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Küresel Finans Krizine Karşı Korumacılık: Bir GFZT Yaklaşımı

Yıl 2011, Sayı 83, 69 - 96, 01.12.2011

Öz

ABD’de birkaç emlak bankasının iflasıyla başlayan ve 2008’de küresel bir boyut kazanan finans krizi, pragmatik bir çözüm olarak korumacılık stratejisi ile birlikte dünya ekonomilerini meşgul etti. Bu strateji, “Washington Uzlaşması”na dayalı “yeni liberalizm”e karşı “yeni merkantilist” anlayışı yansıtmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, önce kriz boyunca alınmış korumacı önlemler dünya bölgeleri bağlamında ortaya konulmakta; daha sonra bu önlemlerin güçlü G taraflarına, yarattığı olası fırsatlara F , zayıf Z yönlerine ve arz ettiği tehlikelere T dikkat çekilerek bir GFZT SOWT yaklaşımı sergilenmektedir. Türkiye ve dünya ekonomisi için çıkarılan ‘kriz ve korumacılık dersleri’ bu çerçevede tartışılmaktadır

Kaynakça

  • Aaken, Anne van ve Jürgen Kurtz (2009) “Can International Economic Law Constrain Protectionism?”, The Fateful Allure of Protectionism:Taking Stock for the G8, S.J. Evenett, B.M.Hoekman-O.Cattaneo (Ed.), WB- CEPR, London, pp.13-4.
  • Barkley, Tom (2009), “Protectionism on Rise in 17 of the G20-World Bank Re- port”, Real Time Economics. Economic insight and analysis from The Wall Street Journal, 17 March, http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2009 /03/17/protectionism-on-rise-in-17-of-the-g20-world-bank-report/
  • Bernstein, Ann (2009) “Introductory Remarks,Trade Policy, Protectionism, and the Global Economic Crisis”, Debates and Discussions About Key National Policy Issues, Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE), Conservations Informing South African Policy, No 3, June.
  • Bown, Chad P. (2009), “Protectionism is on the Rise: Antidumping Investiga- tions”, The Collapse of Global Trade, Murky Protectionism, and the Crisis: Recommendations for the G20, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR-WB, London, pp.55-7.
  • Bussière, Matthieu, Emilia Pérez-Barreiro, Roland Straub ve Daria Taglioni (2010), “Protectionsist Responses to the Crises Global Trends and Implications”, The European Central Bank (ECB), Occasional Paper Series, No 110/May.
  • Capling, Ann (2008), “What should World Leaders do to Halt a Resurgence of Protectionism?”, What World Leaders Must Do to Halt the Spread of Protectionism, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London, pp.15-17.
  • Cernat, Lucian ve Sam Laird (2003), “North, South, East, West: What’s Best? Modern RTAs and their Implications for the Stability of Trade Policy”, Credit Research Paper, No. 03/11, Centre for Research in Economic Development and International Trade,University of Nottingham.
  • Dadush, Uri (2009), “The Threat of Protectionism During the Financial Crisis, Carnegie http://www.carnegieendowment.org/events/ (5.2.2011) March 12, – Beijing
  • Diplock, Jane (2010), “Time for a Paradigm Shift in Thinking”, IOSCO Conference, com.govt.nz/speeches/2010/100610.shtml. 10 June, Montreal, http://www.sec
  • Erixon, Fredrik ve Razeen Sally (2008), “1970s Déjà Vu Creeping Protectio- nism is on the Rise”, The Wall Street Journal, Opinion, November 27.
  • Erixon, Fredrik ve Razeen Sally (2010), “Trade, Globalization and Emerging Protectionism Since the Crises, ECIPE Working paper, No: 02/2010.
  • Evenett, Simon J. (2010a), The State of Protectionism on the Eve of the Seoul G20 Summit, Nov., http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/5753.
  • Evenett, Simon J. (2010b), “Executive Summary”, Will Stabilisation Limit Protectionism? The 4th GTA Report A Focus on the Gulf Region, S.J.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London.
  • Evenett, Simon J. (2010c), “The Global Overview: Has Stabilisation Affected the Landscape of Crisis-Era Protectionism?”, Will Stabilisation Limit Protectionism? The 4th GTA Report A Focus on the Gulf Region, S.J.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London.
