Araştırma Makalesi
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Underground Tunnel and Cave Operations and Management in Internal Security

Yıl 2022, Cilt 32, Sayı 1, 139 - 158, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.54078/savsad.1134261

Öz

Underground, tunnels and caves are places that are frequently used by terrorists, organized crime organizations and smugglers in cities, rural areas and borders of countries. Especially in recent years, law enforcement's use of reconnaissance and surveillance technologies such as unmanned aerial and land vehicles has increased the desire of organizations to use underground, tunnels and cave environments as an asymmetric advantage. Underground, tunnels and caves are cavities that are either spontaneously formed in nature or built with human resources, which are used for the purpose of maintaining security or life. The homogeneity of the physical environments of these places makes it meaningful to mention underground, tunnels and caves together. Securitization of these environments in order to prevent crime and terrorist activities has become a priority internal security approach for law enforcement. Within the scope of the study, firstly, the importance of underground, tunnels and caves in terms of internal security was investigated. Subsequently, the conditions affecting the underground, tunnel and cave operations were determined. Finally, answers were sought to the questions of how underground, tunnel and cave operations were carried out and managed. The purpose of this study is to define the management method in underground, tunnel and cave operations in terms of internal security in Turkey today. The study was carried out on a theoretical basis by making a literature review. As a result of the study, it was emphasized that a separate technology should be used for each of the exploration and surveillance, cover and protection, firepower and communication needs in underground, tunnel and cave operations. Subsequently, it has been decided that the operation units should manage their operations in accordance with the planning, preparation, execution and evaluation phases.

