Derleme
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Travmatik Beyin Hasarında Psikiyatrik Komorbidite

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 511 - 523, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.820768

Öz

Travmatik beyin hasarı (TBH), darbe sonucu oluşan beynin fonksiyonunda bozulma olmasıdır. TBH sonucu ölüm ve sakatlık görülebilir. TBH sonrası psikiyatrik durumlar sıklıkla görülmektedir. TBH sonrası en sık görülen psikiyatrik bozukluklar, uyum bozukluğu, fobik bozukluk, panik atak, travma sonrası stres bozukluğu (TSSB), akut stres bozukluğu, alkol kullanım bozukluğu ve depresyondur. Psikiyatrik komorbid durumlar TBH sonrası iyileşmeyi olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. TBH sonrası eşlik eden psikiyatrik hastalıkların sosyal yaşam ve iş hayatında sorunlara yol açması nedeniyle, TBH sonrası gelişen psikiyatrik bozuklukların sıklığını ve nasıl oluştuğunun bilinmesi, tedavi stratejilerinin geliştirilmesi açısından önem taşımaktadır. Bu derlemede, TBH sonrası gelişen komorbid psikiyatrik hastalıkların klinik özelliklerini ve son tedavi yaklaşımlarını anlatmayı hedefledik

Kaynakça

  • Achté, K., Jarho, L., Kyykkä, T., & Vesterinen, E. (1991). Paranoid disorders following war brain damage. Psychopathology, 24(5), 309–315.
  • Arciniegas, D. B., Harris, S. N., & Brousseau, K. M. (2003). Psychosis following traumatic brain injury. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(4), 328–340.
  • Ashman, T. A., Spielman, L. A., Hibbard, M. R., Silver, J. M., Chandna, T., & Gordon, W. A. (2004). Psychiatric challenges in the first 6 years after traumatic brain injury: Cross-sequential analyses of Axis I disorders. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 36–42.
  • Bombardier, C. H., Fann, J. R., Temkin, N., Esselman, P. C., Pelzer, E., Keough, M., & Dikmen, S. (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during the first six months after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18(4), 501–508.
  • Bryant, R. A., & Harvey, A. G. (1999). Postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(5), 302–305.
  • Buckley, P., Stack, J. P., Madigan, C., O’Callaghan, E., Larkin, C., Redmond, O., Ennis, J. T., & Waddington, J. L. (1993). Magnetic resonance imaging of schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with cerebral trauma: Clinicopathological correlates. The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Cappa, K. A., Conger, J. C., & Conger, A. J. (2011). Injury severity and outcome: A meta-analysis of prospective studies on TBI outcome. Health Psychology, 30(5), 542.
  • Chi, Y.-C., Wu, H.-L., Chu, C.-P., Huang, M.-C., Lee, P.-C., & Chen, Y.-Y. (2016). Traumatic brain injury and affective disorder: A nationwide cohort study in Taiwan, 2000–2010. Journal of Affective Disorders, 191, 56–61.
  • Curran, C. A., Ponsford, J. L., & Crowe, S. (2000). Coping strategies and emotional outcome following traumatic brain injury: A comparison with orthopedic patients. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15(6), 1256–1274.
  • Deb, S., Lyons, I., Koutzoukis, C., Ali, I., & McCarthy, G. (1999). Rate of psychiatric illness 1 year after traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 374–378.
  • Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., & Temkin, N. (2017). Mild traumatic brain injury: Longitudinal study of cognition, functional status, and post-traumatic symptoms. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(8), 1524–1530.
  • Dikmen, S. S., Bombardier, C. H., Machamer, J. E., Fann, J. R., & Temkin, N. R. (2004). Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(9), 1457–1464.
  • Fann, J. R., Bombardier, C. H., Dikmen, S., Esselman, P., Warms, C. A., Pelzer, E., Rau, H., & Temkin, N. (2005). Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in assessing depression following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(6), 501–511.
  • Fann, J. R., Burington, B., Leonetti, A., Jaffe, K., Katon, W. J., & Thompson, R. S. (2004). Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult healthMaintenance organization population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 53–61.
  • Fedoroff, J. P., Starkstein, S. E., Forrester, A. W., Geisler, F. H., Jorge, R. E., Arndt, S. V., & Robinson, R. G. (1992). Depression in patients with acute traumatic brain injury. The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Fujii, D., & Ahmed, I. (2002). Characteristics of psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury: An analysis of case studies in the literature. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 14(2), 130–140.
