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YEŞİL YIKAMA İLE MÜCADELE: AVRUPA BİRLİĞİ’NDE YEŞİL İDDİALARIN DOĞRULANMASI GİRİŞİMİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt 33, Sayı 124, 101 - 109, 28.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.52836/sayistay.1110591

Öz

Günümüzde çevre sorunlarından kaynaklanan tehditler, küresel düzeyde artan bir duyarlılığı da beraberinde getirmektedir. Üretim, tüketim ve yatırım kararlarının çevre hassasiyetleri doğrultusunda yeniden şekillendiği bu dönemde, işletmelerin ve ürünlerin çevresel performansına ilişkin etiket ve raporlama girişimlerinin sayısı ve çeşitliliği artarken, işletmelerin kasıtlı olarak çevresel etkileri veya faydaları hakkında aldatıcı bir izlenim verdikleri ‘yeşil yıkama’ uygulamalarında da bir artış olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Yeşil ve döngüsel ekonomiye geçiş hedefi doğrultusunda Avrupa Yeşil Mutabakatı ve 2020 tarihli Döngüsel Ekonomi Eylem Planı altında birbiriyle bağlantılı pek çok girişimi başlatan Avrupa Birliği’nde (AB), Yeşil İddiaların Doğrulanması Girişimi ile işletmelerin ve ürünlerin çevresel performansına ilişkin bilgilerin AB genelinde güvenilir, karşılaştırılabilir ve doğrulanabilir olması, yeşil yıkama ile mücadele edilmesi ve aldatıcı iddiaların önüne geçilmesi hedeflenmektedir. Bu alanda son gelişme ise, Komisyon tarafından 30 Mart 2022 tarihinde açıklanan yeni döngüsel ekonomi paketinde yeni tüketici haklarının getirilmesini ve yeşil yıkamanın yasaklanmasını öngören düzenleme önerisi olmuştur. Ulusal düzeyde de parlamentoların, hükümetlerin, kamu kurumları ile denetim ve gözetim otoritelerinin önemli sorumluluklar üstlenmesi gereken bir alanda atılacak adımların Türkiye için de önemli avantajlar sağlayacağı; yeşil ticarette rekabeti sürdürebilmesi ve yeşil dönüşüm hedefini gerçekleştirebilmesine katkı sağlayacağı açıktır. AB tarafından başlatılan girişimin kapsamını ve olası etkilerini inceleyen bu çalışma, temel olarak bu girişimle güçlenecek olan yeşil yıkama ile mücadelenin yeşil dönüşümü ve sürdürülebilirliği sağlamada üstleneceği rolleri değerlendirmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Aji, H. M. ve Sutikno, B. (2015). The Extended Consequence of Greenwashing: Perceived Consumer Skepticism. International Journal of Business and Information, 10(4), 433.
  • Akyüz, A. M. (2020). Reklamlarda Algılanan Yeşile Boyamanın Yeşil Tüketicilerin Tüketim Değerlerinin Farklılaşmasındaki Olası Rolü. The Journal of International Scientific Researches, 5, 22-37.
  • Butt, A., Khan, S. N. ve Zakir, M. M. (2021). Firms Greenwashing Practices and Consumers’ Perception: Role of Marketing and Non-Marketing External Stake Holders in Firms Greenwashing Practices. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 20(3).
  • Chen Y., Lin, C. ve Chang, C. (2013). The Influence of Greenwash on Green Word-of Mouth (Green WOM): The Mediation Effects of Green Perceived Quality and Green Satisfaction. Qual Quant, 48(5), 2411–2425.
  • Cislak, A.; Cichocka, A. Wojcik, A.D. ve Milfont, T. L. (2021). Words Not Deeds: National Narcissism, National Identification, and Support for Greenwashing versus Genuine Proenvironmental Campaigns. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 74, 101576.
  • De Freitas Netto, S. V., Sobral, M. F. F., Ribeiro, A. R. B. ve Soares, G. R. da L. (2020). Concepts and Forms of Greenwashing: A systematic Review. Environmental Sciences Europe, 32(1), 19.
  • Delmas, M. A. ve Burbano, V. C. (2011). The Drivers of Greenwashing. California Management Review, 54(1), 64-87.
  • Demirci, K. (2021). Sürdürülebilir Geleceğin Önündeki Tehdit: Yeşil Boyama (Greenwashing) Türkiye Kentleri Üzerinden Bir Değerlendirme. Kent ve Çevre Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(2), 34-55.
  • EC (2019a). The European Green Deal. European Commission, COM/2019/640final’.https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1588580774040&uri=CELEX:52019DC0640, Erişim Tarihi: 01.09.2021.
