLOJİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-1174-6305
Türkiye


Figen ÇOK Bu kişi benim
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2406-1345
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 24 Kasım 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

AMA Demir Kaya M. , Çok F. Genç Kadınlarda Kendini Susturma. pgy. 2021; 13(3): 428-440.

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