Araştırma Makalesi
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Revolution in Military Affairs and Changing Instruments of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

Yıl 2021, Cilt 31, Sayı 2, 263 - 286, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.54078/savsad.1050472

Öz

This study focuses on the nature of changes in the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) instruments, which are the basic functions of intelligence, within the framework of the changing structure and conditions of military operations. The study is important in terms of understanding the effect of technology on the transformation of military operations and on the change in intelligence duties and responsibilities in terms of ISR. As the structure and characteristic of the military operations have changed, the need for intelligence has increased. Technology has played an important role in meeting this need, and while causing expansion in the means and functions of intelligence, it has also increased its verifiability, temporality and value. As the technology has evolved, ISR activities have gained a more critical and a more central place within intelligence. This study examines the development process of existing technologies from a historical perspective by using qualitative research methods and seeks answers to the questions of what kind of transformation has occurred in space and air dimensions and of what advantages/disadvantages these elements offer. Depending on these questions, the study finds out that there has been a parallel change in the operational structure of the ISR activities in terms of instrumentation and also reaches the conclusion that UAVs can be used mostly in ISR concept with the emergence of new intelligence tools.

Kaynakça

  • Akad, M. T. (2011). Modern savaşın temel kavramları. İstanbul: Kitap Yayınevi.
  • Andrew, C. (2019). The secret world: A history of intelligence. New Heaven: Penguin Books
  • Baudet, F., Braat, E., Woensel, J. v., & Wever, A. (2017). Military ıntelligence: from telling truth to power to bewilderment. İçinde F. Baudet, E. Braat, J. v. Woensel, & A. Wever, Perspectives on Military Intelligence from the First World War to Mali: Between Learning and Law (s. 1-22). Netherlands: Asser Press.
  • Clausewitz, C. V. (1989). On war. (M. Howard, & P. Paret, Çev.) Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Department of Defense (2021). DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Washington: Department of Defense
  • Department of the Navy. (1998). Intelligence operations field manual MCWP 2-1. Washington: Department of the Navy.
  • Department of the Navy. (2003). Intelligence operations. Washington: Department of the Navy.
  • Deptula, D. A. (2015, Haziran 9). Intelligence, surveillance and recconnaissance in the information age. Eylül 6, 2018 tarihinde https://leadingedgeairpower.com/2015/06/09/intelligence-surveillance-and-reconnaissance-in-the-information-age/ adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Dyndal, G. L. (2018). Airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. İçinde J. A. Olsen, Handbook of Air Power (s. 107-117). Oxon: Routledge.
  • Harwood, J. (2014). World War II from above an aerial view of the global conflict. Aukland: Exisle Publishing.
  • Herman, M. (1999). Intelligence power in peace and war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Horowitz, M. C., Kreps, S. E., & Fuhrmann, M. (2016). Separating fact from fiction in the debate over drone proliferation. International Security, 41(2), 7-42. 11 6, 2017 tarihinde http://mitpressjournals.org/doi/full/10.1162/isec_a_00257 adresinden alınmıştır
  • Karaağaç, C. (2016). İHA sistemleri yol haritası. Ankara: STM.
  • Khan, D. (2006, Eylül/Ekim). Rise of intelligence. Eylül 1, 2018 tarihinde Foreign Affairs: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2006-09-01/rise-intelligence adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Lerner, K. L., & Wilmoth, B. (2004). Encyclopedia of espionage, intelligence and security (Cilt I). New York: Thomson & Gale.
  • Lowenthal, M. M. (2018). The future of intelligence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Lynn, J. A. (2001). Forging the western army in seventeenth century France. İçinde M. Knox, & W. Murray, The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-250 (s. 35-56). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Morton, T. (2012). Manned airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance: strategic, tactical...both? Air & Space Power Journal, 26(6), 34-52.
  • Murray, W., & Knox, M. (2001). Thinking about revolutions in warfare. In M. Knox & W. Murray (Ed.), The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300– 2050 (pp. 1-14). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • National Geospital Intelligence Agency. (2006). National system for geopital intelligence: Geospital intelligence (GEOINT) basic doctrine. National Geospital Intelligence Agency.
  • Richelson, J. T. (2007). The technical collection of intelligence. İçinde L. K. Johnson, Handbook of Intelligence Studies (s. 105-117). Oxon: Routladge.
  • Roberts, J. (2002). Dünya tarihi (Cilt I). (Çev. İ. Erman) İstanbul: İnkılap.
  • Sander, O. (2013). Siyasi tarih 1918-1994. Ankara: İmge Kitapevi.
  • Secretary of The Air Force. (2012). Air force doctrine document 2-0: Global integrated intelligence surveillance & reconnaissance operations. Washington: Secretary of The Air Force.
  • Talent, E. (2014, Ekim 4). What are the four diffrent types of military operations. Temmuz 26, 2018 tarihinde https://classroom.synonym.com/what-are-the-four-different-types-of-military-operations-13583699.html adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Technology.org. (2018, Ocak 30). A brief history of modern warfare technology: From gunpowder to drones. Eylül 20, 2018 tarihinde https://www.technology.org/2018/01/30/a-brief-history-of-modern-warfare-technology-from-gunpowder-to-drones/ adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Thompson, M. J. (2011). Military revolutions and revolutions in military affairs: Accurate descriptions of change or intellectual constructs? Strata, 83-108.
  • Wark, W. K. The intelligence revolution and the future. Eylül 3, 2018 tarihinde CIA: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol37no4/html/v37i4a04p_0001.htm adresinden alınmıştır.