  • EC (2019b). Consumer Testing of Alternatives for Communicating the Environmental Footprint Profile of Products. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/pdf/2019_EF_commtest_report.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 28.02.2021.
  • EC (2020a). A New Circular Economy Action Plan for a Cleaner and More Competitive Europe. European Commission, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1583933814386&uri=COM:2020:98:FIN, Erişim Tarihi: 01.09.2021.
  • EC (2020b). Inception Impact Assessment on a Legislative Proposal on Substantiating Green Claims. European Commission.
  • EC (2020c). Report on 2018-2019 Stakeholder Consultations regarding the Potential Future Use of the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint Methods.
  • European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/pdf/EF_stakeholdercons19.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 27.03.2022.
  • EC (2021a). Initiative on Green Claims. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/initiative_on_green_claims.htm, Erişim Tarihi: 30.10.2021.
  • EC (2021b). Environmental Footprint Methods. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/news/environmental-footprint-methods-2021-12-16_en, Erişim Tarihi: 30.10.2021.
  • EC (2021c). Understanding Product Environmental Footprint and Organisation Environmental Footprint Methods. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/pdf/EF%20simple%20guide_v7_clen.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 26.02.2022.
  • EC (2022a). Press Release: New Proposals to Make Sustainable Products the Norm. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_22_2013, Erişim Tarihi: 30.03.2022.
  • EC (2022b). Press Release: Circular Economy: Commission Proposes New Consumer Rights and a Ban on Greenwashing. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_22_2098, Erişim Tarihi: 30.03.2022.
  • EP (2021). Legislative Train- Substantiating Green Claims. European Parliament, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-a-european-green-deal/file substantiating-green-claims, Erişim Tarihi: 30.10.2021.
  • Fields, Z. ve Atiku, S. O. (2017). Collective Green Creativity and Eco-Innovation as Key Drivers of Sustainable Business Solutions in Organizations. Collective Creativity for Responsible and Sustainable Business Practice, pp. 1-25. IGI Global.
  • Furlow, N. E. (2010). Greenwashing in the New Millennium. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 10(6), 22.
  • Genç, E. (2013). Yeşile Boyama Kavramının Analitik İncelenmesi: Sertifikalı Etiketlerin Sertifikasızlarla Karşılaştırılması. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Dergisi, 20(2) , 151-175.
  • Kahraman, Ö. (2021). Yeşil Aklama, Bir Rıza Mühendisliği Örneği. FLSF Felsefe ve Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 31, 413-433.
  • Khan, M. et al. (2018). Motivators of Social Sustainability in Healthcare Supply Chains in the UAE—Stakeholder Perspective. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 14, 95-104.
  • Köse, H. Ö. ve Polat, N. (2021). Dijital Dönüşüm ve Denetimin Geleceğine Etkisi, Sayıştay Dergisi, 32 (123), 9-41. https://doi.org/10.52836/sayistay.10068328
  • Kuşku Özdemir, E., Topsümer, F. ve Göztaş, A. (2017). Yeşil Aklama Kampanyaları ve Medya Gündemine Yansımaları: Volkswagen Emisyon Krizinin Amerikan Basınında Sunumu. Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD), 2, 357-370.
  • Leblebici Koçer, L. ve Delice, T. (2017). Yeşile Boyama ve Yeşil Güven Arasındaki İlişkide Algılanan Yeşil Riskin ve Algılanan Tüketici Şüpheciliğinin Aracılık Rolü. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 50, 1-25.
  • Lyon, T. P. ve Maxwell, J. W. (2006). Greenwash: Corporate Environmental Disclosure under Threat of Audit. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 20(1), 3-41.
  • Lyon, T. P. ve Montgomery, A. W. (2015). The Means and End of Greenwash. Organization & Environment, 28(2), 223-249.
  • Martikainen, V. (2021). Greenwashing in Nordic Electricity Companies. Savonia University of Applied Sciences Bachelor’s Degree Thesis.
