Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2022, Cilt 32, Sayı 1, 37 - 66, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.54078/savsad.1134235

Öz

Many behaviors of human being, who is a social being, in the organization are affected by the social network connections. The aim of this study is to reveal whether the social network connections of the actor in the organization have an effect on individual performance, which can be considered as the antecedent of many behavioral variables in the management and organization research literature. The absence of a holistic study in the literature that deals with positive and negative social network connections together constitutes the originality of the study, and it is considered that both the methodology and the theoretical infrastructure of the study will contribute to the literature. The social network of the study consists of 37 academicians working in a faculty affiliated to the university operating in Ankara Province. Within the scope of the study, first the network mechanism of the actors was revealed with the UCINET program, then the individual performance scores of the actors, which were measured regularly within the framework of the criteria determined by the university, and the network analysis obtained. Correlation and regression analyzes were performed to reveal the relationship between the findings through the SPSS program. As a result of the analyzes, quite remarkable results were obtained. Accordingly, it was determined that the performance scores of the central actor with positive social network connections, in other words, the most liked actor in the network, were low; it was determined that the actor with the most negative social network connections was the actor with the highest individual performance score.

Kaynakça

  • Abbasi, A ve Hossain, L. (2011). Identifying the effects of co-authorship networks on the performance of scholars: A correlation and regression analysis of performance measures and social network analysis measures. Journal of Informetrics, 5(4), 594-607.
  • Balkundi, P., Barsness, Z., ve Michael, J. H. (2009). Unlocking the influence of leadership network structures on team conflict and viability. Small Group Research, 40(3), 301-322.
  • Bartsch, V., Ebers, M., ve Maurer, I. (2013). Learning in project-based organizations: The role of project teams' social capital for overcoming barriers to learning. International Journal of Project Management, 31(2), 239-251.
  • Brass, D. J.(1981). Structural relationships, job characteristics, and worker satisfaction and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 331–348.
  • Bordons, M., Aparicio, J., González-Albo, B., ve Díaz-Faes, A. A. (2015). The relationship between the research performance of scientists and their position in co-authorship networks in three fields. Journal of Informetrics, 9(1),135-144.
  • Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes. Harvard university press.
  • Burt, R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 339-365.
  • Burt, R. S. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American journal of sociology, 110(2), 349-399.
  • Camps, J., Oltra, V., Aldás‐Manzano, J., Buenaventura‐Vera, G., ve Torres‐Carballo, F. (2016). Individual performance in turbulent environments: The role of organizational learning capability and employee flexibility. Human resource management, 55(3), 363-383.
  • Castilla, E. J. (2005). Social networks and employee performance in a call center. American journal of sociology, 110(5), 1243-1283.
  • Cohen, Allan R. (1992), Effective Behavior in Organizations, Irwin Inc., Usa, s.192
  • Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American journal of sociology, 11, 95-120.
  • Cross, R., ve Cummings, J. N. 2004. Tie and network correlates of individual performance in knowledge-intensive work. Academy of management journal, 47(6), 928-937.
  • Denisi, A. S. ve Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress? Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 421-433.
  • Dequech, D. (2003). Cognitive and cultural embeddedness: combining institutional economics and economic sociology. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(2), 461-470.
  • De Jong, J. P., Curşeu, P. L., ve Leenders, R. T. A. (2014). When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 514-524.
  • Eisenberg, C. (2011). Embedding markets in temporal structures: A challenge to economic sociology and history. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, 55-78.
  • Eroğlu, E. (2005). Yöneticilerin Dedikodu Ve Söylentiye Yönelik Davranış Biçimlerinin Belirlenmesi. Kırgızistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 203, 218.
  • Ferragina, E., ve Arrigoni, A. (2017). The rise and fall of social capital: requiem for a theory?. Political Studies Review, 15(3), 355-367.
  • Freeman, L.C., (1979). Centrality in social networks: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1, 215-239.
  • Gargiulo, M. ve Gulati, R. (1999). Where Do Interorganizational Networks Come From? American Journal of Sociology, 104(5), 1439–1493.
  • Gerşil, G. S., ve Aracı, M. (2011). Sosyal sermayenin güven unsurunun işgörenlerin performansı üzerine etkileri. Çalışma ve Toplum, 1, 39-79.
  • Granovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1, 201-233.
  • Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481-510.
  • Hagedoorn, J., Roijakkers, N. ve Van Kranenburg, H. (2006). Inter-Firm R&D Networks: the Importance of Strategic Network Capabilities for High-Tech Partnership Formation. British Journal of Management, 17, 39–53.
