Araştırma Makalesi
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KAHRAMANLIĞI ANLAMAK: KAHRAMANLIK OLGUSU ÜZERİNE BİR LİTERATÜR ARAŞTIRMASI

Yıl 2021, Cilt 31, Sayı 1, 117 - 144, 29.06.2021

Öz

Kahramanlık olgusu son yıllarda yabancı literatürde giderek artan bir ilgiyle çalışılmaya başlanmıştır. Ancak, yerli yazında kahramanlıkla ilgili araştırmalara nadiren rastlanmaktadır. Bu eksiklikten hareketle, yapılan bu araştırmada, kahramanlık olgusu üzerine yapılan çalışmalar, yapısal sınıflandırmalara değinilerek, bir literatür incelemesi yapılmıştır. Çalışmada, ayrıca kahramanlığın ne olduğu, kahramanların özellikleri, kahramanlıkla ilgili ilişkilendirilen bazı kavramlarla kahramanlığın farklılığı, kahramanlığın sosyal işlevi incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın, ülkemizde bundan sonra kahramanlık üzerine yapılacak araştırmalara ışık tutacağı değerlendirilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Allison, S. T. & Goethals, G. R. (2011). Heroes: What they do and why we need them. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Allison, S. T. & Goethals, G. R. (2014). “Now he belongs to the ages”: The heroic leadership dynamic and deep narratives of greatness. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Allison, S. T., Beggan, J. K. & Efthimiou, O. (2019). Editorial: The Art and Science of Heroism and Heroic Leadership. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00655
  • Allison, S. T., Goethals, G. R. & Kramer, R. (Eds.). (2017). The handbook of heroism and heroic leadership. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Aydemir, M. ve Mert, İ. S. (2018). A critical review of social sciences theory and practice, a study on the investigation of the historical origins of courage in futuwwa and akhi institution. Frontpage Publications Limited, Editör: Yenihan Bora, Sarıipek Doga Basar, Cerev Gökçe, 1, 543-537.
  • Becker, E. (1973). The Denial of Death. New York: Free Press.
  • Becker, S. W. & Eagly, A. H. (2004). The heroism of women and men. American Psychologist, 59, 163-178.
  • Blake, J. and Butler, S. (1976). The medal of honor, combat orientations and latent role structure in the United States military. Sociological Quarterly, 17(4), 561–567.
  • Bland, A. M. (2019). The Personal Hero Technique: A Therapeutic Strategy That Promotes Self-Transformation and Interdependence. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59(4), 634–657.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1993). The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Bronchain, J., Raynal, P. ve Chabrol, H. (2020). Psychopathic traits and identity threat as predictors of everyday heroism. Personality and Individual Differences, 153, 109637.
  • Campbell, J. (2004 [1949]). The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Campbell, J. (1993). The hero with a thousand faces (3rd ed.). Novato, CA: New World Library.
  • Carlo, G. & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 31-44.
  • Carlyle, T. (2001 [1841]). On Heroes, Hero Worship, and the Heroic in History. London: Electric Book Co.
  • Cooley, C. (1902). Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Scribner.
  • Coughlan, G., Igou, E. R., Van Tilburg, W. A. P., Kinsella, E. L. & Ritchie, T. D. (2017). On Boredom and Perceptions of Heroes: A Meaning-Regulation Approach to Heroism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59, 455-473.
  • Das-Friebel, A., Wadhwa, N., Sanil, M., Kapoor, H. ve Sharanya, V. (2017). Investigating Altruism and Selfishness Through the Hypothetical Use of Superpowers. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1, 1–28.
  • Elias, N. (1993). Mozart: Portrait of a Genius. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Farley, F. (2011). The new psychology of heroes and heroism. In Conversation hour (Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association). Washington, DC August.
  • Featherstone, M. (1992). The heroic life and everyday life. Theory, Culture & Society 9(1), 159–182.
  • Feigin, S., Owens, G. & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2014). Theories of human altruism: a systematic review. Annals of Neuroscience and Psychology, 1(1). 1-9.
  • Franco, Z. E., Allison, S. T., Kinsella, E. L., Kohen, A., Langdon, M. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2016). Heroism Research: A Review of Theories, Methods, Challenges, and Trends. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(4), 382–396.
  • Franco, Z. E., Blau, K. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Heroism: A conceptual analysis and differentiation between heroic action and altruism. Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 99–113.
  • Franco, Z. & Zimbardo, P. (2016). The psychology of heroism: Extraordinary champions of humanity in an unforgiving world. In A. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good & evil (pp. 494-523). New York, NY: Guilford.
  • Frisk, K. (2019). What makes a hero? Theorising the social structuring of heroism. Sociology, 53(1), 87-103.
  • Friedman, H. L. (2017). Everyday Heroism in Practicing Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(4), 397–414.
  • Friedsam, H. (1954). Bureaucrats as heroes. Social Forces, 32(3), 269–274.
  • Giesen, B. (2004). Triumph and Trauma. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
  • Giraud, R. (1957). The Unheroic Hero in the Novels of Stendhal, Balzac, and Flaubert. New York: Rutgers University Press.
  • Glazer, M.P. and Glazer, P.M. (1999). On the trail of courageous behavior. Sociological Inquiry, 69(2), 276–295.