  • Martínez, M. P. et al. (2020). Fuzzy inference system to study the Behavior of the Green Consumer Facing the Perception of Greenwashing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242.
  • Mayer, R. N., Scammon, D. L. ve Zick, C. D. (1993). Poisoning the Well: Do Environmental Claims Strain Consumer Credulity? Advances in Consumer Research, 20.
  • Milionis, N., Köse, H. O. ve Matteo, T. (2021). The European Union and Climate Change: An Auditor’s Perspective. TCA Journal/Sayıştay Dergisi, 32(122), 9-35. https://doi.org/10.52836/sayistay.1004744
  • Nyilasy, G., Gangadharbatla, H. ve Paladino, A. (2014). Perceived Greenwashing: The Interactive Effects of Green Advertising and Corporate Environmental Performance on Consumer Reactions. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(4), 693–707.
  • Orange, E. ve Cohen, A. M. (2010). From Eco-friendly to Eco-intelligent. The Futurist, 44(5), 28.
  • Oxford English Dictionary (2022). https://www.oed.com/, Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2022.
  • Özel, A. (2015). Çevresel Aktivizm, Halkla İlişkiler ve Yeşil Aklama Üzerine Kuramsal Bir Bakış. Selçuk İletişim, 8(4), 73-89.
  • Özuyar, P. ve Gürsoy Ç. (2021). Türkiye’deki Bilimsel Yayınlarda Döngüsel Ekonomi Teriminin Yeri. İşletme Ekonomisi 2(4), 315.
  • Pearson, J. (2010). Turning Point. Are We Doing the Right Thing? Leadership and Prioritization for Public Benefit. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 37, 37–40.
  • Peattie, K.; Peattie, S. ve Ponting, C. (2009). Climate Change: A Social and Commercial Marketing Communications Challenge. EuroMed Journal of Business 4 (3), 270-286.
  • Polonsky, M. J., Grau, S. L. ve Garma, R. (2010). The New Greenwash? Potential Marketing Problems with Carbon Offsets. International Journal of Business Studies: A Publication of the Faculty of Business Administration. Edith Cowan University, 18(1), 49-54.
  • Pomering, A. ve Johnson, L. W. (2009). Advertising Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives to Communicate Corporate Image: Inhibiting Scepticism to Enhance Persuasion. Corporate Communications, 14 (4), 420-439.
  • Sapmaz Veral, E. (2019). An Evaluation on the Circular Economy Model and the Loops Design in the Context of Waste Management. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, (15), 18-27.
  • Schumacher, K. (2021). Carbonwashing: ESG Data Greenwashing in a Post-Paris World, Settling Climate Accounts, pp. 39-58. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • Seele, P. ve Gatti, L. (2017). Greenwashing Revisited: In Search of a Typology and Accusation Based Definition Incorporating Legitimacy Strategies. Business Strategy & the Environment, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 26(2), 239–252.
  • TerraChoice (2010). The sins of greenwashing: Home and family edition. http://sinsofgreenwashing.org/findings/greenwashing-report-2010/, Erişim Tarihi: 01.12.2021.
  • Ticaret Bakanlığı (2021). Yeşil Mutabakat Eylem Planı. https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/60f1200013b876eb28421b23/MUTABAKAT%20YE%C5%9E%C4%B0L.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 09.11.2021.
  • Torelli, R., Balluchi, F. ve Lazzini, A. (2020). Greenwashing and environmental communication: Effects on stakeholders’ perceptions. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(2), 407–421. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2373”
  • Walker, K. ve Wan, F. (2012). The Harm of Symbolic Actions and Green-Washing: Corporate Actions and Communications on Environmental Performance and Their Financial Implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 227–242.
  • Wang, W.; Krishna, A. ve McFerran, B. (2017). Turning off The Lights: Consumers’ Environmental Efforts Depend on Visible Efforts of Firms. Journal of Marketing Research, 54(3), 478-494.
  • Yıldız, E. ve Kırmızıbiber, A. (2019). Yeşil Aklamanın Yeşil Marka Değeri Üzerindeki Etkileri: Otomobil Markaları Üzerine Bir Uygulama. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 7 (2), 566-584