  • Hanneman, R. A. ve Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods, California: University of California Press.
  • Heidenreich, M. (2012). The social embeddedness of multinational companies: a literature review. Socio-Economic Review, 10(3), 549-579.
  • Helvacı, A. (2002). Performans yönetimi sürecinde performans değerlendirmenin önemi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 35(1-2).
  • Huitsing, G., Van Duijn, M. A., Snijders, T. A., Wang, P., Sainio, M., Salmivalli, C., ve Veenstra, R. (2012). Univariate and multivariate models of positive and negative networks:
  • Liking, disliking, and bully–victim relationships. Social Networks, 34(4), 645-657.
  • Hurlbert, J. S. 1991. Social networks, social circles, and job satisfaction. Work and occupations, 18(4), 415-430.
  • Kilduff, M., ve Brass, D. J. (2010). Organizational social network research: Core ideas and key debates. Academy of management annals, 4(1), 317-357.
  • Kim, Y., Choib T. Y., Yanb, T., Dooleyb, K. (2011). Structural investigation of supply networks: A social network analysis approach. Journal of Operations Management, 29, 194–211.
  • Kraatz, M. S. (1998). Learning by association? Interorganizational networks and adaptation to environmental change. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 621–643.
  • Labianca, G., ve Brass, D. J. (2006). Exploring the social ledger: Negative relationships and negative asymmetry in social networks in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 31(3), 596-614.
  • Labianca, G. (2014). Negative ties in organizational networks. In Contemporary perspectives on organizational social networks, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 239-259.
  • Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Jaworski, R. A. ve Bennett, N. (2004). Social loafing: A field investigation. Journal of Management, 30(2), 285–304.
  • Marineau, J. E., Labianca, G. J. ve Kane, G. C. (2016). Direct and indirect negative ties and individual performance. Social Networks, 44, 238-252.
  • Mehra, A., Dixon, A. L., Brass, D. J., ve Robertson, B. 2006. The social network ties of group leaders: Implications for group performance and leader reputation. Organization science, 17(1), 64-79.
  • Milliman, J., Nason, S., Zhu, C., ve De Cieri, H. (2002). An exploratory assessment of the purposes of performance appraisals in North and Central America and the Pacific Rim. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 41(1), 87-102.
  • Monge, R.P ve Contractor, S.N. (2001). Emergence of Communication Network., F. M. Jablin ve L. J. Putnam (Ed.). The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research and methods içinde (440-503). Kaliforniya: Sage Publications.
  • Morillo, C. R. (1990). The Reward Event and Motivation. The Journal of Philosophy, 87(4), 270.
  • Moynihan, D. P., ve Pandey, S. K. (2007). The ties that bind: Social networks, person-organization value fit, and turnover intention. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), 205-227.
  • Nahapiet, J., ve Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23, 242-266.
  • Parks, S. (1995). Improving workplace performance: historical and theoretical contexts. Monthly Labour Review, 118, 18-39.
  • Podolny, J.M., ve Baron, J.N. (1997). Relationships and resources: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review, 62, 673–693.
  • Regts, G., ve Molleman, E. 2016. The moderating influence of personality on individual outcomes of social networks. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(3), 656-682.
  • Rousseau, D. M., & McLean Parks, J. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in organizational behavior, 15, 1-1.
  • Schaffer, B. S., ve Riordan, C. M. (2003). A review of cross-cultural methodologies for organizational research: A best-practices approach. Organizational research methods, 6(2), 169-215.
  • Sikyr, M. (2013). Best Practices in Human Resource Management: The Source of Excellent Performance and Sustained Competitiveness. Central European Business Review. 2(1), 43-48.
  • Sözen, C. ve Gürbüz, S. 2012. Örgütsel Ağlar. H. C. Sözen ve H. N. Basım, (Ed.) Örgüt Kuramları (1) içinde (301-327). İstabul: Beta Basım ve Yayım Dağıtım.
  • Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., ve Kraimer, M. L. (2001). Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of management journal, 44(2), 316-325.
  • Takeda, H., Truex, D., ve Cuellar, M. (2010). Evaluating scholarly influence through social network analysis: The next step in evaluating scholarly influence. Association for Information Systems. 1-11.
  • Tjosvold, D., Chen, N. Y., Huang, X., ve Xu, D. (2014). Developing cooperative teams to support individual performance and well-being in a call center in China. Group Decision and Negotiation, 23(2), 325-348.
  • Tymon, W. G., ve Stumpf, S. A. (2003). Social capital in the success of knowledge workers. Career Development International, 8(1), 12-20.
  • Venkataramani, V., ve Dalal, R. S. (2007). Who helps and harms whom? Relational antecedents of interpersonal helping and harming in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 952.
  • Waxin, M. F., Bateman, R., 2009. Public Sector Human Resource Management Reform Across Countries: From Performance Appraisal to Performance Steering? European Journal International Management, 3(4), 495-511.
  • Xia, L., Yuan, Y. C., ve Gay, G. (2009). Exploring negative group dynamics: Adversarial network, personality, and performance in project groups. Management Communication Quarterly, 23(1), 32-62

