Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Covid-19 Pandemisinde, Travmatik Stres Belirtileri ve Ontolojik İyi Oluş Arasındaki İlişkide Anksiyetenin Aracı Rolü

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı Ek 1, 40 - 58, 29.12.2021

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, COVID-19 pandemisine maruz kalan kişilerde travma sonrası stres belirtileri ile ontolojik iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkide anksiyetenin aracı rolünün incelenmesidir. Çalışma, salgın hastalık ve karantinasına maruz kalan 355 katılımcı ile online olarak yürütülmüştür. Katılımcılara, Demografik Bilgi Anketi, Travmatik Stres Belirti Ölçeği, Durumluk–Sürekli anksiyete ölçeği ve Ontolojik İyi Oluş ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Katılımcıların çoğunun, 18-25 yaşları arasında (%42), kadın (%76.9), üniversite mezunu (%43,4) ve Bekâr (%53.5) olduğu görülmüştür. Travmatik stres belirtileri arttıkça anksiyete (durumluk ve sürekli) düzeyinin arttığı, travmatik stres belirtileri ve anksiyete (durumluk ve sürekli) düzeyi arttıkça ontolojik iyi oluş düzeyinin düştüğü bulunmuştur. Bununla birlikte travmatik stres belirtileri ile ontolojik iyi oluş arasındaki ilişkide anksiyetenin aracılık etkisinin bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. COVID-19 pandemisinin, travma sonrası belirtileri ve anksiyete semptomlarını arttırdığı ve ontolojik iyi oluş üzerinde olumsuz etkileri olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu nedenle, pandemiye maruz kalan bireylerde, özellikle kolay zedelenebilir risk gruplarında, risk faktörlerini ele alan psikoterapotik yöntem ve psikososyal destek uygulamalarının geliştirilmesi gelecekteki toplumsal ruh sağlığı açısından önemli görünmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Aker AT, Sorgun E, Mestçioğlu Ö, Karakaya I, Kalender D, Acar G, et al. (2008) İstanbul'daki bombalama eylemlerinin erişkin ve ergenlerdeki travmatik stres etkileri. Türk Psikoloji Derg, 23:63-71.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Ataoğlu BB, Ataoğlu A, Ankaralı H (2019) The Effect of Traumatic Experiences on Self-Esteem Düzce Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi / Duzce Medical Journal, 21:186-191.
  • Başoğlu M, Şalcıoğlu E, Livanou M, Özeren M, Aker AT, Kılıç C, et al.(2001) A study of the validity of a screening instrument for traumatic stress in earthquake survivors in Turkey. J Trauma Stress,14(3):491-509.
  • Bromet EJ, Atwoli L, Kawakami N et al. (2017) Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine, 47:227–41.
  • Browne KC, Trim R. S, Myers US, Norman SB (2015) Trauma‐Related Guilt: Conceptual Development and Relationship With Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of traumatic stress, 28(2), 134-141.
  • Çokluk Ö, Şekercioğlu G, Büyüköztürk Ş (2012) Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik: SPSS ve Lisrel Uygulamaları. Ankara, Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Conway MA (2005) Memory and the self. Journal of memory and language, 53(4), 594-628.
  • Caputo EL, Reichert FF (2020) Studies of physical activity and COVID-19 during the pandemic: a scoping review. J Phys Activ Health,1. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2020-0406. Crisford H, Dare H, Evangeli M (2008) Offence-Related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptomatology and Guilt in Mentally Disordered Violent and Sexual Offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Vol. 19 (1):86-107. Ehlers A, Clark DM (2000) A cognitive model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38:319–345.
  • Field A (2005) Discovering Statistics Using SPPS (2nd ed.).SAGE Publications.
  • Galea S, Nandi A, Vlahov D (2005) The epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder after disasters. Epidemiologic Reviews, 27:78-91.
  • Hathaway LM, Boals A, Banks JB (2010) PTSD symptoms and dominant emotional response to a traumatic event: an examination of DSM-IV Criterion A2. Anxiety Stress Coping, 23(1): 119-126.
  • Herman JL (2007) Travma ve İyileşme: şiddetin sonuçları ev içi istismardan siyasi teröre. (çeviri Ed. Tamer Tosun). İstanbul, Literatür.
  • Horsch A, Jacobs I, McKenzie‐McHarg K (2015) Cognitive Predictors and Risk Factors of PTSD Following Stillbirth: A Short‐Term Longitudinal Study. Journal of traumatic stress, 28(2): 110-117.
  • Huang Y, Zhao N (2020) Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: A web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res, 1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954
  • Janoff-Bulman R (1989) Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7(2):113-136.
  • Karataş Z (2020) COVID-19 Pandemisinin Toplumsal Etkileri, Değişim ve Güçlenme, Türkiye Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1):1-17.
  • Karatzias T, Chouliara Z, Power K, Brown K, Begum M, McGoldrick T, MacLean R (2013) Life satisfaction in people with post-traumatic stress disorder. J Ment Health, 22:501–508.
  • Kılıçoğlu A (2007) Stres ve beyindeki etkileri: bir gözden geçirme. Yeni Sempozyum, 45(3):134-40.
  • Kubany ES (1994) A cognitive model of guilt typology in combat‐related PTSD. Journal of traumatic stress, 7(1):3-19.
  • Leal PC, Goes TC, da Silva LC. F, Teixeira-Silva F (2017) Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 39(3):147–157. doi:10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0044
  • McFarlane A (2004) The contribution of epidemiology to the study of traumatic stress. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 39: 874–882. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-004-0870-1