ASKERÎ HAREKÂTIN EVRİMİ VE İSTİHBARAT, GÖZETLEME, KEŞİF FAALİYETLERİNİN DEĞİŞEN ARAÇLARI

Yıl 2021, Cilt 31, Sayı 2, 263 - 286, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.54078/savsad.1050472

Öz

Bu çalışmada, askerî harekâtın değişen yapısı ve koşulları çerçevesinde istihbaratın en temel fonksiyonlarından olan istihbarat, gözetleme ve keşif (İGK) faaliyetinin vasıtalarında ne gibi bir dönüşümünün yaşandığı incelenmiştir. Çalışma, teknolojinin askerî harekâtlarda yaratmış olduğu dönüşüm ile istihbarat görev ve sorumluluklarındaki değişime nasıl bir etki sağladığının İGK özelinde anlaşılması açısından önem arz etmektedir. Harekâtın yapısı ve karakteristiği değiştikçe istihbarata olan ihtiyaç paralel olarak artmıştır. Bu ihtiyacın giderilmesinde yine teknoloji önemli bir rol üstlenmiş ve istihbaratın vasıta ve fonksiyonlarında genişlemelere neden olurken, onun doğrulanabilirliğini, zamansallığını ve değerini artırmıştır. İGK faaliyetlerinin istihbarattaki yeri ise gelişen teknoloji ile bütünleşik ve kapsamlı bir anlayış kazanmıştır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden faydalanılarak mevcut teknolojilerin gelişim süreci tarihsel bir perspektifte incelenmiş, uzay ve hava boyutunda İGK unsurlarının ne gibi bir gelişme yaşandığı ve bu unsurların nasıl avantajlar/dezavantajlar sunduğu sorularına cevap aranmıştır. Bu sorulara bağlı olarak İGK faaliyetlerinin de araçsal olarak harekât yapısıyla paralel bir değişim yaşandığı bulgusuna ulaşılırken, yeni istihbarat vasıtalarının ortaya çıkması ile günümüz açısından en çok İHA’ların İGK konseptinde kullanılabilir olduğu değerlendirilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akad, M. T. (2011). Modern savaşın temel kavramları. İstanbul: Kitap Yayınevi.
  • Andrew, C. (2019). The secret world: A history of intelligence. New Heaven: Penguin Books
  • Baudet, F., Braat, E., Woensel, J. v., & Wever, A. (2017). Military ıntelligence: from telling truth to power to bewilderment. İçinde F. Baudet, E. Braat, J. v. Woensel, & A. Wever, Perspectives on Military Intelligence from the First World War to Mali: Between Learning and Law (s. 1-22). Netherlands: Asser Press.
  • Clausewitz, C. V. (1989). On war. (M. Howard, & P. Paret, Çev.) Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Department of Defense (2021). DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Washington: Department of Defense
  • Department of the Navy. (1998). Intelligence operations field manual MCWP 2-1. Washington: Department of the Navy.
  • Department of the Navy. (2003). Intelligence operations. Washington: Department of the Navy.
  • Deptula, D. A. (2015, Haziran 9). Intelligence, surveillance and recconnaissance in the information age. Eylül 6, 2018 tarihinde https://leadingedgeairpower.com/2015/06/09/intelligence-surveillance-and-reconnaissance-in-the-information-age/ adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Dyndal, G. L. (2018). Airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. İçinde J. A. Olsen, Handbook of Air Power (s. 107-117). Oxon: Routledge.
  • Harwood, J. (2014). World War II from above an aerial view of the global conflict. Aukland: Exisle Publishing.
  • Herman, M. (1999). Intelligence power in peace and war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Horowitz, M. C., Kreps, S. E., & Fuhrmann, M. (2016). Separating fact from fiction in the debate over drone proliferation. International Security, 41(2), 7-42. 11 6, 2017 tarihinde http://mitpressjournals.org/doi/full/10.1162/isec_a_00257 adresinden alınmıştır