  • Fisher, Stanley (2010), “Kur Savaşları Korumacı Ticaret Savaşlarına Yol Açar Mı?”, Söyleşi: Ü. İzmen, TÜSİAD Görüş Dergisi, Sayı: 65, Aralık.
  • Fung, Victor K. (2009), Jobs, Global Trade And The Perils Of Protectionism: The Imperative Of Restoring Confidence, The Collapse Of Global Trade, Murky Protectionism, and The Crisis: Recommendations For The G20, A VoxEU.org Publication, CEPR-WB, London.
  • Geest, Willem van der (2009), “The Perils of Protectionism”, ITC- Inter- national Trade Forum, Issue 1/2009, http://www.tradeforum.org/, http://www.intracen.org/ (20.3.2011)
  • Gore, Charles (2000), “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, UNCTAD, Geneva, Vol.28, No.5, Elsevier Science Ltd., www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev (21.2.2011).
  • Hayami, Yujiro (2003), “From the Washington Consensus to the Post- Washington Consensus: Retrospect and Prospect”, Asian Development Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 40-65.
  • Henn, Christian ve Brad McDonald (2010), “Avoiding Protectionism”, IMF- Finance & Development, March, http://www.imf.org/external/ pubs/ft/fandd/2010/03/pdf /henn.pdf (18.3.2011).
  • Haque, M. Shamsul (1999), “The Fate of Sustainable Development Under Neo-liberal Regimes in Developing Countries”, International Political Science Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, 197–218.
  • Herger, Nils (2009), “Trade Finance and Financial Crises”, NCCR International Trade, Working Paper No. 2009/35, August, pp.1-16.
  • Hufbauer, Gary Clyde ve Jeffrey J. Schott (2008), “What Should Leaders Do To Stop The Spread Of Protectionism?”, What World Leaders Must Do To Halt The Spread Of Protectionism, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London, pp.11-3.
  • ICTSD-International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (2009), Programme on Agricultural Trade and Sustainable Development, Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security Goals, http://ictsd.org/downloads/2011/12/ensuring-trade-policy-supports- food-security-goals.pdf (10.1.2011).
  • IORI-HSE & G20 Research Group (2009), “G20 Commitment on “Rejecting Protectionism”, Compliance Performance, Report 15 November 2008 – 25 March 2009, Prepared by The International Organizations Research Institute of the State University, Toronto.
  • Keidanren, Nippon (2009), “Protectionism is Not the Solution to the Crisis, - Proposal for free Trade and Economy to Restore Market Confidence”, March 9, http://www.keidanren.or. jp/english/policy/2009/020.html.
  • Kelly, Rachel (2010), “Threat Of Protectionist Tendencies To Global Economy Lower Compared To Peak of Recession”, Channel Newsasia, 11.
  • Kim, Ki Hee ve C.K. Leung (2006), “Protectionism Actually Hurts U.S. Jobs and Economy: An Investigation of Proponents And Opponents”, Internati- onal Business & Economics Research Journal – September , V.5, N.9 .
  • Messerlin, Patrick A. (2008), “What Should World Leaders Do to Halt Protec- tionism From Spreading?”, What World Leaders Must Do to Halt The Spread of Protectionism, R. Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London.
  • Miller, Vincent H. ve James R. Elwood (1988), “Free Trade or Protectionism? The Case Against Trade Restrictions”, International Society for Individual Liberty (ISIL), http://www.isil.org/resources/lit/free-trade- protectionism.html (23.2.2011)
  • Mimouni, Mondher, Xavier Pichot ve Lionel Fontagne (2008), “Additional Taxes and the Indirect Evidence on Trade Protection”, The Global Enabling Trade Report 2008 http://www.mdgtrade.org/Chap1.3_ Additional TaxesandtheIndirectEvidenceonTradeProtection.pdf
  • Nanto, Dick K. (2009), The Global Financial Crisis: Foreign and Trade Policy Effects, Coordinator April 7, CRS Report for Congress, pp.1-29, http://www.fas.org /sgp/crs/misc/R40496.pdf (4.4.2011)
  • O'Rourke, Kevin H. (2008), “Engage Multilateral Institutions in Solutions to Todays Problems”, What World Leaders Must Do To Halt The Spread of Protectionism, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London, pp.55-57.
