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Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 25 Sayı: 2, 513 - 518, 01.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.2339/politeknik.769304

Öz

This study investigated the effect of adding Alfa-x to the of urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. The content of free formaldehyde and the bonding specifications were examined. The three-layered plywood of poplar (Populus x eureamericana) and ekaba (Tetraberlinia bifoliolata) was prepared by adding alfa-x to adhesive mixtures in specified amounts. The content of free formaldehyde, withdrawal shear strength, and bending strength were studied in the experimental plywood. The strength specifications of plywood bonded with this resin were slightly reduced by adding the Alfa-x to the adhesive mixture. There was also a moderate decrease in the content of free formaldehyde.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Wang Y. X., Liu G. Z. and Zhao Y. Q., “China Adhesives”, 17 , p.44, (2008).
  • [2] Coplugil E., “Formaldehyde and formaldehyde resins”, ORENKO-93, 2nd National Forest Products Industry Congress, 6-9 October, Trabzon, K.T.U. Faculty of Forestry, Proceedings, 84-92, (1993).
  • [3] Boran S., Usta M., Ondaral S., Gümüskaya E.,“The efficiency of tannin as a formaldehyde scavenger chemical in medium density fiberboard”, Compos Part B Eng. 43(5): 2487–2491, (2012).
  • [4] Tang X., Bai Y., Duong A., Smith MT., Li, L., Zhang., “Formaldehyde in China: production, consumption, exposure levels, and health effects”, Environ Int 35(8):1210–1224, (2009).
  • [5] Vosoughi S., Khavanin A., Salehnia M., Mahabadi HS., Soleimanian, A., “Effects of simultaneous exposure to formaldehyde vapor and noise on mouse testicular tissue nd sperm parameters”, HealthScope, 1(3): 110–117, (2012).
  • [6] Norliana S., Abdulamir AS., Abu Bakar F., Salleh AB.,“The health risk of formaldehyde to human being”, Am. J. Pharm Toxi, 4(3): 98–106, (2009).
  • [7] Bodalal A., Zhang J. S., and Plett E. G., “A method for measuring internal diffusion and equilibrium partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for building materials”, Building and Environment 35(2): 101-110, (2000).
  • [8] Wanner H.U., “Sources of pollutants in indoor air”, IARC Scientific Publications, 109, 19–30, (1993).
  • [9] Singer B.C., Coleman B.K., Destaillats H., Hodgson A.T., Lunden M.M., Weschler C.J., Nazaroff W.W., “Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone”, Atm. Env. 40(35): 6696–6710, (2006).
  • [10] Nicolas M., Ramalho O., Maupetit F., “Reactions between ozone and building products: Impact on primary and secondary emissions”, Atm. Env. 41(15): 3129–3138, (2007).
  • [11] Abdullah Z. A., and Byung D. P., “Influence of acrylamide copolymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives to their chemical structure and performance”, Appl. Polym. Sci. 117(6): 3181-3186, (2010).
  • [12] Jin Y.Q., Cheng X.S., Zheng Z.B., “Preparation and characterization of phenol-formaldehyde adhesives modified with enzymatic hydrolysis lignin”, Bioresour Technol 101(5), 2046–2048, (2010).
  • [13] Yong S.O., Kyung H.K., “Evaluation of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin for plywood flooring adhesive application”, Scientia Forestalis 39(90), 199–203, (2011).
  • [14] Ozalp M., “Study of the effect of adding the powder of waste PET bottles and borax pentahydrate to the urea formaldehyde adhesive applied on plywood”, Eur J Wood Prod 69(3), 369–374, (2011).
  • [15] Colakoglu G., Colak S.,“Volatile acetic acid and formaldehyde emission fromplywood treated with boron compound”, Building and Environment 39(5), 533- 536, (2004).
  • [16] Baumann M. G. D., Lorenz L. F., Batterman,S. A., and Zhang G. Z.,“Aldehyde emissions from particleboard and medium density fiberboard products”, Forest Products Journal 50(9): 75-82, (2000).
  • [17] Sundman M.R., Larsen A., Vestın E., Weibull A., “Formaldehyde emission-comparison of different standard methods”, Atmospheric Environment 41(15): 3193–3202, (2007).
  • [18] Uchiyama S., Matsushima E., Kitao N., Tokunaga H., Ando M., Otsubo Y., “Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood”, Atmospheric Environment 41(38): 8825–8830, (2007).
  • [19] Bridaux V., Charrier B., Fauroux N., Charrier F., Gonzalez J., “Addition of boron based compound in the LVL glueline: Effect on the mechanical properties and the leaching of boron”, Holzforschung, 55(5): (2001).
  • [20] Colakoglu G., Demirkir C., “Characteristics of plywood panels produced with urea formaldehyde resin containing borax”, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 64(3): 250-251, (2006).
  • [21] Sensogut C., Ozalp M. and Yesil H., “The effect of borax pentahydrate addition to urea formaldehyde on the mechanical characteristics and free formaldehyde content of plywood”, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 29(5): 589-592, (2009).
  • [22] Tudor E.M., Barbu M.C., Petutschnigg A.; Réh R. And Krišťák Ľ., “Analysis of Larch-Bark Capacity for Formaldehyde Removal in Wood Adhesives”, Int. J. Environ.Res. Public Health, 17, 764, (2020).
  • [23] BS EN 310, “Wood-based panels. Determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and of bending strength”, British Standards Institution, London, UK, (1993).
  • [24] BS EN 314-2,“Plywood - Bonding quality Part 2: Requirements (R)”, British Standards Institution, London, UK, (1993).
  • [25] TS 4894 EN 120, “Wood based sheets boards- Determination of formaldehyde content”, TSE, Ankara, Turkey, (1999).

Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 25 Sayı: 2, 513 - 518, 01.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.2339/politeknik.769304

Öz

This study investigated the effect of adding Alfa-x to the of urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. The content of free formaldehyde and the bonding specifications were examined. The three-layered plywood of poplar (Populus x eureamericana) and ekaba (Tetraberlinia bifoliolata) was prepared by adding alfa-x to adhesive mixtures in specified amounts. The content of free formaldehyde, withdrawal shear strength, and bending strength were studied in the experimental plywood. The strength specifications of plywood bonded with this resin were slightly reduced by adding the Alfa-x to the adhesive mixture. There was also a moderate decrease in the content of free formaldehyde.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Wang Y. X., Liu G. Z. and Zhao Y. Q., “China Adhesives”, 17 , p.44, (2008).
  • [2] Coplugil E., “Formaldehyde and formaldehyde resins”, ORENKO-93, 2nd National Forest Products Industry Congress, 6-9 October, Trabzon, K.T.U. Faculty of Forestry, Proceedings, 84-92, (1993).
  • [3] Boran S., Usta M., Ondaral S., Gümüskaya E.,“The efficiency of tannin as a formaldehyde scavenger chemical in medium density fiberboard”, Compos Part B Eng. 43(5): 2487–2491, (2012).
  • [4] Tang X., Bai Y., Duong A., Smith MT., Li, L., Zhang., “Formaldehyde in China: production, consumption, exposure levels, and health effects”, Environ Int 35(8):1210–1224, (2009).
  • [5] Vosoughi S., Khavanin A., Salehnia M., Mahabadi HS., Soleimanian, A., “Effects of simultaneous exposure to formaldehyde vapor and noise on mouse testicular tissue nd sperm parameters”, HealthScope, 1(3): 110–117, (2012).
  • [6] Norliana S., Abdulamir AS., Abu Bakar F., Salleh AB.,“The health risk of formaldehyde to human being”, Am. J. Pharm Toxi, 4(3): 98–106, (2009).
  • [7] Bodalal A., Zhang J. S., and Plett E. G., “A method for measuring internal diffusion and equilibrium partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds for building materials”, Building and Environment 35(2): 101-110, (2000).
  • [8] Wanner H.U., “Sources of pollutants in indoor air”, IARC Scientific Publications, 109, 19–30, (1993).
  • [9] Singer B.C., Coleman B.K., Destaillats H., Hodgson A.T., Lunden M.M., Weschler C.J., Nazaroff W.W., “Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone”, Atm. Env. 40(35): 6696–6710, (2006).
  • [10] Nicolas M., Ramalho O., Maupetit F., “Reactions between ozone and building products: Impact on primary and secondary emissions”, Atm. Env. 41(15): 3129–3138, (2007).
  • [11] Abdullah Z. A., and Byung D. P., “Influence of acrylamide copolymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives to their chemical structure and performance”, Appl. Polym. Sci. 117(6): 3181-3186, (2010).
  • [12] Jin Y.Q., Cheng X.S., Zheng Z.B., “Preparation and characterization of phenol-formaldehyde adhesives modified with enzymatic hydrolysis lignin”, Bioresour Technol 101(5), 2046–2048, (2010).
  • [13] Yong S.O., Kyung H.K., “Evaluation of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin for plywood flooring adhesive application”, Scientia Forestalis 39(90), 199–203, (2011).
  • [14] Ozalp M., “Study of the effect of adding the powder of waste PET bottles and borax pentahydrate to the urea formaldehyde adhesive applied on plywood”, Eur J Wood Prod 69(3), 369–374, (2011).
  • [15] Colakoglu G., Colak S.,“Volatile acetic acid and formaldehyde emission fromplywood treated with boron compound”, Building and Environment 39(5), 533- 536, (2004).
  • [16] Baumann M. G. D., Lorenz L. F., Batterman,S. A., and Zhang G. Z.,“Aldehyde emissions from particleboard and medium density fiberboard products”, Forest Products Journal 50(9): 75-82, (2000).
  • [17] Sundman M.R., Larsen A., Vestın E., Weibull A., “Formaldehyde emission-comparison of different standard methods”, Atmospheric Environment 41(15): 3193–3202, (2007).
  • [18] Uchiyama S., Matsushima E., Kitao N., Tokunaga H., Ando M., Otsubo Y., “Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood”, Atmospheric Environment 41(38): 8825–8830, (2007).
  • [19] Bridaux V., Charrier B., Fauroux N., Charrier F., Gonzalez J., “Addition of boron based compound in the LVL glueline: Effect on the mechanical properties and the leaching of boron”, Holzforschung, 55(5): (2001).
  • [20] Colakoglu G., Demirkir C., “Characteristics of plywood panels produced with urea formaldehyde resin containing borax”, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 64(3): 250-251, (2006).
  • [21] Sensogut C., Ozalp M. and Yesil H., “The effect of borax pentahydrate addition to urea formaldehyde on the mechanical characteristics and free formaldehyde content of plywood”, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 29(5): 589-592, (2009).
  • [22] Tudor E.M., Barbu M.C., Petutschnigg A.; Réh R. And Krišťák Ľ., “Analysis of Larch-Bark Capacity for Formaldehyde Removal in Wood Adhesives”, Int. J. Environ.Res. Public Health, 17, 764, (2020).
  • [23] BS EN 310, “Wood-based panels. Determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and of bending strength”, British Standards Institution, London, UK, (1993).
  • [24] BS EN 314-2,“Plywood - Bonding quality Part 2: Requirements (R)”, British Standards Institution, London, UK, (1993).
  • [25] TS 4894 EN 120, “Wood based sheets boards- Determination of formaldehyde content”, TSE, Ankara, Turkey, (1999).
Toplam 25 adet kaynakça vardır.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Murat Özalp 0000-0003-1651-3487