  • Marroquín B, Vine V, Morgan R (2020) Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: effects of stay-at-home policies, social distancing behavior, and social resources. Psychiatr Res, 293:113419.
  • Noble CH, Walker BA (1997) Exploring the relationships among liminal transitions, symbolic consumption, and the extended self. Psychology & Marketing,14(1):29-47.
  • Norris FH, Kaniasty K, Conrad ML et al. (2002) Placing age differences in cultural context: a comparison of the effects of age on PTSD after disasters in the United States, Mexico, and Poland. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8:153-73.
  • Odriozola-González P, Planchuelo-Gómez Á, Irurtia-Muñiz MJ, de Luis-García R (2020) Psychological symptoms of the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis and confinement in the population of Spain. Doi:10.1177/1359105320967086
  • Öner N, Lecompte A (1998) Durumluk/ Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri El Kitabı, İstanbul, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.
  • Öner N, Le Compte A (1985) Durumluk-sürekli kaygı envanteri el kitabı [Manual for the statetrait anxiety inventory-Turkish form]. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Pennebaker JW (1997) Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.Psychological science, 8(3):162-166.
  • Pfefferbaum B, Newman E, Nelson SD, Nitiéma P, Pfefferbaum RL, Rahman A (2014) Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 16:464.
  • Pereda N, Arch M, Peró M, Guàrdia J, Forns M (2011) Assessing guilt after traumatic events: The Spanish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27(4):251–257. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000071 Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Philips MR, et al.(2007) No health without mental health. Lancet, 370:859-77.
  • Resick PA, Schnicke MK (1992) Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5):748-756.
  • Ross CA (2007) Borderline personality disorder and dissociation. J Trauma Dissociation, 8(1):71-80.
  • Roussis P, Wells A (2006) Post-traumatic stress symptoms: Tests of relationships with thought control strategies and beliefs as pre-dicted by the metacognitive model. Personality and Individual Differences, 40:111–122.
  • Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V (2020) Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pan demic. Asian J Psychiatr, 51. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083
  • Schuch FB, Stubbs B, Meyer J, Heissel A, Zech P, Vancampfort D, et al.(2019) Physical activity protects from incident anxiety: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Depress Anxiety, 36(9):846-858. doi: 10.1002/da.22915.
  • Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Firth J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Silva ES, et al.(2018) Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatr, 175(7):631-648. doı: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17111194.
  • Schuster R, Bornovalova M, Hunt E (2012)The influence of depression on the progression of HIV: direct and indirect effects. Behav Mod, 36:123-45.
  • Shevlin M, McBride O, Murphy J, Mille, JG, Hartman TK, Levita L et al.(2020) Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and COVID-19-related anxiety in the UK general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych Open, 6(6). doi:10.1192/bjo.2020.109
  • Shultz JM, Neria Y, Allen A, Espinel Z (2013). Psychological impacts of natural disasters. Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards. New York, Springer.
  • Shmotkin D (2005) Happiness in the face of adversity: Reformulating the dynamic and modular bases of subjective well-being. Review of general psychology, 9(4):291-325. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.9.4.291
  • Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1970) STAI manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Şimşek ÖF (2009) Happiness revisited: Ontological well-being as a theory-based construct of subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5):505-522.
  • Şimşek ÖF, Kocayörük E (2013) Affective reactions to one’s whole life: Preliminary development and validation of the ontological wellbeing scale. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1):309-343.
  • Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2013) Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.) Boston, Allyn and Bacon.
  • Tovilović S, Novović Z, Mihić L, Jovanović V (2009) The Role Of Trait Anxiety In Induction Of State Anxiety. Psihologija, 42(4): 491-504.
  • Tuval-Mashiach R, Freedman S, Bargai N, Boker R, Hadar H, Shalev AY (2004) Coping with trauma: Narrative and cognitive perspectives. Psychiatry, 67(3):280-293.
  • van der Kolk BA, van der Hart O, Burbridge J (2002) Approaches to the treatment of PTSD. In Simple and Complex Post–Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice, (Eds MB Williams, JF Sommer): 23–45. Binghamton, NY, The Haworth Press.
  • Walsh F (2007) Traumatic loss and major disasters: strengthening family and community resilience. Fam Process, 46(2):207-27.
  • Wang C (2020) A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet, 395, 470–473. Wattanasuwan K (2005) The self and symbolic consumption. Journal of American Academy of Business, 6(1):179-84.
  • Zlotnick C, Franklin CL, Zimmerman M (2002) Does "subthreshold" posttraumatic stress disorder have any clinical relevance? Compr Psychiatry, 43:413-419.