  • Fujii, D. E., & Ahmed, I. (2014). Psychotic disorder caused by traumatic brain injury. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 37(1), 113–124.
  • Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (1998). The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 507.
  • Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (1999). Predictors of acute stress following motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 12(3), 519–525.
  • Hibbard, M. R., Uysal, S., Kepler, K., Bogdany, J., & Silver, J. (1998). Axis I psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation.
  • Holbrook, T. L., Anderson, J. P., Sieber, W. J., Browner, D., & Hoyt, D. B. (1999). Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 46(5), 765–773.
  • Holsinger, T., Steffens, D. C., Phillips, C., Helms, M. J., Havlik, R. J., Breitner, J. C., Guralnik, J. M., & Plassman, B. L. (2002). Head injury in early adulthood and the lifetime risk of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(1), 17–22.
  • Hugenholtz, H., Stuss, D. T., Stethem, L. L., & Richard, M. T. (1988). How long does it take to recover from a mild concussion? Neurosurgery, 22(5), 853–858.
  • Hyder, A. A., Wunderlich, C. A., Puvanachandra, P., Gururaj, G., & Kobusingye, O. C. (2007). The impact of traumatic brain injuries: A global perspective. NeuroRehabilitation, 22(5), 341–353.
  • Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Arndt, S. V., Forrester, A. W., Geisler, F., & Starkstein, S. E. (1993). Comparison between acute-and delayed-onset depression following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
  • Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Moser, D., Tateno, A., Crespo-Facorro, B., & Arndt, S. (2004). Major depression following traumatic brain injury. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 42–50.
  • Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Starkstein, S. E., & Arndt, S. V. (1994). Influence of major depression on 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 81(5), 726–733.
  • Jorge, R., & Robinson, R. G. (n.d.). Mood disorders following traumatic brain injury. 2003. International Review of Psychiatry. Nov; 15 (4), 317–27.
  • K. Zaucha, S. P. (1998). Neuropsychological, psychosocial and vocational correlates of the Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months post injury: A study of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Injury, 12(7), 555–567.
  • Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., III, E. V. G., Kreutzer, J. S., Marwitz, J. H., Meade, M. A., & Cifu, D. X. (2002). Post-injury substance abuse among persons with brain injury and persons with spinal cord injury. Brain Injury, 16(7), 583–592.
  • Koponen, S., Taiminen, T., Hiekkanen, H., & Tenovuo, O. (2011). Axis I and II psychiatric disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury: A 12-month follow-up study. Brain Injury, 25(11), 1029–1034.
  • Kreutzer, J. S., Seel, R. T., & Gourley, E. (2001). The prevalence and symptom rates of depression after traumatic brain injury: A comprehensive examination. Brain Injury, 15(7), 563–576.
  • Levin, H. S., Brown, S. A., Song, J. X., McCauley, S. R., Boake, C., Contant, C. F., Goodman, H., & Kotrla, K. J. (2001). Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at three months after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(6), 754–769.
  • Levin, H. S., & Grossman, R. G. (1978). Behavioral sequelae of closed head injury: A quantitative study. Archives of Neurology, 35(11), 720–727.
  • Levin, H. S., Williams, D. H., Eisenberg, H. M., High, W. M., & Guinto, F. C. (1992). Serial MRI and neurobehavioural findings after mild to moderate closed head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 55(4), 255–262.
  • Malaspina, D., Goetz, R. R., Friedman, J. H., Kaufmann, C. A., Faraone, S. V., Tsuang, M., Cloninger, C. R., Nurnberger Jr, J. I., & Blehar, M. C. (2001). Traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia in members of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder pedigrees. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 440–446.
  • Malec, J. F., Testa, J. A., Rush, B. K., Brown, A. W., & Moessner, A. M. (2007). Self-assessment of impairment, impaired self-awareness, and depression after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22(3), 156–166.