  • Papava, Vladimer (2010), “Economy of Post-Communist Capitalism Under The Financial Crisis”, Studies in Economics And Finance, Vol. 27 No. 2.
  • Ping, Li (2009), “Is Protectionism a Threat to the World Economy?”, Economic Observer, February 23, http://www.eeo.com.cn/ens/ (20.2.2011).
  • Pettis, Michael (2009), “Protectionism is Gaining Currency – Competitive Devaluations Threaten a Trade War” , Financial Times, December 1, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/24b5c0c6-dead-11de-adff- 00144feab49a.html#axzz1qKVxI4as (9.3.2011)
  • Porter, Jim (2009), “Crisis Of Capitalism: The Sirens of Protectionism”, International Viewpoint-News And Analysis From The 4th International, V Online Magazine: IV409 – February, http://www. internationalviewpoint.org/Spip.Php?Article1607 (3.3.2011).
  • Rönnbäck, Klas (2006), “Flexibility And Protectionism: Swedish Trade in Sugar During The Early Modern Era”, Göteborg Papers in Economic History, No. 4. June, pp.1-16, www.econhist.gu.se. (15.1.2011)
  • Sally, Razeen (2008), “After Doha: Protectionism Creep”, Fare Astern Econo- mic Review, http://www.ecipe.org/archived-news/files/Sally.pdf
  • Sally, Razeen (2009), “Introduction Trade Libealization in the Twenty-Firs Century”, in The Political Economy of Trade Reform in Emerging Markets: Crisis or Opportunity?, P.Draper-P.Alves-R. Sally (Ed.), Edward Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts, pp.1-32.
  • Sally, Razeen (2010), “International Trade and Emerging Protectionism Since The Crisis”, The European Centre For International Political Economy (ECIPE), Jan.26, http://www.ecipe.org/blog/international-trade-and- emerging-protectionism-since-the-crisis (19.3.2011).
  • Salvatore, Dominick (1993), Protectionism and World Welfare: Introduction, Protectionism and World Welfare, Cambridge University Press.
  • Schooner, Steven L. ve Christopher R. Yukins (2009), “Public Procurement: Focus On People, Value For Money And Systemic Integrity,Not Protectionism”, The Collapse of Global Trade, Murky Protectionism, and The Crisis: Recommendations For The G20, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR-WB, London, pp.87-92.
  • Singh, Karan (2010), “The Perils of Protectionism”, Foresight, http://www.foresightproject. net/publications/ (18.3.2011)
  • Soesastro, Hadi (2008), “What should world leaders do to halt protectionism from Spreading?”, What World Leaders Must Do to Halt the Spread of Protectionism, R. Baldwin-S.Evenett, CEPR, London, pp.3-5.
  • Spence, Michael (2008), “Agenda For The Next Few Months”, What G20 Leaders Must Do To Stabilise Our Economy And Fix The Financial Syste, A Voxeu.Org Publication Edited By Barry Eichengreen And Richard Baldwin, Centre For Economic Policy Research, pp.11-4.
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2009), “A Globally Co-ordinated Stimulus Package Needed”, http://www.gulftimes.com/site/topics/article.asp? cu_no=2&item_ no=284199& version=1&template_id=46&parent_id=26, (12.3.2011)
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2010), “No Time for a Trade War”, June 4, http://www. project-syndicate.org/commentary/stiglitz124/English, (6.3.2011)
  • TÜİK (2011), Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri, Aralık.
  • Universia-Knowledge@Wharton (2009), Trade Wars: Will Protectionism Win out over Recovery?, Feb 25, http://www.wharton.universia.net/ index.cfm?fa=printArticle&ID =1667&language=English (21.2.2011).
  • Weidenbaum, Murray L.(1983-84), “The Hıgh Cost Of Protectionism”, The Cato Journal An Interdisciplinary Journal of Public Policy Analysis, Vol.3, No.3, http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/ cj3n3/cj3n3-9.pdf
  • Wynne, Mark A. ve Erasmus K. Kersting (2009), “Trade, Globalization and the Financial Crisis”, Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Vol. 4, No. 8, November, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.

