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EMOTIONAL CONTAGION IN SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE CORONA PROCESS: NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL CLIMATE AND VALUE CHANGE

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 2, 347 - 378, 30.05.2022

Öz

The coronavirus pandemic is a harmful health crisis. In such a crisis, people are motivated to share negative emotional content on social media. During the pandemic period, restrictions caused a significant increase in the time spent online and sharing posts. Negative emotion sharing that creates emotional contagion on social media has the power to shape the emotional climate of society. The negative emotional climate that emerges with emotional contagion during the epidemic process reveals a great potential that can change the value structure of the society, albeit for a long time. From this point of view, the purpose of the study is to reveal the practical level of negative emotions shared on social media to determine which emotion(s) is the most effective in the possible value change via creating a negative emotional climate. Thus, to provide suggestions that can help society get out of this process with the least emotional damage by creating awareness in the relevant circles. Therefore, the study analyzed the most shared feelings of fear, anger, sadness, disgust, and insecurity on social media with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). As a result, The two most basic emotions affecting creating a negative emotional climate and social values were fear (0.40%) and insecurity (0.22%).

Kaynakça

  • Ada, S., Çiçek, B., & Kaynakyeşil, G. (2013). Çevrimiçi sosyal ağ sitesi kullanımını etkileyen motive edici faktörler üzerine bir araştırma, In Academic Informatics Conference, Antalya.
  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S. & Yıldırım, E. (2007). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri (SPSS Uygulamalı), Sakarya Yayınları, 5.Baskı.
  • Asmundson, G. J., & Taylor, S. (2020). How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 71, 102211.
  • Barsade, S. G. (2002). The ripple effect: Emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 644-675.
  • Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2012). Group affect: Its influence on individual and group outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 119-123.
  • Barutçu, S., & Tomaş, M. (2013). Sürdürülebilir Sosyal Medya Pazarlaması Ve Sosyal Medya Pazarlaması Etkinliğinin Ölçümü. Journal of Internet Applications & Management/İnternet Uygulamaları ve Yönetimi Dergisi, 4(1), 5-23.
  • Behnke, R. R., Sawyer, C. R., & King, P. E. (1994). Contagion theory and the communication of public speaking state anxiety. Communication Education, 43(3), 246-251.
  • Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.
  • Choi, M., & Toma, C. L. (2014). Social sharing through interpersonal media: Patterns and effects on emotional well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 36(1), 530–541.
  • Condon, E., Golden, B. & Wasıl, E.(2003). Visualizing Group Decisions In The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Computers & Operations Research, 30 (10), 1435-1445.
  • Coviello, L., Sohn, Y., Kramer, A. D., Marlow, C., Franceschetti, M., Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2014). Detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks. PloS One, 9(3), e90315.
  • De Choudhury, M., Counts, S., & Horvitz, E. (2013). Predicting postpartum changes in emotion and behavior via social media. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, April 27 – May 2, pp. 3267-3276. ACM.
  • De Rivera, J. (1992). Emotional climate: Social structure and emotional dynamics. In A preliminary draft of this chapter was discussed at a workshop on emotional climate sponsored by the Clark European Center in Luxembourg on Jul 12–14, 1991.. John Wiley & Sons.
  • De Rivera, J., & Páez, D. (2007). Emotional Climate, Human Security, and Cultures of Peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 233-253.
  • Derks, D., Fischer, A. H., & Bos, A. E. R. (2008). The role of emotion in computermediated communication: A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(3), 766-785.
  • Dobele, A., Lindgreen, A., Beverland, M., Vanhamme, J., & Van Wijk, R. (2007). Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally. Business Horizons, 50(4), 291-304.
  • Drury G. (2008). Opinion piece: Social media: Should marketers engage and how can it be done effectively?. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 9(1), 274-277.
  • Evans, D. (2008). Social Media Marketing An Hour A Day, Wiley Publishing Inc, Indiana.
  • Ferrara, E., & Yang, Z. (2015). Measuring emotional contagion in social media. PloS One, 10(11), e0142390.
  • Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2008). Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. Bmj, 337.
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden–and–build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367-1377.
  • Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19(3), 313-332.
  • Goldenberg, A., & Gross, J. J. (2020). Digital emotion contagion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(4), 316-328.
  • Golder, S. A., & Macy, M. W. (2011). Diurnal and seasonal mood vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures. Science, 333(6051), 1878-1881.
  • Haakonsson, D. D., Burton, R. M., & Obel, B. (2008). Integrating organizational emotions into psychological climate–implications for information processing, the multicontingency model and emotional rationality. Organization Design: The Dynamics of Adaptation and Change, Springer, New York, NY.
  • Harris, L., Rae, A. (2009). Social Networks: The Future of Marketing for Small Business, Journal of Business Strategy, 30(5), 24-31.
  • Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1992). Primitive emotional contagion. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 151-177.
  • Hidalgo, C. R., Tan, E. S. H., & Verlegh, P. W. J. (2015). The social sharing of emotion (SSE) in online social networks: A case study in Live Journal. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 364-372.
  • Hirsh, L. (2001). Tell a friend: Viral marketing packs clout online. E-Commerce Times, http://www.louhirsh.com/uploads/Viral_Marketing_Packs_Clout_NewsFactor.pdf , Erişim Tarihi 12 Mayıs 2021.
  • Inglehart, R. (2018). Cultural evolution: people's motivations are changing, and reshaping the world. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
  • Köksal, Y., & Özdemir, Ş. (2013). Bir İletişim Aracı Olarak Sosyal Medya’nın Tutundurma Karması İçerisindeki Yeri Üzerine Bir İnceleme An Investıgatıon On Place Of Socıal Medıa In Promotıon Mıx. Suleyman Demirel University Journal Of Faculty Of Economics & Administrative Sciences, 18(1), 323-337.
  • Kramer, A. D., Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(24), 8788-8790.
  • Kurt, Ş. K. (2021). Enformasyonun Duygu Boyutu: Duygusal Bulaşıcılık Perspektifinden Sosyal Ağlarda Duygu Çalışmaları. İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi, 2021(53), 109-136.
  • Lawrence, E. J., Shaw, P., Giampietro, V. P., Surguladze, S., Brammer, M. J., & David, A. S. (2006). The role of ‘shared representations’ in social perception and empathy: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 29(4), 1173-1184.
  • Lee, M. T., & Theokary, C. (2021). The superstar social media influencer: Exploiting linguistic style and emotional contagion over content?. Journal of Business Research, 132, 860-871.
  • Lee, Y., Back, K., & Kim, J. (2009). Family restaurant brand personality and its impact on customer's emotion, satisfaction, and brand loyalty. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(3), 305-328.
  • Maio, G. R., & Olson, J. M. (1998). Values as truisms: evidence and implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 294-311.
  • Masland, E. (2001). Viral marketing word of mouth comes of age. Websolvers Inc. http://www.websolvers.com/portfolio/papers/viral.asp, Erişim Tarihi 12 Mayıs 2021.
  • Moors, A., Ellsworth, P. C., Scherer, K. R., & Frijda, N. H. (2013). Appraisal theories of emotion: State of the art and future development. Emotion Review, 5(2), 119-124.
  • Onat, F., & Alikılıç, Ö. A. (2008). Sosyal Ağ Sitelerinin Reklam Ve Halkla İlişkiler Ortamları Olarak Değerlendirilmesi. Journal of Yaşar University, 3(9), 1111-1143.
  • Özdemir, Ş. (2020). Sosyal medya araştırmalarında etik, içinde Sosyal Medya Psikolojisi, Edt. Dr. Şebnem Özdemir & Dr. Gül Dilek Türk, Nobel Yayınevi.
  • Parkinson, B., & Simons, G. (2009). Affecting others: Social appraisal and emotion contagion in everyday decision making. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 35(8), 1071-1084.
  • Paukert, A. L., Pettit, J. W., & Amacker, A. (2008). The role of interdependence and perceived similarity in depressed affect contagion. Behavior therapy, 39(3), 277-285.
  • Pawle, J., & Cooper, P. (2006). Measuring emotion e lovemarks, the future beyond brands. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 38-48.
  • Pennebaker, J.W., Mehl, M.R., and Niederhoffer, K.G. (2002). Pyschological aspects of natural language use: Our words, ourselves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 547-477.
  • Pfeifer, J. H., Iacoboni, M., Mazziotta, J. C., & Dapretto, M. (2008). Mirroring others' emotions relates to empathy and interpersonal competence in children. Neuroimage, 39(4), 2076-2085.
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KORONA SÜRECİNDE SOSYAL MEDYADA DUYGUSAL BULAŞMA: OLUMSUZ DUYGUSAL İKLİM VE DEĞER DEĞİŞİMİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 2, 347 - 378, 30.05.2022