Sosyal Ağ Bağlantılarının Bireysel Performans Üzerindeki Etkisi: Akademisyenler Üzerine Bir Çalışma

Yıl 2022, Cilt 32, Sayı 1, 37 - 66, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.54078/savsad.1134235

Öz

Sosyal bir varlık olan insanın örgüt içerisinde sergilediği pek çok davranış, onun sosyal olarak geliştirdiği ve üyesi olduğu ağ bağlantılarından etkilenmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, aktörün örgüt içerisinde sahip olduğu sosyal ağ bağlantılarının, yönetim ve örgüt araştırmaları yazınında pek çok davranış değişkeninin öncülü sayılabilecek bireysel performans üzerinde etkisi olup olmadığını ortaya koymaktır. Yazında, olumlu ve olumsuz sosyal ağ bağlantılarını birlikte ele alan bütüncül bir çalışmanın olmayışı çalışmanın özgünlüğünü oluşturmakta olup, çalışmanın gerek metodolojisinin gerekse kuramsal alt yapısının yazına katkılar sağlayacağı değerlendirilmektedir. Çalışmanın sosyal ağını Ankara ilinde faaliyet gösteren bir üniversiteye bağlı fakültede çalışan 37 akademisyen oluşturmakta olup, çalışma kapsamında ilk olarak aktörlerin UCINET programı ile ağ düzeneği ortaya çıkartılmış, ardından üniversitenin kendi belirlediği kriterler çerçevesinde aktörlerin düzenli olarak ölçülen bireysel performans skorları ile ağ analizinden elde edilen bulguların SPSS programı aracılığıyla ilişkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla korelasyon ve regresyon analizleri yapılmıştır. Bahse konu analizler neticesinde, oldukça dikkat çekici sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Buna göre, olumlu sosyal ağ bağlantılarına sahip merkezî konumdaki aktörün başka bir ifadeyle, ağ düzeneğinde en çok sevilen aktörün, performans skorlarının düşük olduğu tespit edilirken; en çok olumsuz sosyal ağ bağlantısına sahip aktörün bireysel performans olarak en yüksek skora sahip aktör olduğu saptanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Abbasi, A ve Hossain, L. (2011). Identifying the effects of co-authorship networks on the performance of scholars: A correlation and regression analysis of performance measures and social network analysis measures. Journal of Informetrics, 5(4), 594-607.
  • Balkundi, P., Barsness, Z., ve Michael, J. H. (2009). Unlocking the influence of leadership network structures on team conflict and viability. Small Group Research, 40(3), 301-322.
  • Bartsch, V., Ebers, M., ve Maurer, I. (2013). Learning in project-based organizations: The role of project teams' social capital for overcoming barriers to learning. International Journal of Project Management, 31(2), 239-251.
  • Brass, D. J.(1981). Structural relationships, job characteristics, and worker satisfaction and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 331–348.
  • Bordons, M., Aparicio, J., González-Albo, B., ve Díaz-Faes, A. A. (2015). The relationship between the research performance of scientists and their position in co-authorship networks in three fields. Journal of Informetrics, 9(1),135-144.
  • Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes. Harvard university press.
  • Burt, R. S. (1997). The contingent value of social capital. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 339-365.
  • Burt, R. S. (2004). Structural holes and good ideas. American journal of sociology, 110(2), 349-399.
  • Camps, J., Oltra, V., Aldás‐Manzano, J., Buenaventura‐Vera, G., ve Torres‐Carballo, F. (2016). Individual performance in turbulent environments: The role of organizational learning capability and employee flexibility. Human resource management, 55(3), 363-383.
  • Castilla, E. J. (2005). Social networks and employee performance in a call center. American journal of sociology, 110(5), 1243-1283.
  • Cohen, Allan R. (1992), Effective Behavior in Organizations, Irwin Inc., Usa, s.192
  • Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American journal of sociology, 11, 95-120.
  • Cross, R., ve Cummings, J. N. 2004. Tie and network correlates of individual performance in knowledge-intensive work. Academy of management journal, 47(6), 928-937.