THE FIGHT AGAINST GREENWASHING: EU INITIATIVE ON SUBSTANTIATING GREEN CLAIMS

Yıl 2022, Cilt 33, Sayı 124, 101 - 109, 28.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.52836/sayistay.1110591

Öz

Today threats arising from environmental problems bring about an increased sensitivity at the global level. In this period, where production, consumption, and investment decisions are reshaped in line with environmental sensitivities, the number and the variety of labels and reporting initiatives regarding the environmental performance of businesses and products have increased. There is also an observed increase in ‘greenwashing’ practices, where businesses deliberately give a deceptive impression about their environmental impacts or benefits. In line with its transition to a green and circular economy objective, The European Union (EU) has announced several interrelated initiatives under the European Green Deal and the 2020 Circular Economy Action Plan. The ‘Initiative on Substantiating Green Claims’ aims to ensure that information regarding the environmental performance of businesses and products are reliable, comparable, and verifiable across the EU, while it also aims to prevent deceptive claims. The latest development in this area has been the proposal to introduce new consumer rights and a ban on greenwashing in the new circular economy package announced by the Commission on 30 March 2022. At the national level, steps to be taken in an area where the parliaments, governments, public institutions, and supervisory and surveillance authorities must assume important responsibilities, will provide significant advantages for Turkey. These steps will contribute to sustaining competition in green trade and will also contribute to the achievement of the goal of green transformation. Examining the scope and possible effects of the initiative launched by the EU, this study evaluates the role of the fight against greenwashing, which will be strengthened by this initiative, in ensuring green transition and sustainability.