Öz

Koronavirüs salgını gibi kriz süreçlerinde insanların sosyal medyada olumsuz duygusal içerik paylaşma motivasyonu artmaktadır. Pandemi döneminde kısıtlamalarla birlikte çevrimiçi geçirilen sürenin artması, bu paylaşımlarda önemli bir artışa neden olmuştur. Sosyal medya üzerinden ‘duygusal bulaşma’ yaratan olumsuz duygu paylaşımları, toplumun duygusal iklimini şekillendirecek güçtedir. Salgın sürecinde duygusal bulaşma ile ortaya çıkan ‘olumsuz duygusal iklim’ ise uzun süreli de olsa toplumun değer yargısında değişim yaratabilecek büyük bir potansiyeli ortaya koymaktadır. Bu noktadan hareketle araştırmanın amacı, sosyal medyada paylaşılan olumsuz duyguların kendi arasındaki önem düzeyini ortaya koyarak, oluşacak olumsuz duygusal iklim aracılığı ile yaşanması muhtemel değer değişiminde en etkili duygunun hangi(leri)si olduğunu belirlemek ve ilgili çevrelerde farkındalık yaratarak toplumun bu süreçten en az duygusal zararla çıkabilmesine yardımcı olabilecek öneriler sunmaktır. Çalışmada sosyal medyada en çok paylaşılan “korku, öfke, üzüntü, iğrenme ve güvensizlik” duyguları, Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi (AHP) ile analiz edilmiş, olumsuz iklim yaratmada ve toplumsal değerleri etkilemede en önemli iki duygunun korku (% 0,40) ve güvensizlik (% 0,22) olduğunu belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Ada, S., Çiçek, B., & Kaynakyeşil, G. (2013). Çevrimiçi sosyal ağ sitesi kullanımını etkileyen motive edici faktörler üzerine bir araştırma, In Academic Informatics Conference, Antalya.
  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S. & Yıldırım, E. (2007). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri (SPSS Uygulamalı), Sakarya Yayınları, 5.Baskı.
  • Asmundson, G. J., & Taylor, S. (2020). How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 71, 102211.
  • Barsade, S. G. (2002). The ripple effect: Emotional contagion and its influence on group behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 644-675.
  • Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2012). Group affect: Its influence on individual and group outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 119-123.
  • Barutçu, S., & Tomaş, M. (2013). Sürdürülebilir Sosyal Medya Pazarlaması Ve Sosyal Medya Pazarlaması Etkinliğinin Ölçümü. Journal of Internet Applications & Management/İnternet Uygulamaları ve Yönetimi Dergisi, 4(1), 5-23.
  • Behnke, R. R., Sawyer, C. R., & King, P. E. (1994). Contagion theory and the communication of public speaking state anxiety. Communication Education, 43(3), 246-251.
  • Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.
  • Choi, M., & Toma, C. L. (2014). Social sharing through interpersonal media: Patterns and effects on emotional well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 36(1), 530–541.
  • Condon, E., Golden, B. & Wasıl, E.(2003). Visualizing Group Decisions In The Analytic Hierarchy Process, Computers & Operations Research, 30 (10), 1435-1445.
  • Coviello, L., Sohn, Y., Kramer, A. D., Marlow, C., Franceschetti, M., Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2014). Detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks. PloS One, 9(3), e90315.
  • De Choudhury, M., Counts, S., & Horvitz, E. (2013). Predicting postpartum changes in emotion and behavior via social media. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, April 27 – May 2, pp. 3267-3276. ACM.
  • De Rivera, J. (1992). Emotional climate: Social structure and emotional dynamics. In A preliminary draft of this chapter was discussed at a workshop on emotional climate sponsored by the Clark European Center in Luxembourg on Jul 12–14, 1991.. John Wiley & Sons.
  • De Rivera, J., & Páez, D. (2007). Emotional Climate, Human Security, and Cultures of Peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63(2), 233-253.
  • Derks, D., Fischer, A. H., & Bos, A. E. R. (2008). The role of emotion in computermediated communication: A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(3), 766-785.
  • Dobele, A., Lindgreen, A., Beverland, M., Vanhamme, J., & Van Wijk, R. (2007). Why pass on viral messages? Because they connect emotionally. Business Horizons, 50(4), 291-304.
  • Drury G. (2008). Opinion piece: Social media: Should marketers engage and how can it be done effectively?. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 9(1), 274-277.
  • Evans, D. (2008). Social Media Marketing An Hour A Day, Wiley Publishing Inc, Indiana.
  • Ferrara, E., & Yang, Z. (2015). Measuring emotional contagion in social media. PloS One, 10(11), e0142390.
  • Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2008). Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. Bmj, 337.
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden–and–build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367-1377.
  • Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19(3), 313-332.
  • Goldenberg, A., & Gross, J. J. (2020). Digital emotion contagion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(4), 316-328.
  • Golder, S. A., & Macy, M. W. (2011). Diurnal and seasonal mood vary with work, sleep, and daylength across diverse cultures. Science, 333(6051), 1878-1881.