  • Karaağaç, C. (2016). İHA sistemleri yol haritası. Ankara: STM.
  • Khan, D. (2006, Eylül/Ekim). Rise of intelligence. Eylül 1, 2018 tarihinde Foreign Affairs: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2006-09-01/rise-intelligence adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Lerner, K. L., & Wilmoth, B. (2004). Encyclopedia of espionage, intelligence and security (Cilt I). New York: Thomson & Gale.
  • Lowenthal, M. M. (2018). The future of intelligence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Lynn, J. A. (2001). Forging the western army in seventeenth century France. İçinde M. Knox, & W. Murray, The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-250 (s. 35-56). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Morton, T. (2012). Manned airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance: strategic, tactical...both? Air & Space Power Journal, 26(6), 34-52.
  • Murray, W., & Knox, M. (2001). Thinking about revolutions in warfare. In M. Knox & W. Murray (Ed.), The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300– 2050 (pp. 1-14). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • National Geospital Intelligence Agency. (2006). National system for geopital intelligence: Geospital intelligence (GEOINT) basic doctrine. National Geospital Intelligence Agency.
  • Richelson, J. T. (2007). The technical collection of intelligence. İçinde L. K. Johnson, Handbook of Intelligence Studies (s. 105-117). Oxon: Routladge.
  • Roberts, J. (2002). Dünya tarihi (Cilt I). (Çev. İ. Erman) İstanbul: İnkılap.
  • Sander, O. (2013). Siyasi tarih 1918-1994. Ankara: İmge Kitapevi.
  • Secretary of The Air Force. (2012). Air force doctrine document 2-0: Global integrated intelligence surveillance & reconnaissance operations. Washington: Secretary of The Air Force.
  • Talent, E. (2014, Ekim 4). What are the four diffrent types of military operations. Temmuz 26, 2018 tarihinde https://classroom.synonym.com/what-are-the-four-different-types-of-military-operations-13583699.html adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Technology.org. (2018, Ocak 30). A brief history of modern warfare technology: From gunpowder to drones. Eylül 20, 2018 tarihinde https://www.technology.org/2018/01/30/a-brief-history-of-modern-warfare-technology-from-gunpowder-to-drones/ adresinden alınmıştır.
  • Thompson, M. J. (2011). Military revolutions and revolutions in military affairs: Accurate descriptions of change or intellectual constructs? Strata, 83-108.
  • Wark, W. K. The intelligence revolution and the future. Eylül 3, 2018 tarihinde CIA: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol37no4/html/v37i4a04p_0001.htm adresinden alınmıştır.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi Aralık 2021
Yazarlar

Güngör ŞAHİN Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
MİLLİ SAVUNMA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ATATÜRK STRATEJİK ARAŞTIRMALAR ENSTİTÜSÜ, STRATEJİ VE GÜVENLİK ARAŞTIRMALARI ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0001-6296-8568
Türkiye


Süfyan Kadir KIVAM Bu kişi benim
MİLLİ SAVUNMA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ATATÜRK STRATEJİK ARAŞTIRMALAR ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0002-6388-3782
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 31, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Şahin, G. & Kıvam, S. K. (2021). ASKERÎ HAREKÂTIN EVRİMİ VE İSTİHBARAT, GÖZETLEME, KEŞİF FAALİYETLERİNİN DEĞİŞEN ARAÇLARI . SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi , 31 (2) , 263-286 . DOI: 10.54078/savsad.1050472