  • Marsh, N. V., & Smith, M. D. (1995). Post-concussion syndrome and the coping hypothesis. Brain Injury, 9(6), 553–562.
  • Mayou, R., Bryant, B., & Duthie, R. (1993). Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents. British Medical Journal, 307(6905), 647–651.
  • McAllister, T. W., & Ferrell, R. B. (2002). Evaluation and treatment of psychosis after traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 17(4), 357–368.
  • McCauley, S. R., Wilde, E. A., Miller, E. R., Frisby, M. L., Garza, H. M., Varghese, R., Levin, H. S., Robertson, C. S., & McCarthy, J. J. (2013). Preinjury resilience and mood as predictors of early outcome following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(8), 642–652.
  • Molloy, C., Conroy, R. M., Cotter, D. R., & Cannon, M. (2011). Is traumatic brain injury a risk factor for schizophrenia? A meta-analysis of case-controlled population-based studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(6), 1104–1110.
  • Mooney, G., & Speed, J. (2001). The association between mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric conditions. Brain Injury, 15(10), 865–877.
  • Moore, A. D., Stambrook, M., & Peters, L. C. (1989). Coping strategies and adjustment after closed-head injury: A cluster analytical approach. Brain Injury, 3(2), 171–175.
  • O’donnell, M. L., Creamer, M. C., Parslow, R., Elliott, P., Holmes, A. C., Ellen, S., Judson, R., McFarlane, A. C., Silove, D., & Bryant, R. A. (2008). A predictive screening index for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following traumatic injury. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(6), 923.
  • Ponsford, J., Cameron, P., Fitzgerald, M., Grant, M., Mikocka-Walus, A., & Schönberger, M. (2012). Predictors of postconcussive symptoms 3 months after mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 26(3), 304.
  • Ruff, R. M., Camenzuli, L., & Mueller, J. (1996). Miserable minority: Emotional risk factors that influence the outcome of a mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 10(8), 551–566.
  • Rutherford, W., Merrett, J., & Mcdonali, J. (1977). Sequelae of concussion caused by minor head injuries. The Lancet, 309(8001), 1–4.
  • Sachdev, P., Smith, J. S., & Cathcart, S. (2001). Schizophrenia-like psychosis following traumatic brain injury: A chart-based descriptive and case-control study. Psychological Medicine, 31(2), 231.
  • Salmond, C. H., Menon, D. K., Chatfield, D. A., Pickard, J. D., & Sahakian, B. J. (2006). Cognitive reserve as a resilience factor against depression after moderate/severe head injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1049–1058.
  • Satz, P. (1998). Depression, cognition, and functional correlates of recovery outcome after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 12(7), 537–553.
  • Seel, R. T., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2003). Depression assessment after traumatic brain injury: An empirically based classification method. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(11), 1621–1628.
  • Seel, R. T., Macciocchi, S., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2010). Clinical considerations for the diagnosis of major depression after moderate to severe TBI. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(2), 99–112.
  • Shukla, S., Cook, B. L., Mukherjee, S., Godwin, C., & Miller, M. G. (1987). Mania following head trauma. The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Silver, J. M., Kramer, R., Greenwald, S., & Weissman, M. (2001). The association between head injuries and psychiatric disorders: Findings from the New Haven NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Brain Injury, 15(11), 935–945.
  • Sosin, D. M., Sniezek, J. E., & Thurman, D. J. (1996). Incidence of mild and moderate brain injury in the United States, 1991. Brain Injury, 10(1), 47–54.
  • Starkstein, S. E., Pearlson, G. D., Boston, J., & Robinson, R. G. (1987). Mania after brain injury: A controlled study of causative factors. Archives of Neurology, 44(10), 1069–1073.
  • Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. The Lancet, 304(7872), 81–84.
  • van Reekum, R., Cohen, T., & Wong, J. (2000). Can traumatic brain injury cause psychiatric disorders? The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 12(3), 316–327.
  • Wallace, C. A., & Bogner, J. (2000). Awareness of deficits: Emotional implications for persons with brain injury and their significant others. Brain Injury, 14(6), 549–562.

Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Comorbidity

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 511 - 523, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.820768

Öz

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is determined as a pathology of brain and a changing of a function of the brain caused by an external force. It may cause death and disability. Most of the time, psychological symptoms occur after TBI. The most common comorbid psychiatric conditions after TBI are adjustment disorder, phobic disorder, panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder and depression. Psychiatric morbidity after TBI harms on the recovery. Since psychiatric conditions after TBI may cause social and occupational problems, understanding the prevalence and pathogenesis of post-TBI psychiatric syndromes is essential for developing treatment strategies and managing with sequelae of TBI. In this review we aimed to elucidate clinical features and treatment approaches to TBI with comorbid psychiatric situations evaluating published studies.

Kaynakça

  • Achté, K., Jarho, L., Kyykkä, T., & Vesterinen, E. (1991). Paranoid disorders following war brain damage. Psychopathology, 24(5), 309–315.
  • Arciniegas, D. B., Harris, S. N., & Brousseau, K. M. (2003). Psychosis following traumatic brain injury. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(4), 328–340.
  • Ashman, T. A., Spielman, L. A., Hibbard, M. R., Silver, J. M., Chandna, T., & Gordon, W. A. (2004). Psychiatric challenges in the first 6 years after traumatic brain injury: Cross-sequential analyses of Axis I disorders. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 36–42.
  • Bombardier, C. H., Fann, J. R., Temkin, N., Esselman, P. C., Pelzer, E., Keough, M., & Dikmen, S. (2006). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during the first six months after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18(4), 501–508.
  • Bryant, R. A., & Harvey, A. G. (1999). Postconcussive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder after mild traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(5), 302–305.
  • Buckley, P., Stack, J. P., Madigan, C., O’Callaghan, E., Larkin, C., Redmond, O., Ennis, J. T., & Waddington, J. L. (1993). Magnetic resonance imaging of schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with cerebral trauma: Clinicopathological correlates. The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Cappa, K. A., Conger, J. C., & Conger, A. J. (2011). Injury severity and outcome: A meta-analysis of prospective studies on TBI outcome. Health Psychology, 30(5), 542.
  • Chi, Y.-C., Wu, H.-L., Chu, C.-P., Huang, M.-C., Lee, P.-C., & Chen, Y.-Y. (2016). Traumatic brain injury and affective disorder: A nationwide cohort study in Taiwan, 2000–2010. Journal of Affective Disorders, 191, 56–61.
  • Curran, C. A., Ponsford, J. L., & Crowe, S. (2000). Coping strategies and emotional outcome following traumatic brain injury: A comparison with orthopedic patients. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15(6), 1256–1274.
  • Deb, S., Lyons, I., Koutzoukis, C., Ali, I., & McCarthy, G. (1999). Rate of psychiatric illness 1 year after traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 374–378.
  • Dikmen, S., Machamer, J., & Temkin, N. (2017). Mild traumatic brain injury: Longitudinal study of cognition, functional status, and post-traumatic symptoms. Journal of Neurotrauma, 34(8), 1524–1530.
  • Dikmen, S. S., Bombardier, C. H., Machamer, J. E., Fann, J. R., & Temkin, N. R. (2004). Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(9), 1457–1464.
  • Fann, J. R., Bombardier, C. H., Dikmen, S., Esselman, P., Warms, C. A., Pelzer, E., Rau, H., & Temkin, N. (2005). Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in assessing depression following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(6), 501–511.
  • Fann, J. R., Burington, B., Leonetti, A., Jaffe, K., Katon, W. J., & Thompson, R. S. (2004). Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult healthMaintenance organization population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 53–61.
  • Fedoroff, J. P., Starkstein, S. E., Forrester, A. W., Geisler, F. H., Jorge, R. E., Arndt, S. V., & Robinson, R. G. (1992). Depression in patients with acute traumatic brain injury. The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Fujii, D., & Ahmed, I. (2002). Characteristics of psychotic disorder due to traumatic brain injury: An analysis of case studies in the literature. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 14(2), 130–140.
  • Fujii, D. E., & Ahmed, I. (2014). Psychotic disorder caused by traumatic brain injury. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 37(1), 113–124.
  • Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (1998). The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 507.
  • Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (1999). Predictors of acute stress following motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 12(3), 519–525.
  • Hibbard, M. R., Uysal, S., Kepler, K., Bogdany, J., & Silver, J. (1998). Axis I psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation.
  • Holbrook, T. L., Anderson, J. P., Sieber, W. J., Browner, D., & Hoyt, D. B. (1999). Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the Trauma Recovery Project. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 46(5), 765–773.
  • Holsinger, T., Steffens, D. C., Phillips, C., Helms, M. J., Havlik, R. J., Breitner, J. C., Guralnik, J. M., & Plassman, B. L. (2002). Head injury in early adulthood and the lifetime risk of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(1), 17–22.
  • Hugenholtz, H., Stuss, D. T., Stethem, L. L., & Richard, M. T. (1988). How long does it take to recover from a mild concussion? Neurosurgery, 22(5), 853–858.
  • Hyder, A. A., Wunderlich, C. A., Puvanachandra, P., Gururaj, G., & Kobusingye, O. C. (2007). The impact of traumatic brain injuries: A global perspective. NeuroRehabilitation, 22(5), 341–353.
  • Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Arndt, S. V., Forrester, A. W., Geisler, F., & Starkstein, S. E. (1993). Comparison between acute-and delayed-onset depression following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
  • Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Moser, D., Tateno, A., Crespo-Facorro, B., & Arndt, S. (2004). Major depression following traumatic brain injury. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 42–50.
  • Jorge, R. E., Robinson, R. G., Starkstein, S. E., & Arndt, S. V. (1994). Influence of major depression on 1-year outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 81(5), 726–733.
  • Jorge, R., & Robinson, R. G. (n.d.). Mood disorders following traumatic brain injury. 2003. International Review of Psychiatry. Nov; 15 (4), 317–27.
  • K. Zaucha, S. P. (1998). Neuropsychological, psychosocial and vocational correlates of the Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months post injury: A study of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Injury, 12(7), 555–567.
  • Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., III, E. V. G., Kreutzer, J. S., Marwitz, J. H., Meade, M. A., & Cifu, D. X. (2002). Post-injury substance abuse among persons with brain injury and persons with spinal cord injury. Brain Injury, 16(7), 583–592.
  • Koponen, S., Taiminen, T., Hiekkanen, H., & Tenovuo, O. (2011). Axis I and II psychiatric disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury: A 12-month follow-up study. Brain Injury, 25(11), 1029–1034.
  • Kreutzer, J. S., Seel, R. T., & Gourley, E. (2001). The prevalence and symptom rates of depression after traumatic brain injury: A comprehensive examination. Brain Injury, 15(7), 563–576.
  • Levin, H. S., Brown, S. A., Song, J. X., McCauley, S. R., Boake, C., Contant, C. F., Goodman, H., & Kotrla, K. J. (2001). Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at three months after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(6), 754–769.
  • Levin, H. S., & Grossman, R. G. (1978). Behavioral sequelae of closed head injury: A quantitative study. Archives of Neurology, 35(11), 720–727.
  • Levin, H. S., Williams, D. H., Eisenberg, H. M., High, W. M., & Guinto, F. C. (1992). Serial MRI and neurobehavioural findings after mild to moderate closed head injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 55(4), 255–262.
  • Malaspina, D., Goetz, R. R., Friedman, J. H., Kaufmann, C. A., Faraone, S. V., Tsuang, M., Cloninger, C. R., Nurnberger Jr, J. I., & Blehar, M. C. (2001). Traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia in members of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder pedigrees. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(3), 440–446.
  • Malec, J. F., Testa, J. A., Rush, B. K., Brown, A. W., & Moessner, A. M. (2007). Self-assessment of impairment, impaired self-awareness, and depression after traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22(3), 156–166.
  • Marsh, N. V., & Smith, M. D. (1995). Post-concussion syndrome and the coping hypothesis. Brain Injury, 9(6), 553–562.
  • Mayou, R., Bryant, B., & Duthie, R. (1993). Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents. British Medical Journal, 307(6905), 647–651.
  • McAllister, T. W., & Ferrell, R. B. (2002). Evaluation and treatment of psychosis after traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 17(4), 357–368.
  • McCauley, S. R., Wilde, E. A., Miller, E. R., Frisby, M. L., Garza, H. M., Varghese, R., Levin, H. S., Robertson, C. S., & McCarthy, J. J. (2013). Preinjury resilience and mood as predictors of early outcome following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(8), 642–652.