  • Denisi, A. S. ve Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress? Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 421-433.
  • Dequech, D. (2003). Cognitive and cultural embeddedness: combining institutional economics and economic sociology. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(2), 461-470.
  • De Jong, J. P., Curşeu, P. L., ve Leenders, R. T. A. (2014). When do bad apples not spoil the barrel? Negative relationships in teams, team performance, and buffering mechanisms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 514-524.
  • Eisenberg, C. (2011). Embedding markets in temporal structures: A challenge to economic sociology and history. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, 55-78.
  • Eroğlu, E. (2005). Yöneticilerin Dedikodu Ve Söylentiye Yönelik Davranış Biçimlerinin Belirlenmesi. Kırgızistan-Türkiye Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 203, 218.
  • Ferragina, E., ve Arrigoni, A. (2017). The rise and fall of social capital: requiem for a theory?. Political Studies Review, 15(3), 355-367.
  • Freeman, L.C., (1979). Centrality in social networks: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1, 215-239.
  • Gargiulo, M. ve Gulati, R. (1999). Where Do Interorganizational Networks Come From? American Journal of Sociology, 104(5), 1439–1493.
  • Gerşil, G. S., ve Aracı, M. (2011). Sosyal sermayenin güven unsurunun işgörenlerin performansı üzerine etkileri. Çalışma ve Toplum, 1, 39-79.
  • Granovetter, M. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1, 201-233.
  • Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481-510.
  • Hagedoorn, J., Roijakkers, N. ve Van Kranenburg, H. (2006). Inter-Firm R&D Networks: the Importance of Strategic Network Capabilities for High-Tech Partnership Formation. British Journal of Management, 17, 39–53.
  • Hanneman, R. A. ve Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods, California: University of California Press.
  • Heidenreich, M. (2012). The social embeddedness of multinational companies: a literature review. Socio-Economic Review, 10(3), 549-579.
  • Helvacı, A. (2002). Performans yönetimi sürecinde performans değerlendirmenin önemi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 35(1-2).
  • Huitsing, G., Van Duijn, M. A., Snijders, T. A., Wang, P., Sainio, M., Salmivalli, C., ve Veenstra, R. (2012). Univariate and multivariate models of positive and negative networks:
  • Liking, disliking, and bully–victim relationships. Social Networks, 34(4), 645-657.
  • Hurlbert, J. S. 1991. Social networks, social circles, and job satisfaction. Work and occupations, 18(4), 415-430.
  • Kilduff, M., ve Brass, D. J. (2010). Organizational social network research: Core ideas and key debates. Academy of management annals, 4(1), 317-357.
  • Kim, Y., Choib T. Y., Yanb, T., Dooleyb, K. (2011). Structural investigation of supply networks: A social network analysis approach. Journal of Operations Management, 29, 194–211.
  • Kraatz, M. S. (1998). Learning by association? Interorganizational networks and adaptation to environmental change. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 621–643.
  • Labianca, G., ve Brass, D. J. (2006). Exploring the social ledger: Negative relationships and negative asymmetry in social networks in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 31(3), 596-614.
  • Labianca, G. (2014). Negative ties in organizational networks. In Contemporary perspectives on organizational social networks, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 239-259.
  • Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Jaworski, R. A. ve Bennett, N. (2004). Social loafing: A field investigation. Journal of Management, 30(2), 285–304.
  • Marineau, J. E., Labianca, G. J. ve Kane, G. C. (2016). Direct and indirect negative ties and individual performance. Social Networks, 44, 238-252.
  • Mehra, A., Dixon, A. L., Brass, D. J., ve Robertson, B. 2006. The social network ties of group leaders: Implications for group performance and leader reputation. Organization science, 17(1), 64-79.