  • Goethals, G. R. & Allison, S. T. (2012). Making heroes: The construction of courage, competence, and virtue. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 183- 235.
  • Goode, WJ. (1978). The Celebration of Heroes: Prestige as a Social Control System. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1959). Social Bandits and Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
  • Hoyt, C. L., Allison, S. T., Barnowski, A. & Sultan, A. (2020). Lay theories of heroism and leadership: The role of gender, communion, and agency. Social Psychology, 51(6), 381–395.
  • Karatay, O. & Aygün E. (2012). Alplar ve Elfler: Türk ve İskandinav Dünyalarinda Kahramanlik Olgusu. Karadeniz Araştırmaları, 33, 1‐12.
  • King, A. (2014). Cohesion: Heroic and post-heroic combat. In: Scheipers S (ed.) Heroism and the Changing Character of War. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 221–236.
  • Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D. & Igou, E. R. (2015a). Zeroing in on heroes: A prototype analysis of hero features. Journal of personality and social psychology, 108(1), 114-127.
  • Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D. & Igou, E. R. (2015b). Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 130.
  • Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D. & Igou, E. R. (2015b). Zeroing in on heroes: A prototype analysis of hero features. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 114-127.
  • Klapp, O. E. (1954). Heroes, villains and fools, as agents of social control. American Sociological Review, 19(1), 56–62.
  • Kohen, A. (2013). Untangling heroism: Classical philosophy and the concept of the hero. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Kohen, A., Langdon, M., ve Riches, B. R. (2019). The Making of a Hero: Cultivating Empathy, Altruism, and Heroic Imagination. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59(4), 617-633.
  • Lois, J. (2003). Heroic Efforts: The Emotional Culture of Search and Rescue Volunteers. New York: New York University Press.
  • Martens, K. (2017). Reimagining Heroism: A Conceptual Analysis Through Antigone and Medea. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(4), 431–443.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York, NY: Penguin.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1999). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
  • Mert, İ. S. & Aydemir, M. (2019). Yönetsel cesaretin tarihi kaynakları üzerine bir inceleme: Eski türk yazıtlarında cesaret. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 7(6), 319-328.
  • Mert, İ. S. (2007). Cesaret Yönetimi. İstanbul: Hayat Yayınları.
  • Mert, İ. S. (2010). Terör yönetimi kuramı ve cesaret: Kavramsal bir tartışma. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 6(12), 57-80.
  • Mert, İ. S. (2021). Cesaret ve bileşenlerinin keşfine ilişkin nitel bir araştırma: Eski bir erdemin yeniden keşfi. İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 8(1), 19-32.
  • Midlarsky, E., Jones, S. F. and Corley, R. P. (2005). Personality correlates of heroic rescue during the Holocaust. Journal of Personality, 73(4), 907–934.
  • Oliner, S. P. (2002). Extraordinary acts of ordinary people. In S. G. Post, L. G. Underwood, J. P. Schloss, et al. (Eds.). Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Onaran, O. (1981). Çalışma yaşamında güdülenme kuramları. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Raglan, F. (1949). The Hero: A Study in Tradition, Myth and Drama. London: Watts.
  • Rank, O. (1914). The Myth of the Birth of the Hero: A Psychological Interpretation of Mythology. New York: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company.
  • Raposa, M. (1999). Boredom and the religious imagination. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
  • Riches, B. R. (2017). What Makes a Hero? Exploring Characteristic Profiles of Heroes Using Q-Method. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(5), 585–602.
  • Ross, S. L. (2019). Who Put the Super in Superhero? Transformation and Heroism as a Function of Evolution. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.
  • Schwartz, B. (1985). Emerson, Cooley, and the American heroic vision. Symbolic Interaction, 8(1), 103–120. Şen, C. & Mert, İ. S. (2020). Courage Management: Courage as a management tool. H. Babacan and R. İnan, (Eds.). Social and Humanities Sciences: Theory, Current Researches, and New Trends (pp. 160-183). Montenegro: IVPE.
  • Smith, S. F., Lilienfeld, S. O., Coffey, K. & Dabbs, J. M. (2013). Are psychopaths and heroes twigs off the same branch? Evidence from college, community, and presidential samples. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 634-646.
  • Spencer, H. (2008 [1873]). The Study of Sociology. London: HS King.
  • Sullivan, M.P. & Venter, A. (2010). Defining Heroes Through Deductive and Inductive Investigations. J. Soc. Psychol, 150(5), 471–484.
  • Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57.
  • Weber, M. (1978 [1921]). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Williams, C. (2017). The Hero’s Journey: A Mudmap for Change. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59(4), 522–539
  • Zimbardo, P. (2007). The banality of evil, the banality of heroism. In J. Brockman, (Eds.). What isYour Dangerous Idea? Today’s Leading Thinkers on the Unthinkable. New York: Harper Perennial.
  • Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer effect: Understanding how good people turn evil. New York, NY: Random House.
  • Ziolkowski, T. (2004). Hesitant Heroes: Private Inhibition, Cultural Crisis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Understanding Heroism: A Literature Review on the Phenomenon of Heroism