Kaynakça

  • Aji, H. M. ve Sutikno, B. (2015). The Extended Consequence of Greenwashing: Perceived Consumer Skepticism. International Journal of Business and Information, 10(4), 433.
  • Akyüz, A. M. (2020). Reklamlarda Algılanan Yeşile Boyamanın Yeşil Tüketicilerin Tüketim Değerlerinin Farklılaşmasındaki Olası Rolü. The Journal of International Scientific Researches, 5, 22-37.
  • Butt, A., Khan, S. N. ve Zakir, M. M. (2021). Firms Greenwashing Practices and Consumers’ Perception: Role of Marketing and Non-Marketing External Stake Holders in Firms Greenwashing Practices. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 20(3).
  • Chen Y., Lin, C. ve Chang, C. (2013). The Influence of Greenwash on Green Word-of Mouth (Green WOM): The Mediation Effects of Green Perceived Quality and Green Satisfaction. Qual Quant, 48(5), 2411–2425.
  • Cislak, A.; Cichocka, A. Wojcik, A.D. ve Milfont, T. L. (2021). Words Not Deeds: National Narcissism, National Identification, and Support for Greenwashing versus Genuine Proenvironmental Campaigns. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 74, 101576.
  • De Freitas Netto, S. V., Sobral, M. F. F., Ribeiro, A. R. B. ve Soares, G. R. da L. (2020). Concepts and Forms of Greenwashing: A systematic Review. Environmental Sciences Europe, 32(1), 19.
  • Delmas, M. A. ve Burbano, V. C. (2011). The Drivers of Greenwashing. California Management Review, 54(1), 64-87.
  • Demirci, K. (2021). Sürdürülebilir Geleceğin Önündeki Tehdit: Yeşil Boyama (Greenwashing) Türkiye Kentleri Üzerinden Bir Değerlendirme. Kent ve Çevre Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(2), 34-55.
  • EC (2019a). The European Green Deal. European Commission, COM/2019/640final’.https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1588580774040&uri=CELEX:52019DC0640, Erişim Tarihi: 01.09.2021.
  • EC (2019b). Consumer Testing of Alternatives for Communicating the Environmental Footprint Profile of Products. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/pdf/2019_EF_commtest_report.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 28.02.2021.
  • EC (2020a). A New Circular Economy Action Plan for a Cleaner and More Competitive Europe. European Commission, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1583933814386&uri=COM:2020:98:FIN, Erişim Tarihi: 01.09.2021.
  • EC (2020b). Inception Impact Assessment on a Legislative Proposal on Substantiating Green Claims. European Commission.
  • EC (2020c). Report on 2018-2019 Stakeholder Consultations regarding the Potential Future Use of the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint Methods.
  • European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/pdf/EF_stakeholdercons19.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 27.03.2022.
  • EC (2021a). Initiative on Green Claims. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/initiative_on_green_claims.htm, Erişim Tarihi: 30.10.2021.
  • EC (2021b). Environmental Footprint Methods. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/news/environmental-footprint-methods-2021-12-16_en, Erişim Tarihi: 30.10.2021.
  • EC (2021c). Understanding Product Environmental Footprint and Organisation Environmental Footprint Methods. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/smgp/pdf/EF%20simple%20guide_v7_clen.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 26.02.2022.
  • EC (2022a). Press Release: New Proposals to Make Sustainable Products the Norm. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_22_2013, Erişim Tarihi: 30.03.2022.
  • EC (2022b). Press Release: Circular Economy: Commission Proposes New Consumer Rights and a Ban on Greenwashing. European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_22_2098, Erişim Tarihi: 30.03.2022.
  • EP (2021). Legislative Train- Substantiating Green Claims. European Parliament, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/theme-a-european-green-deal/file substantiating-green-claims, Erişim Tarihi: 30.10.2021.
  • Fields, Z. ve Atiku, S. O. (2017). Collective Green Creativity and Eco-Innovation as Key Drivers of Sustainable Business Solutions in Organizations. Collective Creativity for Responsible and Sustainable Business Practice, pp. 1-25. IGI Global.
  • Furlow, N. E. (2010). Greenwashing in the New Millennium. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 10(6), 22.
  • Genç, E. (2013). Yeşile Boyama Kavramının Analitik İncelenmesi: Sertifikalı Etiketlerin Sertifikasızlarla Karşılaştırılması. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Dergisi, 20(2) , 151-175.
  • Kahraman, Ö. (2021). Yeşil Aklama, Bir Rıza Mühendisliği Örneği. FLSF Felsefe ve Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 31, 413-433.
  • Khan, M. et al. (2018). Motivators of Social Sustainability in Healthcare Supply Chains in the UAE—Stakeholder Perspective. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 14, 95-104.
  • Köse, H. Ö. ve Polat, N. (2021). Dijital Dönüşüm ve Denetimin Geleceğine Etkisi, Sayıştay Dergisi, 32 (123), 9-41. https://doi.org/10.52836/sayistay.10068328
  • Kuşku Özdemir, E., Topsümer, F. ve Göztaş, A. (2017). Yeşil Aklama Kampanyaları ve Medya Gündemine Yansımaları: Volkswagen Emisyon Krizinin Amerikan Basınında Sunumu. Uluslararası Bilimsel Araştırmalar Dergisi (IBAD), 2, 357-370.