  • Haakonsson, D. D., Burton, R. M., & Obel, B. (2008). Integrating organizational emotions into psychological climate–implications for information processing, the multicontingency model and emotional rationality. Organization Design: The Dynamics of Adaptation and Change, Springer, New York, NY.
  • Harris, L., Rae, A. (2009). Social Networks: The Future of Marketing for Small Business, Journal of Business Strategy, 30(5), 24-31.
  • Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1992). Primitive emotional contagion. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 151-177.
  • Hidalgo, C. R., Tan, E. S. H., & Verlegh, P. W. J. (2015). The social sharing of emotion (SSE) in online social networks: A case study in Live Journal. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 364-372.
  • Hirsh, L. (2001). Tell a friend: Viral marketing packs clout online. E-Commerce Times, http://www.louhirsh.com/uploads/Viral_Marketing_Packs_Clout_NewsFactor.pdf , Erişim Tarihi 12 Mayıs 2021.
  • Inglehart, R. (2018). Cultural evolution: people's motivations are changing, and reshaping the world. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
  • Köksal, Y., & Özdemir, Ş. (2013). Bir İletişim Aracı Olarak Sosyal Medya’nın Tutundurma Karması İçerisindeki Yeri Üzerine Bir İnceleme An Investıgatıon On Place Of Socıal Medıa In Promotıon Mıx. Suleyman Demirel University Journal Of Faculty Of Economics & Administrative Sciences, 18(1), 323-337.
  • Kramer, A. D., Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(24), 8788-8790.
  • Kurt, Ş. K. (2021). Enformasyonun Duygu Boyutu: Duygusal Bulaşıcılık Perspektifinden Sosyal Ağlarda Duygu Çalışmaları. İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi, 2021(53), 109-136.
  • Lawrence, E. J., Shaw, P., Giampietro, V. P., Surguladze, S., Brammer, M. J., & David, A. S. (2006). The role of ‘shared representations’ in social perception and empathy: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 29(4), 1173-1184.
  • Lee, M. T., & Theokary, C. (2021). The superstar social media influencer: Exploiting linguistic style and emotional contagion over content?. Journal of Business Research, 132, 860-871.
  • Lee, Y., Back, K., & Kim, J. (2009). Family restaurant brand personality and its impact on customer's emotion, satisfaction, and brand loyalty. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(3), 305-328.
  • Maio, G. R., & Olson, J. M. (1998). Values as truisms: evidence and implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 294-311.
  • Masland, E. (2001). Viral marketing word of mouth comes of age. Websolvers Inc. http://www.websolvers.com/portfolio/papers/viral.asp, Erişim Tarihi 12 Mayıs 2021.
  • Moors, A., Ellsworth, P. C., Scherer, K. R., & Frijda, N. H. (2013). Appraisal theories of emotion: State of the art and future development. Emotion Review, 5(2), 119-124.
  • Onat, F., & Alikılıç, Ö. A. (2008). Sosyal Ağ Sitelerinin Reklam Ve Halkla İlişkiler Ortamları Olarak Değerlendirilmesi. Journal of Yaşar University, 3(9), 1111-1143.
  • Özdemir, Ş. (2020). Sosyal medya araştırmalarında etik, içinde Sosyal Medya Psikolojisi, Edt. Dr. Şebnem Özdemir & Dr. Gül Dilek Türk, Nobel Yayınevi.
  • Parkinson, B., & Simons, G. (2009). Affecting others: Social appraisal and emotion contagion in everyday decision making. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 35(8), 1071-1084.
  • Paukert, A. L., Pettit, J. W., & Amacker, A. (2008). The role of interdependence and perceived similarity in depressed affect contagion. Behavior therapy, 39(3), 277-285.
  • Pawle, J., & Cooper, P. (2006). Measuring emotion e lovemarks, the future beyond brands. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 38-48.
  • Pennebaker, J.W., Mehl, M.R., and Niederhoffer, K.G. (2002). Pyschological aspects of natural language use: Our words, ourselves. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 547-477.
  • Pfeifer, J. H., Iacoboni, M., Mazziotta, J. C., & Dapretto, M. (2008). Mirroring others' emotions relates to empathy and interpersonal competence in children. Neuroimage, 39(4), 2076-2085.
  • Rigby, B. (2008). Mobilizing Generation 2.0: A Practical Guide to Using Web 2.0: Technologies to Recruit, Organize and Engage Youth. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Rimé, B. (2009). Emotion elicits the social sharing of emotion: Theory and empirical review. Emotion Review, 1(1), 60-85.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular İşletme
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Bahar TÜRK Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
ONDOKUZ MAYIS ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9590-769X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mayıs 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 14 Temmuz 2021
Kabul Tarihi 7 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Türk, B. (2022). KORONA SÜRECİNDE SOSYAL MEDYADA DUYGUSAL BULAŞMA: OLUMSUZ DUYGUSAL İKLİM VE DEĞER DEĞİŞİMİ . Pazarlama ve Pazarlama Araştırmaları Dergisi , 15 (2) , 347-378 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ppad/issue/70072/1123754