PROTECTIONISM AGAINST GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS: A SOWT APPROACH

Yıl 2011, Sayı 83, 69 - 96, 01.12.2011

Öz

The financial crisis, which began with the bankruptcy of a few mortgage banks in the USA and gained a global dimension in 2009, occupied the agenda of world economies together with the strategy of protectionism as a pragmatic solution to it. This strategy reflects a “neo-mercantilist” view based on “Washington Consensus” versus “neo-liberal” view. This study sets forth the protectionist measures taken throughout the crisis in respect of the world regions and implements a SOWT analysis by focusing on the strengths S , the possible opportunities O , the weaknesses W and the threats T of these measures. The lessons learned with respect to “crisis and protectionism” for Turkey and the world economies are discussed within this framework

Kaynakça

  • Aaken, Anne van ve Jürgen Kurtz (2009) “Can International Economic Law Constrain Protectionism?”, The Fateful Allure of Protectionism:Taking Stock for the G8, S.J. Evenett, B.M.Hoekman-O.Cattaneo (Ed.), WB- CEPR, London, pp.13-4.
  • Barkley, Tom (2009), “Protectionism on Rise in 17 of the G20-World Bank Re- port”, Real Time Economics. Economic insight and analysis from The Wall Street Journal, 17 March, http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2009 /03/17/protectionism-on-rise-in-17-of-the-g20-world-bank-report/
  • Bernstein, Ann (2009) “Introductory Remarks,Trade Policy, Protectionism, and the Global Economic Crisis”, Debates and Discussions About Key National Policy Issues, Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE), Conservations Informing South African Policy, No 3, June.
  • Bown, Chad P. (2009), “Protectionism is on the Rise: Antidumping Investiga- tions”, The Collapse of Global Trade, Murky Protectionism, and the Crisis: Recommendations for the G20, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR-WB, London, pp.55-7.
  • Bussière, Matthieu, Emilia Pérez-Barreiro, Roland Straub ve Daria Taglioni (2010), “Protectionsist Responses to the Crises Global Trends and Implications”, The European Central Bank (ECB), Occasional Paper Series, No 110/May.
  • Capling, Ann (2008), “What should World Leaders do to Halt a Resurgence of Protectionism?”, What World Leaders Must Do to Halt the Spread of Protectionism, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London, pp.15-17.
  • Cernat, Lucian ve Sam Laird (2003), “North, South, East, West: What’s Best? Modern RTAs and their Implications for the Stability of Trade Policy”, Credit Research Paper, No. 03/11, Centre for Research in Economic Development and International Trade,University of Nottingham.
  • Dadush, Uri (2009), “The Threat of Protectionism During the Financial Crisis, Carnegie http://www.carnegieendowment.org/events/ (5.2.2011) March 12, – Beijing
  • Diplock, Jane (2010), “Time for a Paradigm Shift in Thinking”, IOSCO Conference, com.govt.nz/speeches/2010/100610.shtml. 10 June, Montreal, http://www.sec
  • Erixon, Fredrik ve Razeen Sally (2008), “1970s Déjà Vu Creeping Protectio- nism is on the Rise”, The Wall Street Journal, Opinion, November 27.
  • Erixon, Fredrik ve Razeen Sally (2010), “Trade, Globalization and Emerging Protectionism Since the Crises, ECIPE Working paper, No: 02/2010.
  • Evenett, Simon J. (2010a), The State of Protectionism on the Eve of the Seoul G20 Summit, Nov., http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/5753.
  • Evenett, Simon J. (2010b), “Executive Summary”, Will Stabilisation Limit Protectionism? The 4th GTA Report A Focus on the Gulf Region, S.J.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London.
  • Evenett, Simon J. (2010c), “The Global Overview: Has Stabilisation Affected the Landscape of Crisis-Era Protectionism?”, Will Stabilisation Limit Protectionism? The 4th GTA Report A Focus on the Gulf Region, S.J.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London.
  • Fisher, Stanley (2010), “Kur Savaşları Korumacı Ticaret Savaşlarına Yol Açar Mı?”, Söyleşi: Ü. İzmen, TÜSİAD Görüş Dergisi, Sayı: 65, Aralık.