Yıl 2021, Cilt 31, Sayı 1, 117 - 144, 29.06.2021

Öz

The phenomenon of heroism has started to be studied with an increasing interest in foreign literature in recent years. However, studies on heroism are rarely encountered in local literature. To fill this gap, in this study, a literature review has been made by referring to the studies on the heroism by providing the structural classifications of heroism studies. Also, in the study, the definition of heroism, the characteristics of the heroes, the social function of heroism, and the difference between heroism and some related concepts are examined. It is considered that the study will shed light on the future researches on heroism in our country.

Kaynakça

  • Allison, S. T. & Goethals, G. R. (2011). Heroes: What they do and why we need them. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Allison, S. T. & Goethals, G. R. (2014). “Now he belongs to the ages”: The heroic leadership dynamic and deep narratives of greatness. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Allison, S. T., Beggan, J. K. & Efthimiou, O. (2019). Editorial: The Art and Science of Heroism and Heroic Leadership. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00655
  • Allison, S. T., Goethals, G. R. & Kramer, R. (Eds.). (2017). The handbook of heroism and heroic leadership. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Aydemir, M. ve Mert, İ. S. (2018). A critical review of social sciences theory and practice, a study on the investigation of the historical origins of courage in futuwwa and akhi institution. Frontpage Publications Limited, Editör: Yenihan Bora, Sarıipek Doga Basar, Cerev Gökçe, 1, 543-537.
  • Becker, E. (1973). The Denial of Death. New York: Free Press.
  • Becker, S. W. & Eagly, A. H. (2004). The heroism of women and men. American Psychologist, 59, 163-178.
  • Blake, J. and Butler, S. (1976). The medal of honor, combat orientations and latent role structure in the United States military. Sociological Quarterly, 17(4), 561–567.
  • Bland, A. M. (2019). The Personal Hero Technique: A Therapeutic Strategy That Promotes Self-Transformation and Interdependence. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59(4), 634–657.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1993). The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Bronchain, J., Raynal, P. ve Chabrol, H. (2020). Psychopathic traits and identity threat as predictors of everyday heroism. Personality and Individual Differences, 153, 109637.
  • Campbell, J. (2004 [1949]). The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Campbell, J. (1993). The hero with a thousand faces (3rd ed.). Novato, CA: New World Library.
  • Carlo, G. & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 31-44.
  • Carlyle, T. (2001 [1841]). On Heroes, Hero Worship, and the Heroic in History. London: Electric Book Co.
  • Cooley, C. (1902). Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Scribner.
  • Coughlan, G., Igou, E. R., Van Tilburg, W. A. P., Kinsella, E. L. & Ritchie, T. D. (2017). On Boredom and Perceptions of Heroes: A Meaning-Regulation Approach to Heroism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59, 455-473.
  • Das-Friebel, A., Wadhwa, N., Sanil, M., Kapoor, H. ve Sharanya, V. (2017). Investigating Altruism and Selfishness Through the Hypothetical Use of Superpowers. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 1, 1–28.
  • Elias, N. (1993). Mozart: Portrait of a Genius. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Farley, F. (2011). The new psychology of heroes and heroism. In Conversation hour (Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association). Washington, DC August.
  • Featherstone, M. (1992). The heroic life and everyday life. Theory, Culture & Society 9(1), 159–182.