Kaynakça

  • Ak, T. (2018). Dünyada İç Güvenlik Yaklaşımın Değişimi ve İç Güvenlik Yönetimine Etkisi. Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 3(6) , 74-93.
  • Aydın, D. (2015). Toplumsal Olaylarda Biber Gazı Kullanılmasının Hukuki Standartları. Ankara Barosu Dergisi, (1), 241-261.
  • Bartolomeu, J.P.S. (2020). Operations in Subterranean Systems: Terrain and Weather Variable, Security & Defnece Quartertly, (29), 39-60.
  • Barak, D.R. (2018). Underground Warfare, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Bauman, Z. (1997). Özgürlük, (çev.Vasıf ERENUS), İstanbul: Sarmal Yayınları.
  • Brimmer, E. (2006). From territorial security to societal security: ımplications for the transatlantic strategic outlook. Transforming homeland security: U.S. and European approaches. (Ed. E.Brimmer). Washington DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations.
  • Cassar, C. (2019). Subterranean Warfare: The New Frontier, http://www.risetopeace.org/2019/ 03/14/subterranean-warfare-the-new-frontier/ccassar/(Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Collins, L. (2019). Facing Our Underground Nightmares: Casting Light on the Subterannean Fight, August 20, 2019, https://www.ausa.org/ articles/facing-our-underground-nightmares-casting-light-subterranean-fight (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Cox, M. (2018). Army is Spending Half a Billion to Train Soldiers to Fight Underground, 24 Jun 2018, https://www.military.com/daily-news/2018/06/24/army-spending-half-billion-train-troops-fight-underground.html (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Dowd, A.W. (2020). Tunnel Vision, JUL 08, 2020, https://www.legion.org/landingzone/249420/tunnel-vision (Erişim tarihi: 21.05.2021)
  • Gözler, K. (2008). İdare Hukukuna Giriş. Bursa: Ekin Yayınları
  • Harper, J. (2019). What Lies Beneath: Inside DARPA’s Subterranean Challenge, 7/29/2019, https://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/ articles/2019/7/29/darpa-subterranean-challenge (Erişim tarihi: 21.05.2021)
  • Haydock, W. (2016). Levantine Labyrinth: Preparing for Subterranean Warfare in Iraq and Syria, May 19 2016, https://warontherocks.com/2016/05/levantine-labyrinth-preparing-for-subterranean-warfare-in-iraq-and-syria/ (Erişim tarihi: 21.05.2021)
  • Herman, A. (2014). Notes From the Underground: The Long History of Tunnel Warfare, August 26 2014, https://www.hudson.org/research /10570-notes-from-the-underground-the-long-history-of-tunnel-warfare (Erişim tarihi: 22.05.2021)
  • Hinchliffe, T. (2019). Subterranean Wartime Blues: DARPA Preps for Battle Underground, https://sociable.co/technology/subterranean-wartime-darpa-battle-underground/ (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Ioanes, E. (2019). DARPA is asking universities for access to their tunnels ASAP, and it's because the US military thinks its next war will go underground, Aug 31, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/darpa-underground-spaces-prep-urban-warfare-2019-8 (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Littlechild, M.R. (2020). Going Underground-A Subterrenean Capability fort he CAF, Canadian Force College Sevice Paper.
  • Luther, A. (2020). Tunnel rats: Warfighters can now train in subterranean warfare, September 1, 2020, https://www.army.mil/article/240605/ tunnel_rats_warfighters_can_now_train_in_subterranean_warfare (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Mills, W. (2019). The Elephant in the Tunnel: Preparing to Fight and Win Underground, 03.19.19, https://mwi.usma.edu/elephant-tunnel-preparing-fight-win-underground/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • Rozman, J. (2019). The Army Is Preparing to Go Underground, July 03, 2019. https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2019/07/03/the_army _is_preparing_to_go_underground_114555.html (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Runkle, B. (2015). Preparing for Warfare’s Subterranean Future, (16 April 2015) https:// warontherocks.com/2015/04/preparing-for-warfares-subterranean-future/ (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Sachdev, N. (2019). US Military Prepping Robots for Underground Combat, Emergencies. http://sociable.co/technology/us-military-prepping-robots-underground-combat-emergencies/ (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Shapir, Y.S. & Perel, G. (2014). Subterranean Warfare: A New-Old Challenge. In: A. Kurz, and S. Brom (Ed.), The Lessons of Operation Protective Edge (pp. 51–57) Tel Aviv: Institute for National Security Studies. https://www.inss.org.il/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/ systemfiles/Subterranean%20Warfare_%20A%20New-Old%20 Challenge.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • Solescu D. (2020). “Considerations Concerning Fighting Actions in the Subterranean Environment”, International Conference, Knowledge-Based Organization, 26(1), 136-142.
  • South, T. (2019a). The Subterranean Battlefield: Warfare is Going Underground, into Dark, Tight Spaces, February 26, 2019, https://www.militarytimes.com/news/your-army/2019/02/26/the-subterranean-battlefield-warfare-is-going-underground-into-dark-tight-spaces/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • South, T. (2019b). Here’s how the Marine Corps is dealing with the looming underground combat threat, June 3 2019, https://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/your-marine-corps/2019/06/03/heres-how-the-marine-corps-is-dealing-with-the-looming-underground-combat-threat/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • South, T. (2019c). The tech it takes to fight subterranean, February 26 2019, https://www.militarytimes.com/news/your-army/2019/02/26/the-tech-it-takes-to-fight-subterranean/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • Springer, P.J. (2015). Fighting Under the Earth: The History of Tunneling in Warfare, Apil 23 29015, http://www.fpri.org/article/2015/04/fighting-under-the-earth-the-history-of-tunneling-in-warfare/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • US Army (2019). ATP 3-21.51 Subterranean Operations, Headquarters, Washington, DC: Department of the Army.
  • Yıldırım, F. (2019). Osmanlı Devleti’nin Yer altı, Savaşçıları: Lağımcılar, Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 29(2), 385-408.

İÇ GÜVENLİKTE YER ALTI, TÜNEL VE MAĞARA OPERASYONLARI İLE YÖNETİMİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 32, Sayı 1, 139 - 158, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.54078/savsad.1134261