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 14 Temmuz 2020
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Cilt: 25 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Özalp, M. (2022). Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood. Politeknik Dergisi, 25(2), 513-518. https://doi.org/10.2339/politeknik.769304
AMA Özalp M. Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood. Politeknik Dergisi. Haziran 2022;25(2):513-518. doi:10.2339/politeknik.769304
Chicago Özalp, Murat. “Study of the Effect of Alfa-X to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood”. Politeknik Dergisi 25, sy. 2 (Haziran 2022): 513-18. https://doi.org/10.2339/politeknik.769304.
EndNote Özalp M (01 Haziran 2022) Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood. Politeknik Dergisi 25 2 513–518.
IEEE M. Özalp, “Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood”, Politeknik Dergisi, c. 25, sy. 2, ss. 513–518, 2022, doi: 10.2339/politeknik.769304.
ISNAD Özalp, Murat. “Study of the Effect of Alfa-X to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood”. Politeknik Dergisi 25/2 (Haziran 2022), 513-518. https://doi.org/10.2339/politeknik.769304.
JAMA Özalp M. Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood. Politeknik Dergisi. 2022;25:513–518.
MLA Özalp, Murat. “Study of the Effect of Alfa-X to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood”. Politeknik Dergisi, c. 25, sy. 2, 2022, ss. 513-8, doi:10.2339/politeknik.769304.
Vancouver Özalp M. Study of the Effect of Alfa-x to the Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive on Plywood. Politeknik Dergisi. 2022;25(2):513-8.
 
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