  • Feigin, S., Owens, G. & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2014). Theories of human altruism: a systematic review. Annals of Neuroscience and Psychology, 1(1). 1-9.
  • Franco, Z. E., Allison, S. T., Kinsella, E. L., Kohen, A., Langdon, M. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2016). Heroism Research: A Review of Theories, Methods, Challenges, and Trends. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(4), 382–396.
  • Franco, Z. E., Blau, K. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Heroism: A conceptual analysis and differentiation between heroic action and altruism. Review of General Psychology, 15(2), 99–113.
  • Franco, Z. & Zimbardo, P. (2016). The psychology of heroism: Extraordinary champions of humanity in an unforgiving world. In A. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good & evil (pp. 494-523). New York, NY: Guilford.
  • Frisk, K. (2019). What makes a hero? Theorising the social structuring of heroism. Sociology, 53(1), 87-103.
  • Friedman, H. L. (2017). Everyday Heroism in Practicing Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(4), 397–414.
  • Friedsam, H. (1954). Bureaucrats as heroes. Social Forces, 32(3), 269–274.
  • Giesen, B. (2004). Triumph and Trauma. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
  • Giraud, R. (1957). The Unheroic Hero in the Novels of Stendhal, Balzac, and Flaubert. New York: Rutgers University Press.
  • Glazer, M.P. and Glazer, P.M. (1999). On the trail of courageous behavior. Sociological Inquiry, 69(2), 276–295.
  • Goethals, G. R. & Allison, S. T. (2012). Making heroes: The construction of courage, competence, and virtue. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 183- 235.
  • Goode, WJ. (1978). The Celebration of Heroes: Prestige as a Social Control System. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Hobsbawm, E. (1959). Social Bandits and Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
  • Hoyt, C. L., Allison, S. T., Barnowski, A. & Sultan, A. (2020). Lay theories of heroism and leadership: The role of gender, communion, and agency. Social Psychology, 51(6), 381–395.
  • Karatay, O. & Aygün E. (2012). Alplar ve Elfler: Türk ve İskandinav Dünyalarinda Kahramanlik Olgusu. Karadeniz Araştırmaları, 33, 1‐12.
  • King, A. (2014). Cohesion: Heroic and post-heroic combat. In: Scheipers S (ed.) Heroism and the Changing Character of War. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 221–236.
  • Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D. & Igou, E. R. (2015a). Zeroing in on heroes: A prototype analysis of hero features. Journal of personality and social psychology, 108(1), 114-127.
  • Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D. & Igou, E. R. (2015b). Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 130.
  • Kinsella, E. L., Ritchie, T. D. & Igou, E. R. (2015b). Zeroing in on heroes: A prototype analysis of hero features. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108, 114-127.
  • Klapp, O. E. (1954). Heroes, villains and fools, as agents of social control. American Sociological Review, 19(1), 56–62.
  • Kohen, A. (2013). Untangling heroism: Classical philosophy and the concept of the hero. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Kohen, A., Langdon, M., ve Riches, B. R. (2019). The Making of a Hero: Cultivating Empathy, Altruism, and Heroic Imagination. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59(4), 617-633.
  • Lois, J. (2003). Heroic Efforts: The Emotional Culture of Search and Rescue Volunteers. New York: New York University Press.
  • Martens, K. (2017). Reimagining Heroism: A Conceptual Analysis Through Antigone and Medea. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(4), 431–443.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. New York, NY: Penguin.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1999). Toward a psychology of being (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.