  • Molloy, C., Conroy, R. M., Cotter, D. R., & Cannon, M. (2011). Is traumatic brain injury a risk factor for schizophrenia? A meta-analysis of case-controlled population-based studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(6), 1104–1110.
  • Mooney, G., & Speed, J. (2001). The association between mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric conditions. Brain Injury, 15(10), 865–877.
  • Moore, A. D., Stambrook, M., & Peters, L. C. (1989). Coping strategies and adjustment after closed-head injury: A cluster analytical approach. Brain Injury, 3(2), 171–175.
  • O’donnell, M. L., Creamer, M. C., Parslow, R., Elliott, P., Holmes, A. C., Ellen, S., Judson, R., McFarlane, A. C., Silove, D., & Bryant, R. A. (2008). A predictive screening index for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following traumatic injury. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(6), 923.
  • Ponsford, J., Cameron, P., Fitzgerald, M., Grant, M., Mikocka-Walus, A., & Schönberger, M. (2012). Predictors of postconcussive symptoms 3 months after mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 26(3), 304.
  • Ruff, R. M., Camenzuli, L., & Mueller, J. (1996). Miserable minority: Emotional risk factors that influence the outcome of a mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 10(8), 551–566.
  • Rutherford, W., Merrett, J., & Mcdonali, J. (1977). Sequelae of concussion caused by minor head injuries. The Lancet, 309(8001), 1–4.
  • Sachdev, P., Smith, J. S., & Cathcart, S. (2001). Schizophrenia-like psychosis following traumatic brain injury: A chart-based descriptive and case-control study. Psychological Medicine, 31(2), 231.
  • Salmond, C. H., Menon, D. K., Chatfield, D. A., Pickard, J. D., & Sahakian, B. J. (2006). Cognitive reserve as a resilience factor against depression after moderate/severe head injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1049–1058.
  • Satz, P. (1998). Depression, cognition, and functional correlates of recovery outcome after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 12(7), 537–553.
  • Seel, R. T., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2003). Depression assessment after traumatic brain injury: An empirically based classification method. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(11), 1621–1628.
  • Seel, R. T., Macciocchi, S., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2010). Clinical considerations for the diagnosis of major depression after moderate to severe TBI. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(2), 99–112.
  • Shukla, S., Cook, B. L., Mukherjee, S., Godwin, C., & Miller, M. G. (1987). Mania following head trauma. The American Journal of Psychiatry.
  • Silver, J. M., Kramer, R., Greenwald, S., & Weissman, M. (2001). The association between head injuries and psychiatric disorders: Findings from the New Haven NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Brain Injury, 15(11), 935–945.
  • Sosin, D. M., Sniezek, J. E., & Thurman, D. J. (1996). Incidence of mild and moderate brain injury in the United States, 1991. Brain Injury, 10(1), 47–54.
  • Starkstein, S. E., Pearlson, G. D., Boston, J., & Robinson, R. G. (1987). Mania after brain injury: A controlled study of causative factors. Archives of Neurology, 44(10), 1069–1073.
  • Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. The Lancet, 304(7872), 81–84.
  • van Reekum, R., Cohen, T., & Wong, J. (2000). Can traumatic brain injury cause psychiatric disorders? The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 12(3), 316–327.
  • Wallace, C. A., & Bogner, J. (2000). Awareness of deficits: Emotional implications for persons with brain injury and their significant others. Brain Injury, 14(6), 549–562.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikiyatri
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Filiz KULACAOĞLU (Sorumlu Yazar)
UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, İSTANBUL ERENKÖY APPLICATION AND RESEARCH CENTER FOR PSYCHIATRIC AND NERVE DISEASES
0000-0001-9800-4971
Türkiye


Filiz İZCİ
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İSTANBUL ERENKÖY RUH VE SİNİR HASTALIKLARI SAĞLIK UYGULAMA VE ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, PSİKİYATRİ ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0003-0576-9487
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 17 Ocak 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

AMA Kulacaoğlu F. , İzci F. Travmatik Beyin Hasarında Psikiyatrik Komorbidite. pgy. 2021; 13(3): 511-523.

Creative Commons Lisansı
Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar Creative Commons Atıf-Gayriticari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.