  • Fung, Victor K. (2009), Jobs, Global Trade And The Perils Of Protectionism: The Imperative Of Restoring Confidence, The Collapse Of Global Trade, Murky Protectionism, and The Crisis: Recommendations For The G20, A VoxEU.org Publication, CEPR-WB, London.
  • Geest, Willem van der (2009), “The Perils of Protectionism”, ITC- Inter- national Trade Forum, Issue 1/2009, http://www.tradeforum.org/, http://www.intracen.org/ (20.3.2011)
  • Gore, Charles (2000), “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, UNCTAD, Geneva, Vol.28, No.5, Elsevier Science Ltd., www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev (21.2.2011).
  • Hayami, Yujiro (2003), “From the Washington Consensus to the Post- Washington Consensus: Retrospect and Prospect”, Asian Development Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 40-65.
  • Henn, Christian ve Brad McDonald (2010), “Avoiding Protectionism”, IMF- Finance & Development, March, http://www.imf.org/external/ pubs/ft/fandd/2010/03/pdf /henn.pdf (18.3.2011).
  • Haque, M. Shamsul (1999), “The Fate of Sustainable Development Under Neo-liberal Regimes in Developing Countries”, International Political Science Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, 197–218.
  • Herger, Nils (2009), “Trade Finance and Financial Crises”, NCCR International Trade, Working Paper No. 2009/35, August, pp.1-16.
  • Hufbauer, Gary Clyde ve Jeffrey J. Schott (2008), “What Should Leaders Do To Stop The Spread Of Protectionism?”, What World Leaders Must Do To Halt The Spread Of Protectionism, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London, pp.11-3.
  • ICTSD-International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (2009), Programme on Agricultural Trade and Sustainable Development, Ensuring Trade Policy Supports Food Security Goals, http://ictsd.org/downloads/2011/12/ensuring-trade-policy-supports- food-security-goals.pdf (10.1.2011).
  • IORI-HSE & G20 Research Group (2009), “G20 Commitment on “Rejecting Protectionism”, Compliance Performance, Report 15 November 2008 – 25 March 2009, Prepared by The International Organizations Research Institute of the State University, Toronto.
  • Keidanren, Nippon (2009), “Protectionism is Not the Solution to the Crisis, - Proposal for free Trade and Economy to Restore Market Confidence”, March 9, http://www.keidanren.or. jp/english/policy/2009/020.html.
  • Kelly, Rachel (2010), “Threat Of Protectionist Tendencies To Global Economy Lower Compared To Peak of Recession”, Channel Newsasia, 11.
  • Kim, Ki Hee ve C.K. Leung (2006), “Protectionism Actually Hurts U.S. Jobs and Economy: An Investigation of Proponents And Opponents”, Internati- onal Business & Economics Research Journal – September , V.5, N.9 .
  • Messerlin, Patrick A. (2008), “What Should World Leaders Do to Halt Protec- tionism From Spreading?”, What World Leaders Must Do to Halt The Spread of Protectionism, R. Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London.
  • Miller, Vincent H. ve James R. Elwood (1988), “Free Trade or Protectionism? The Case Against Trade Restrictions”, International Society for Individual Liberty (ISIL), http://www.isil.org/resources/lit/free-trade- protectionism.html (23.2.2011)
  • Mimouni, Mondher, Xavier Pichot ve Lionel Fontagne (2008), “Additional Taxes and the Indirect Evidence on Trade Protection”, The Global Enabling Trade Report 2008 http://www.mdgtrade.org/Chap1.3_ Additional TaxesandtheIndirectEvidenceonTradeProtection.pdf
  • Nanto, Dick K. (2009), The Global Financial Crisis: Foreign and Trade Policy Effects, Coordinator April 7, CRS Report for Congress, pp.1-29, http://www.fas.org /sgp/crs/misc/R40496.pdf (4.4.2011)
  • O'Rourke, Kevin H. (2008), “Engage Multilateral Institutions in Solutions to Todays Problems”, What World Leaders Must Do To Halt The Spread of Protectionism, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR, London, pp.55-57.
  • Papava, Vladimer (2010), “Economy of Post-Communist Capitalism Under The Financial Crisis”, Studies in Economics And Finance, Vol. 27 No. 2.