  • Mert, İ. S. & Aydemir, M. (2019). Yönetsel cesaretin tarihi kaynakları üzerine bir inceleme: Eski türk yazıtlarında cesaret. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 7(6), 319-328.
  • Mert, İ. S. (2007). Cesaret Yönetimi. İstanbul: Hayat Yayınları.
  • Mert, İ. S. (2010). Terör yönetimi kuramı ve cesaret: Kavramsal bir tartışma. Güvenlik Stratejileri Dergisi, 6(12), 57-80.
  • Mert, İ. S. (2021). Cesaret ve bileşenlerinin keşfine ilişkin nitel bir araştırma: Eski bir erdemin yeniden keşfi. İş ve İnsan Dergisi, 8(1), 19-32.
  • Midlarsky, E., Jones, S. F. and Corley, R. P. (2005). Personality correlates of heroic rescue during the Holocaust. Journal of Personality, 73(4), 907–934.
  • Oliner, S. P. (2002). Extraordinary acts of ordinary people. In S. G. Post, L. G. Underwood, J. P. Schloss, et al. (Eds.). Altruism and Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Dialogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Onaran, O. (1981). Çalışma yaşamında güdülenme kuramları. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Raglan, F. (1949). The Hero: A Study in Tradition, Myth and Drama. London: Watts.
  • Rank, O. (1914). The Myth of the Birth of the Hero: A Psychological Interpretation of Mythology. New York: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company.
  • Raposa, M. (1999). Boredom and the religious imagination. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
  • Riches, B. R. (2017). What Makes a Hero? Exploring Characteristic Profiles of Heroes Using Q-Method. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(5), 585–602.
  • Ross, S. L. (2019). Who Put the Super in Superhero? Transformation and Heroism as a Function of Evolution. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.
  • Schwartz, B. (1985). Emerson, Cooley, and the American heroic vision. Symbolic Interaction, 8(1), 103–120. Şen, C. & Mert, İ. S. (2020). Courage Management: Courage as a management tool. H. Babacan and R. İnan, (Eds.). Social and Humanities Sciences: Theory, Current Researches, and New Trends (pp. 160-183). Montenegro: IVPE.
  • Smith, S. F., Lilienfeld, S. O., Coffey, K. & Dabbs, J. M. (2013). Are psychopaths and heroes twigs off the same branch? Evidence from college, community, and presidential samples. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 634-646.
  • Spencer, H. (2008 [1873]). The Study of Sociology. London: HS King.
  • Sullivan, M.P. & Venter, A. (2010). Defining Heroes Through Deductive and Inductive Investigations. J. Soc. Psychol, 150(5), 471–484.
  • Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57.
  • Weber, M. (1978 [1921]). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Williams, C. (2017). The Hero’s Journey: A Mudmap for Change. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 59(4), 522–539
  • Zimbardo, P. (2007). The banality of evil, the banality of heroism. In J. Brockman, (Eds.). What isYour Dangerous Idea? Today’s Leading Thinkers on the Unthinkable. New York: Harper Perennial.
  • Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer effect: Understanding how good people turn evil. New York, NY: Random House.
  • Ziolkowski, T. (2004). Hesitant Heroes: Private Inhibition, Cultural Crisis. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi Haziran 2021
Yazarlar

İbrahim Sani MERT Bu kişi benim
ANTALYA BİLİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2850-1865
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 31, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Mert, İ. S. (2021). KAHRAMANLIĞI ANLAMAK: KAHRAMANLIK OLGUSU ÜZERİNE BİR LİTERATÜR ARAŞTIRMASI . SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi , 31 (1) , 117-144 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/savsad/issue/63016/957590