Mediating Role of Anxiety in the Relationship Between Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Ontological Well-being in the Covid-19 Pandemic

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı Ek 1, 40 - 58, 29.12.2021

Öz

The purpose of this study is to analyse the intermediary role of anxiety in the relationship between traumatic stress symptoms and ontological well-being in individuals who have been exposed to the Covid-19 pandemic. The study was conducted online with 355 participants. A Socio Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Ontological Well-being Inventory were administered to participants. Most of the participants were between the ages of 18-25 (42%), female (76.9%), university graduates (43.4%) and single (53.5%). It has been found that as traumatic stress symptoms increase, the level of anxiety (state and trait) increases. Later, it was found that, as the level of traumatic stress symptoms and anxiety (state and continuous) increased, the level of ontological well-being decreased. In addition, anxiety was found to have an intermediary role in the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and ontological well-being. The Covid-19 pandemic was found to increase traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety levels and to have a negative influence on ontological well-being. therefore, it is important for the mental health of society to develop psychotherapeutic methods and psychosocial support practices for individuals who have been exposed to the covid-19 pandemic, especially for fragile risk groups, to help future social mental health.

Kaynakça

  • Aker AT, Sorgun E, Mestçioğlu Ö, Karakaya I, Kalender D, Acar G, et al. (2008) İstanbul'daki bombalama eylemlerinin erişkin ve ergenlerdeki travmatik stres etkileri. Türk Psikoloji Derg, 23:63-71.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Ataoğlu BB, Ataoğlu A, Ankaralı H (2019) The Effect of Traumatic Experiences on Self-Esteem Düzce Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi / Duzce Medical Journal, 21:186-191.
  • Başoğlu M, Şalcıoğlu E, Livanou M, Özeren M, Aker AT, Kılıç C, et al.(2001) A study of the validity of a screening instrument for traumatic stress in earthquake survivors in Turkey. J Trauma Stress,14(3):491-509.
  • Bromet EJ, Atwoli L, Kawakami N et al. (2017) Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine, 47:227–41.
  • Browne KC, Trim R. S, Myers US, Norman SB (2015) Trauma‐Related Guilt: Conceptual Development and Relationship With Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of traumatic stress, 28(2), 134-141.
  • Çokluk Ö, Şekercioğlu G, Büyüköztürk Ş (2012) Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik: SPSS ve Lisrel Uygulamaları. Ankara, Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Conway MA (2005) Memory and the self. Journal of memory and language, 53(4), 594-628.
  • Caputo EL, Reichert FF (2020) Studies of physical activity and COVID-19 during the pandemic: a scoping review. J Phys Activ Health,1. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2020-0406. Crisford H, Dare H, Evangeli M (2008) Offence-Related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptomatology and Guilt in Mentally Disordered Violent and Sexual Offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Vol. 19 (1):86-107. Ehlers A, Clark DM (2000) A cognitive model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38:319–345.
  • Field A (2005) Discovering Statistics Using SPPS (2nd ed.).SAGE Publications.
  • Galea S, Nandi A, Vlahov D (2005) The epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder after disasters. Epidemiologic Reviews, 27:78-91.
  • Hathaway LM, Boals A, Banks JB (2010) PTSD symptoms and dominant emotional response to a traumatic event: an examination of DSM-IV Criterion A2. Anxiety Stress Coping, 23(1): 119-126.