  • Milliman, J., Nason, S., Zhu, C., ve De Cieri, H. (2002). An exploratory assessment of the purposes of performance appraisals in North and Central America and the Pacific Rim. Human Resource Management: Published in Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, The University of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of Human Resources Management, 41(1), 87-102.
  • Monge, R.P ve Contractor, S.N. (2001). Emergence of Communication Network., F. M. Jablin ve L. J. Putnam (Ed.). The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research and methods içinde (440-503). Kaliforniya: Sage Publications.
  • Morillo, C. R. (1990). The Reward Event and Motivation. The Journal of Philosophy, 87(4), 270.
  • Moynihan, D. P., ve Pandey, S. K. (2007). The ties that bind: Social networks, person-organization value fit, and turnover intention. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), 205-227.
  • Nahapiet, J., ve Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23, 242-266.
  • Parks, S. (1995). Improving workplace performance: historical and theoretical contexts. Monthly Labour Review, 118, 18-39.
  • Podolny, J.M., ve Baron, J.N. (1997). Relationships and resources: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review, 62, 673–693.
  • Regts, G., ve Molleman, E. 2016. The moderating influence of personality on individual outcomes of social networks. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(3), 656-682.
  • Rousseau, D. M., & McLean Parks, J. (1993). The contracts of individuals and organizations. Research in organizational behavior, 15, 1-1.
  • Schaffer, B. S., ve Riordan, C. M. (2003). A review of cross-cultural methodologies for organizational research: A best-practices approach. Organizational research methods, 6(2), 169-215.
  • Sikyr, M. (2013). Best Practices in Human Resource Management: The Source of Excellent Performance and Sustained Competitiveness. Central European Business Review. 2(1), 43-48.
  • Sözen, C. ve Gürbüz, S. 2012. Örgütsel Ağlar. H. C. Sözen ve H. N. Basım, (Ed.) Örgüt Kuramları (1) içinde (301-327). İstabul: Beta Basım ve Yayım Dağıtım.
  • Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., ve Kraimer, M. L. (2001). Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of management journal, 44(2), 316-325.
  • Takeda, H., Truex, D., ve Cuellar, M. (2010). Evaluating scholarly influence through social network analysis: The next step in evaluating scholarly influence. Association for Information Systems. 1-11.
  • Tjosvold, D., Chen, N. Y., Huang, X., ve Xu, D. (2014). Developing cooperative teams to support individual performance and well-being in a call center in China. Group Decision and Negotiation, 23(2), 325-348.
  • Tymon, W. G., ve Stumpf, S. A. (2003). Social capital in the success of knowledge workers. Career Development International, 8(1), 12-20.
  • Venkataramani, V., ve Dalal, R. S. (2007). Who helps and harms whom? Relational antecedents of interpersonal helping and harming in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 952.
  • Waxin, M. F., Bateman, R., 2009. Public Sector Human Resource Management Reform Across Countries: From Performance Appraisal to Performance Steering? European Journal International Management, 3(4), 495-511.
  • Xia, L., Yuan, Y. C., ve Gay, G. (2009). Exploring negative group dynamics: Adversarial network, personality, and performance in project groups. Management Communication Quarterly, 23(1), 32-62

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi Haziran 2022
Yazarlar

H. Cenk SÖZEN Bu kişi benim
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9324-5557
Türkiye


Pınar FAYGANOĞLU Bu kişi benim
MİLLİ SAVUNMA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, KARA HARP OKULU, DEKANLIK
0000-0001-9447-4896
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 32, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Sözen, H. C. & Fayganoğlu, P. (2022). Sosyal Ağ Bağlantılarının Bireysel Performans Üzerindeki Etkisi: Akademisyenler Üzerine Bir Çalışma . SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi , 32 (1) , 37-66 . DOI: 10.54078/savsad.1134235