  • Leblebici Koçer, L. ve Delice, T. (2017). Yeşile Boyama ve Yeşil Güven Arasındaki İlişkide Algılanan Yeşil Riskin ve Algılanan Tüketici Şüpheciliğinin Aracılık Rolü. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 50, 1-25.
  • Lyon, T. P. ve Maxwell, J. W. (2006). Greenwash: Corporate Environmental Disclosure under Threat of Audit. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 20(1), 3-41.
  • Lyon, T. P. ve Montgomery, A. W. (2015). The Means and End of Greenwash. Organization & Environment, 28(2), 223-249.
  • Martikainen, V. (2021). Greenwashing in Nordic Electricity Companies. Savonia University of Applied Sciences Bachelor’s Degree Thesis.
  • Martínez, M. P. et al. (2020). Fuzzy inference system to study the Behavior of the Green Consumer Facing the Perception of Greenwashing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 242.
  • Mayer, R. N., Scammon, D. L. ve Zick, C. D. (1993). Poisoning the Well: Do Environmental Claims Strain Consumer Credulity? Advances in Consumer Research, 20.
  • Milionis, N., Köse, H. O. ve Matteo, T. (2021). The European Union and Climate Change: An Auditor’s Perspective. TCA Journal/Sayıştay Dergisi, 32(122), 9-35. https://doi.org/10.52836/sayistay.1004744
  • Nyilasy, G., Gangadharbatla, H. ve Paladino, A. (2014). Perceived Greenwashing: The Interactive Effects of Green Advertising and Corporate Environmental Performance on Consumer Reactions. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(4), 693–707.
  • Orange, E. ve Cohen, A. M. (2010). From Eco-friendly to Eco-intelligent. The Futurist, 44(5), 28.
  • Oxford English Dictionary (2022). https://www.oed.com/, Erişim Tarihi: 21.03.2022.
  • Özel, A. (2015). Çevresel Aktivizm, Halkla İlişkiler ve Yeşil Aklama Üzerine Kuramsal Bir Bakış. Selçuk İletişim, 8(4), 73-89.
  • Özuyar, P. ve Gürsoy Ç. (2021). Türkiye’deki Bilimsel Yayınlarda Döngüsel Ekonomi Teriminin Yeri. İşletme Ekonomisi 2(4), 315.
  • Pearson, J. (2010). Turning Point. Are We Doing the Right Thing? Leadership and Prioritization for Public Benefit. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 37, 37–40.
  • Peattie, K.; Peattie, S. ve Ponting, C. (2009). Climate Change: A Social and Commercial Marketing Communications Challenge. EuroMed Journal of Business 4 (3), 270-286.
  • Polonsky, M. J., Grau, S. L. ve Garma, R. (2010). The New Greenwash? Potential Marketing Problems with Carbon Offsets. International Journal of Business Studies: A Publication of the Faculty of Business Administration. Edith Cowan University, 18(1), 49-54.
  • Pomering, A. ve Johnson, L. W. (2009). Advertising Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives to Communicate Corporate Image: Inhibiting Scepticism to Enhance Persuasion. Corporate Communications, 14 (4), 420-439.
  • Sapmaz Veral, E. (2019). An Evaluation on the Circular Economy Model and the Loops Design in the Context of Waste Management. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, (15), 18-27.
  • Schumacher, K. (2021). Carbonwashing: ESG Data Greenwashing in a Post-Paris World, Settling Climate Accounts, pp. 39-58. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • Seele, P. ve Gatti, L. (2017). Greenwashing Revisited: In Search of a Typology and Accusation Based Definition Incorporating Legitimacy Strategies. Business Strategy & the Environment, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 26(2), 239–252.
  • TerraChoice (2010). The sins of greenwashing: Home and family edition. http://sinsofgreenwashing.org/findings/greenwashing-report-2010/, Erişim Tarihi: 01.12.2021.
  • Ticaret Bakanlığı (2021). Yeşil Mutabakat Eylem Planı. https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/60f1200013b876eb28421b23/MUTABAKAT%20YE%C5%9E%C4%B0L.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 09.11.2021.
  • Torelli, R., Balluchi, F. ve Lazzini, A. (2020). Greenwashing and environmental communication: Effects on stakeholders’ perceptions. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(2), 407–421. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2373”
  • Walker, K. ve Wan, F. (2012). The Harm of Symbolic Actions and Green-Washing: Corporate Actions and Communications on Environmental Performance and Their Financial Implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 227–242.
  • Wang, W.; Krishna, A. ve McFerran, B. (2017). Turning off The Lights: Consumers’ Environmental Efforts Depend on Visible Efforts of Firms. Journal of Marketing Research, 54(3), 478-494.
  • Yıldız, E. ve Kırmızıbiber, A. (2019). Yeşil Aklamanın Yeşil Marka Değeri Üzerindeki Etkileri: Otomobil Markaları Üzerine Bir Uygulama. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 7 (2), 566-584

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Kamu Yönetimi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Evren SAPMAZ VERAL>
Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Çevre Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı
0000-0002-7936-7416
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 33, Sayı 124

Kaynak Göster

APA Sapmaz Veral, E. (2022). YEŞİL YIKAMA İLE MÜCADELE: AVRUPA BİRLİĞİ’NDE YEŞİL İDDİALARIN DOĞRULANMASI GİRİŞİMİ . Sayıştay Dergisi , 33 (124) , 101-109 . DOI: 10.52836/sayistay.1110591