  • Herman JL (2007) Travma ve İyileşme: şiddetin sonuçları ev içi istismardan siyasi teröre. (çeviri Ed. Tamer Tosun). İstanbul, Literatür.
  • Horsch A, Jacobs I, McKenzie‐McHarg K (2015) Cognitive Predictors and Risk Factors of PTSD Following Stillbirth: A Short‐Term Longitudinal Study. Journal of traumatic stress, 28(2): 110-117.
  • Huang Y, Zhao N (2020) Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: A web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Res, 1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954
  • Janoff-Bulman R (1989) Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7(2):113-136.
  • Karataş Z (2020) COVID-19 Pandemisinin Toplumsal Etkileri, Değişim ve Güçlenme, Türkiye Sosyal Hizmet Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1):1-17.
  • Karatzias T, Chouliara Z, Power K, Brown K, Begum M, McGoldrick T, MacLean R (2013) Life satisfaction in people with post-traumatic stress disorder. J Ment Health, 22:501–508.
  • Kılıçoğlu A (2007) Stres ve beyindeki etkileri: bir gözden geçirme. Yeni Sempozyum, 45(3):134-40.
  • Kubany ES (1994) A cognitive model of guilt typology in combat‐related PTSD. Journal of traumatic stress, 7(1):3-19.
  • Leal PC, Goes TC, da Silva LC. F, Teixeira-Silva F (2017) Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 39(3):147–157. doi:10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0044
  • McFarlane A (2004) The contribution of epidemiology to the study of traumatic stress. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 39: 874–882. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-004-0870-1
  • Marroquín B, Vine V, Morgan R (2020) Mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: effects of stay-at-home policies, social distancing behavior, and social resources. Psychiatr Res, 293:113419.
  • Noble CH, Walker BA (1997) Exploring the relationships among liminal transitions, symbolic consumption, and the extended self. Psychology & Marketing,14(1):29-47.
  • Norris FH, Kaniasty K, Conrad ML et al. (2002) Placing age differences in cultural context: a comparison of the effects of age on PTSD after disasters in the United States, Mexico, and Poland. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8:153-73.
  • Odriozola-González P, Planchuelo-Gómez Á, Irurtia-Muñiz MJ, de Luis-García R (2020) Psychological symptoms of the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis and confinement in the population of Spain. Doi:10.1177/1359105320967086
  • Öner N, Lecompte A (1998) Durumluk/ Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri El Kitabı, İstanbul, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi.
  • Öner N, Le Compte A (1985) Durumluk-sürekli kaygı envanteri el kitabı [Manual for the statetrait anxiety inventory-Turkish form]. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Pennebaker JW (1997) Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.Psychological science, 8(3):162-166.
  • Pfefferbaum B, Newman E, Nelson SD, Nitiéma P, Pfefferbaum RL, Rahman A (2014) Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research. Curr Psychiatry Rep, 16:464.
  • Pereda N, Arch M, Peró M, Guàrdia J, Forns M (2011) Assessing guilt after traumatic events: The Spanish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27(4):251–257. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000071 Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, Maj M, Maselko J, Philips MR, et al.(2007) No health without mental health. Lancet, 370:859-77.
  • Resick PA, Schnicke MK (1992) Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5):748-756.
  • Ross CA (2007) Borderline personality disorder and dissociation. J Trauma Dissociation, 8(1):71-80.
  • Roussis P, Wells A (2006) Post-traumatic stress symptoms: Tests of relationships with thought control strategies and beliefs as pre-dicted by the metacognitive model. Personality and Individual Differences, 40:111–122.
  • Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V (2020) Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pan demic. Asian J Psychiatr, 51. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083
  • Schuch FB, Stubbs B, Meyer J, Heissel A, Zech P, Vancampfort D, et al.(2019) Physical activity protects from incident anxiety: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Depress Anxiety, 36(9):846-858. doi: 10.1002/da.22915.
  • Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Firth J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Silva ES, et al.(2018) Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatr, 175(7):631-648. doı: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17111194.
  • Schuster R, Bornovalova M, Hunt E (2012)The influence of depression on the progression of HIV: direct and indirect effects. Behav Mod, 36:123-45.
  • Shevlin M, McBride O, Murphy J, Mille, JG, Hartman TK, Levita L et al.(2020) Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and COVID-19-related anxiety in the UK general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych Open, 6(6). doi:10.1192/bjo.2020.109
  • Shultz JM, Neria Y, Allen A, Espinel Z (2013). Psychological impacts of natural disasters. Encyclopedia of Natural Hazards. New York, Springer.
  • Shmotkin D (2005) Happiness in the face of adversity: Reformulating the dynamic and modular bases of subjective well-being. Review of general psychology, 9(4):291-325. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.9.4.291
  • Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1970) STAI manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Şimşek ÖF (2009) Happiness revisited: Ontological well-being as a theory-based construct of subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5):505-522.
  • Şimşek ÖF, Kocayörük E (2013) Affective reactions to one’s whole life: Preliminary development and validation of the ontological wellbeing scale. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1):309-343.
  • Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2013) Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.) Boston, Allyn and Bacon.
  • Tovilović S, Novović Z, Mihić L, Jovanović V (2009) The Role Of Trait Anxiety In Induction Of State Anxiety. Psihologija, 42(4): 491-504.
  • Tuval-Mashiach R, Freedman S, Bargai N, Boker R, Hadar H, Shalev AY (2004) Coping with trauma: Narrative and cognitive perspectives. Psychiatry, 67(3):280-293.
  • van der Kolk BA, van der Hart O, Burbridge J (2002) Approaches to the treatment of PTSD. In Simple and Complex Post–Traumatic Stress Disorder: Strategies for Comprehensive Treatment in Clinical Practice, (Eds MB Williams, JF Sommer): 23–45. Binghamton, NY, The Haworth Press.
  • Walsh F (2007) Traumatic loss and major disasters: strengthening family and community resilience. Fam Process, 46(2):207-27.
  • Wang C (2020) A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet, 395, 470–473. Wattanasuwan K (2005) The self and symbolic consumption. Journal of American Academy of Business, 6(1):179-84.
  • Zlotnick C, Franklin CL, Zimmerman M (2002) Does "subthreshold" posttraumatic stress disorder have any clinical relevance? Compr Psychiatry, 43:413-419.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Araştırma
Yazarlar

Pervin TUNÇ (Sorumlu Yazar)
İstanbul Arel Üniversitesi
0000-0003-4938-0510
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2021
Kabul Tarihi 24 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı Ek 1

Kaynak Göster

AMA Tunç P. Covid-19 Pandemisinde, Travmatik Stres Belirtileri ve Ontolojik İyi Oluş Arasındaki İlişkide Anksiyetenin Aracı Rolü. pgy. 2021; 13(Ek 1): 40-58.

Creative Commons Lisansı
Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar Creative Commons Atıf-Gayriticari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.