  • Ping, Li (2009), “Is Protectionism a Threat to the World Economy?”, Economic Observer, February 23, http://www.eeo.com.cn/ens/ (20.2.2011).
  • Pettis, Michael (2009), “Protectionism is Gaining Currency – Competitive Devaluations Threaten a Trade War” , Financial Times, December 1, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/24b5c0c6-dead-11de-adff- 00144feab49a.html#axzz1qKVxI4as (9.3.2011)
  • Porter, Jim (2009), “Crisis Of Capitalism: The Sirens of Protectionism”, International Viewpoint-News And Analysis From The 4th International, V Online Magazine: IV409 – February, http://www. internationalviewpoint.org/Spip.Php?Article1607 (3.3.2011).
  • Rönnbäck, Klas (2006), “Flexibility And Protectionism: Swedish Trade in Sugar During The Early Modern Era”, Göteborg Papers in Economic History, No. 4. June, pp.1-16, www.econhist.gu.se. (15.1.2011)
  • Sally, Razeen (2008), “After Doha: Protectionism Creep”, Fare Astern Econo- mic Review, http://www.ecipe.org/archived-news/files/Sally.pdf
  • Sally, Razeen (2009), “Introduction Trade Libealization in the Twenty-Firs Century”, in The Political Economy of Trade Reform in Emerging Markets: Crisis or Opportunity?, P.Draper-P.Alves-R. Sally (Ed.), Edward Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts, pp.1-32.
  • Sally, Razeen (2010), “International Trade and Emerging Protectionism Since The Crisis”, The European Centre For International Political Economy (ECIPE), Jan.26, http://www.ecipe.org/blog/international-trade-and- emerging-protectionism-since-the-crisis (19.3.2011).
  • Salvatore, Dominick (1993), Protectionism and World Welfare: Introduction, Protectionism and World Welfare, Cambridge University Press.
  • Schooner, Steven L. ve Christopher R. Yukins (2009), “Public Procurement: Focus On People, Value For Money And Systemic Integrity,Not Protectionism”, The Collapse of Global Trade, Murky Protectionism, and The Crisis: Recommendations For The G20, R.Baldwin-S.Evenett (Ed.), CEPR-WB, London, pp.87-92.
  • Singh, Karan (2010), “The Perils of Protectionism”, Foresight, http://www.foresightproject. net/publications/ (18.3.2011)
  • Soesastro, Hadi (2008), “What should world leaders do to halt protectionism from Spreading?”, What World Leaders Must Do to Halt the Spread of Protectionism, R. Baldwin-S.Evenett, CEPR, London, pp.3-5.
  • Spence, Michael (2008), “Agenda For The Next Few Months”, What G20 Leaders Must Do To Stabilise Our Economy And Fix The Financial Syste, A Voxeu.Org Publication Edited By Barry Eichengreen And Richard Baldwin, Centre For Economic Policy Research, pp.11-4.
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2009), “A Globally Co-ordinated Stimulus Package Needed”, http://www.gulftimes.com/site/topics/article.asp? cu_no=2&item_ no=284199& version=1&template_id=46&parent_id=26, (12.3.2011)
  • Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2010), “No Time for a Trade War”, June 4, http://www. project-syndicate.org/commentary/stiglitz124/English, (6.3.2011)
  • TÜİK (2011), Dış Ticaret İstatistikleri, Aralık.
  • Universia-Knowledge@Wharton (2009), Trade Wars: Will Protectionism Win out over Recovery?, Feb 25, http://www.wharton.universia.net/ index.cfm?fa=printArticle&ID =1667&language=English (21.2.2011).
  • Weidenbaum, Murray L.(1983-84), “The Hıgh Cost Of Protectionism”, The Cato Journal An Interdisciplinary Journal of Public Policy Analysis, Vol.3, No.3, http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/ cj3n3/cj3n3-9.pdf
  • Wynne, Mark A. ve Erasmus K. Kersting (2009), “Trade, Globalization and the Financial Crisis”, Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Vol. 4, No. 8, November, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

İrfan KALAYCI Bu kişi benim
İnönü Üniversitesi İİBF İktisat Bölümü.

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2011
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2011, Cilt , Sayı 83

Kaynak Göster

APA Kalaycı, İ. (2011). Küresel Finans Krizine Karşı Korumacılık: Bir GFZT Yaklaşımı . Sayıştay Dergisi , (83) , 69-96 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sayistay/issue/61538/919076