Öz

Yer altı, tünel ve mağaralar; kentlerde, kırsalda ve ülkelerin sınırlarında terör ve organize suç örgütleri ile kaçakçılar tarafından sıklıkla kullanılan mekânlardır. Özellikle son yıllarda kolluk kuvvetlerinin insansız hava ve kara araçları gibi keşif ve gözetleme teknolojilerinden daha fazla istifade etmesi, örgütlerin yer altı, tünel ve mağara ortamlarını asimetrik avantaj olarak kullanma isteğini daha da artırmıştır. Yer altı, tünel ve mağaralar, güvenliğin ya da yaşamın sürdürülmesi maksadıyla kullanılan doğada kendiliğinden oluşmuş veya insan kaynağıyla inşa edilmiş boşluklardır. Bu mekânların fiziki ortamlarının türdeşlik göstermesi, yer altı, tünel ve mağaraların birlikte anılmasını anlamlı kılmaktadır. Kolluk kuvvetleri açısından bu ortamların suçla mücadele ve terör faaliyetlerinden sakındırılması için güvenli hâle getirilmesi, öncelikli bir iç güvenlik yaklaşımı hâline gelmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında ilk olarak yer altı, tünel ve mağaraların iç güvenlik açısından önemi araştırılmıştır. Müteakiben yer altı, tünel ve mağara operasyonlarına etki eden şartlar tespit edilmiştir. Son olarak ise; yer altı, tünel ve mağara operasyonlarının nasıl icra edildiği ve yönetildiği sorularına cevap aranmıştır. Çalışma ile günümüzde Türkiye’de iç güvenlik açısından yer altı, tünel ve mağara operasyonlarının yönetim usulünün tanımlanması hedeflenmektedir. Çalışma literatür taraması yapılarak teorik bir zeminde yürütülmüştür. Çalışma sonucunda ilk olarak yer altı, tünel ve mağara operasyonlarında keşif ve gözetleme, örtü ve korunma, ateş gücü ve muhabere ihtiyaçlarının her biri için ayrı bir teknolojiden istifade edilmesi hususu vurgulanmıştır. Müteakiben operasyon birimlerinin planlama, hazırlık, icra ve değerlendirme safhalarına uygun şekilde operasyonlarını yönetmesi gerektiği hususuna ulaşılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Ak, T. (2018). Dünyada İç Güvenlik Yaklaşımın Değişimi ve İç Güvenlik Yönetimine Etkisi. Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 3(6) , 74-93.
  • Aydın, D. (2015). Toplumsal Olaylarda Biber Gazı Kullanılmasının Hukuki Standartları. Ankara Barosu Dergisi, (1), 241-261.
  • Bartolomeu, J.P.S. (2020). Operations in Subterranean Systems: Terrain and Weather Variable, Security & Defnece Quartertly, (29), 39-60.
  • Barak, D.R. (2018). Underground Warfare, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Bauman, Z. (1997). Özgürlük, (çev.Vasıf ERENUS), İstanbul: Sarmal Yayınları.
  • Brimmer, E. (2006). From territorial security to societal security: ımplications for the transatlantic strategic outlook. Transforming homeland security: U.S. and European approaches. (Ed. E.Brimmer). Washington DC: Center for Transatlantic Relations.
  • Cassar, C. (2019). Subterranean Warfare: The New Frontier, http://www.risetopeace.org/2019/ 03/14/subterranean-warfare-the-new-frontier/ccassar/(Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Collins, L. (2019). Facing Our Underground Nightmares: Casting Light on the Subterannean Fight, August 20, 2019, https://www.ausa.org/ articles/facing-our-underground-nightmares-casting-light-subterranean-fight (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Cox, M. (2018). Army is Spending Half a Billion to Train Soldiers to Fight Underground, 24 Jun 2018, https://www.military.com/daily-news/2018/06/24/army-spending-half-billion-train-troops-fight-underground.html (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Dowd, A.W. (2020). Tunnel Vision, JUL 08, 2020, https://www.legion.org/landingzone/249420/tunnel-vision (Erişim tarihi: 21.05.2021)
  • Gözler, K. (2008). İdare Hukukuna Giriş. Bursa: Ekin Yayınları
  • Harper, J. (2019). What Lies Beneath: Inside DARPA’s Subterranean Challenge, 7/29/2019, https://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/ articles/2019/7/29/darpa-subterranean-challenge (Erişim tarihi: 21.05.2021)
  • Haydock, W. (2016). Levantine Labyrinth: Preparing for Subterranean Warfare in Iraq and Syria, May 19 2016, https://warontherocks.com/2016/05/levantine-labyrinth-preparing-for-subterranean-warfare-in-iraq-and-syria/ (Erişim tarihi: 21.05.2021)
  • Herman, A. (2014). Notes From the Underground: The Long History of Tunnel Warfare, August 26 2014, https://www.hudson.org/research /10570-notes-from-the-underground-the-long-history-of-tunnel-warfare (Erişim tarihi: 22.05.2021)
  • Hinchliffe, T. (2019). Subterranean Wartime Blues: DARPA Preps for Battle Underground, https://sociable.co/technology/subterranean-wartime-darpa-battle-underground/ (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Ioanes, E. (2019). DARPA is asking universities for access to their tunnels ASAP, and it's because the US military thinks its next war will go underground, Aug 31, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/darpa-underground-spaces-prep-urban-warfare-2019-8 (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Littlechild, M.R. (2020). Going Underground-A Subterrenean Capability fort he CAF, Canadian Force College Sevice Paper.
  • Luther, A. (2020). Tunnel rats: Warfighters can now train in subterranean warfare, September 1, 2020, https://www.army.mil/article/240605/ tunnel_rats_warfighters_can_now_train_in_subterranean_warfare (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Mills, W. (2019). The Elephant in the Tunnel: Preparing to Fight and Win Underground, 03.19.19, https://mwi.usma.edu/elephant-tunnel-preparing-fight-win-underground/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • Rozman, J. (2019). The Army Is Preparing to Go Underground, July 03, 2019. https://www.realcleardefense.com/articles/2019/07/03/the_army _is_preparing_to_go_underground_114555.html (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Runkle, B. (2015). Preparing for Warfare’s Subterranean Future, (16 April 2015) https:// warontherocks.com/2015/04/preparing-for-warfares-subterranean-future/ (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Sachdev, N. (2019). US Military Prepping Robots for Underground Combat, Emergencies. http://sociable.co/technology/us-military-prepping-robots-underground-combat-emergencies/ (Erişim tarihi: 20.05.2021)
  • Shapir, Y.S. & Perel, G. (2014). Subterranean Warfare: A New-Old Challenge. In: A. Kurz, and S. Brom (Ed.), The Lessons of Operation Protective Edge (pp. 51–57) Tel Aviv: Institute for National Security Studies. https://www.inss.org.il/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/ systemfiles/Subterranean%20Warfare_%20A%20New-Old%20 Challenge.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • Solescu D. (2020). “Considerations Concerning Fighting Actions in the Subterranean Environment”, International Conference, Knowledge-Based Organization, 26(1), 136-142.
  • South, T. (2019a). The Subterranean Battlefield: Warfare is Going Underground, into Dark, Tight Spaces, February 26, 2019, https://www.militarytimes.com/news/your-army/2019/02/26/the-subterranean-battlefield-warfare-is-going-underground-into-dark-tight-spaces/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • South, T. (2019b). Here’s how the Marine Corps is dealing with the looming underground combat threat, June 3 2019, https://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/your-marine-corps/2019/06/03/heres-how-the-marine-corps-is-dealing-with-the-looming-underground-combat-threat/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • South, T. (2019c). The tech it takes to fight subterranean, February 26 2019, https://www.militarytimes.com/news/your-army/2019/02/26/the-tech-it-takes-to-fight-subterranean/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • Springer, P.J. (2015). Fighting Under the Earth: The History of Tunneling in Warfare, Apil 23 29015, http://www.fpri.org/article/2015/04/fighting-under-the-earth-the-history-of-tunneling-in-warfare/ (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Mayıs 2021)
  • US Army (2019). ATP 3-21.51 Subterranean Operations, Headquarters, Washington, DC: Department of the Army.
  • Yıldırım, F. (2019). Osmanlı Devleti’nin Yer altı, Savaşçıları: Lağımcılar, Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 29(2), 385-408.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi Haziran 2022
Yazarlar

Tarık AK>
JANDARMA VE SAHİL GÜVENLİK AKADEMİSİ
0000-0001-8452-1601
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 32, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Ak, T. (2022). İÇ GÜVENLİKTE YER ALTI, TÜNEL VE MAĞARA OPERASYONLARI İLE YÖNETİMİ . SAVSAD Savunma ve Savaş Araştırmaları Dergisi , 32 (1) , 139-158 . DOI: 10.54078/savsad.1134261