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Comparison of Muscle Strength, Flexibility and Proprioception of Bow and Draw Arms in Archers

Yıl 2020, Cilt 31, Sayı 1, 20 - 28, 10.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.538393

Öz

The aim is to examine isometric muscle strength, flexibility and proprioception sense of shoulder joint of bow and drawing arm in archers. Twenty-one archers (9-female, 12-male) in national team included in study. Isometric muscle strength of shoulder abductor-adductor muscles of athletes evaluated with IsoMed2000 device at 90º abduction angle. Flexibility measured using C7-T5 reference points. The proprioception sensation evaluated by digital inclinometer with active reposition test and the measurements performed at 60º-90º-120º target shoulder abduction angle. The data between groups analyzed by using Mann Whitney-U test and within groups by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. Findings of study showed strength of bow arm shoulder abductor muscles was higher than drawing arm, strength of drawing arm shoulder adductor muscles was higher than bow arm, and external rotator muscles flexibility of drawing arm shoulder was higher than bow arm (p<0.05). Shoulder proprioception sense and flexibility of internal rotator muscles of bow arm and drawing arm were similar (p>0.05). Male and female athletes’ bow and drawing arm isometric muscle strength is different in favor of male archers (p<0,05), flexibility of external rotator muscles is different in favor of female archers (p<0,05), flexibility of internal rotator muscles and proprioception sense between gender found to be similar (p>0.05). It is determined isometric muscle strength of bow arm shoulder abductor and drawing arm shoulder adductor muscles in archers was higher than other side. It is determined isometric muscle strength of shoulder abductor and adductor muscles of male athletes was higher compared to female athletes, and flexibility of shoulder external rotator muscles of female athletes was higher than male athletes.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Alonso J, McHugh MP, Mullaney MJ, Tyler TF. (2009). Effect of hamstring flexibility on isometric knee flexion angle-torque relationship. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 19(2), 252-256.
  • 2. Aslan CS, Ziynet Ç. (2012). Aktif veya sedanter kadin ve erkek bireylerin seçilmiş fiziksel ve fizyolojik özelliklerinin karşilaştirilmasi. Spor Hekimliği Dergisi, 47(1), 29-36.
  • 3. Brockett CL, Morgan DL, Proske U. (2004). Predicting hamstring strain injury in elite athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(3), 379-387.
  • 4. Borms J. (1986). The child and exercise: An overview. Journal of Sports Sciences, 4(1), 3-20.
  • 5. Carter JE. (1981). Somatotypes of female athletes. (J. Borms, M. Hebbelinck, A. Venerando, Eds.), The Female Athlete (pp. 85-116). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
  • 6. Crockett HC, Lyndon BG, Kevin EW, Martin LS, Jamie R, Jay O, ve diğ. (2002). Osseous adaptation and range of motion at the glenohumeral joint in professional baseball pitchers, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(1), 20-26.
  • 7. Dilek B, Gulbahar S, Gundogdu M, Ergin B, Manisali M, Ozkan M,ve diğ. (2016). Efficacy of proprioceptive exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a single-blinded randomized controlled study. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(3), 169-182.
  • 8. Dallinga JM, van der Does HT, Benjaminse A, Lemmink KA. (2016). Dynamic postural stability differences between male and female players with and without ankle sprain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 17, 69-75.
  • 9. De Lira CAB, Vargas VZ, Vancini RL, Andrade MS. (2019). Profiling isokinetic strength of shoulder rotator muscles in adolescent asymptomatic male volleyball players. Sports, 7(2), 49.
  • 10. Edwards TB, Bostick RD, Greene CC, Baratta RV, Drez D. (2002). Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the measurement of shoulder internal rotation by vertebral level. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 11(1), 40-42.
  • 11. Ellenbecker TS, Roetert EP, Bailie DS, Davies GJ, Brown SW. (2002). Glenohumeral joint total rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and baseball pitchers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(12), 2052-2056.
  • 12. Ertan H, Kentel B, Tümer ST, Korkusuz F. (2003). Activation patterns in forearm muscles during archery shooting. Human Movement Science, 22(1), 37-45.
  • 13. Ertan H, Kentel BB, Tümer ST, Korkusuz F. (2005). Reliability and validity testing of an archery chronometer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 4(2), 95-104.
  • 14. Hayes K, Walton JR, Szomor ZR, Murrell GA. (2001). Reliability of five methods for assessing shoulder range of motion. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 47(4), 289-94.
  • 15. Horak FB. (2006). Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?. Age and Ageing, 35 (suppl_2), ii7-ii11.
  • 16. Ihalainen S, Kuitunen S, Mononen K, Linnamo V. (2016). Determinants of elite‐level air rifle shooting performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26(3), 266-274.
  • 17. Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Martin HJ, Simmonds SJ, Cooper C, Sayer AA. (2007). Southampton women's survey study group. Size at birth and its relation to muscle strength in young adult women. Journal of Internal Medicine, 262(3), 368-374.
  • 18. Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang ZM, Ross R. (1985). Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18–88 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(1), 81-88.
  • 19. Janwantanakul P, Magarey ME, Jones MA, Dansie BR. (2001). Variation in shoulder position sense at mid and extreme range of motion. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(6), 840-844.
  • 20. Kocahan T, Akinoğlu B, Ünüvar E, Hasanoğlu A. (2018). Havalı tabanca atıcılık sporcularında tetik kolu ve diğer kolun omuz eklemi izometrik kas kuvveti ve propriyosepsiyon duyusunun karşılaştırılması. Turkiye Klinikleri Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 10 (3),116-122.
  • 21. Eroğlu Kolayiş İ, Mimaroğlu E. (2008). Okçuluk milli takımının antrenman ortamında kalp atım hızı ve nişan alma süresinin atış puanı üzerindeki etkileri. Uluslar arası İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(1), 1-18.
  • 22. Konttinen N, Landers DM, Lyytinen H. (2000). Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(3), 169-177.
  • 23. Leroyer P, Van Hoecke J, Helal JN. (1993). Biomechanical study of the final push‐pull in archery. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(1), 63-69.
  • 24. Lopes L, Povoas S, Mota J, Okely AD, Coelho ESMJ, Cliff DP, ve diğ. (2017). Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(12), 1806-1813.
  • 25. Mair SD, Uhl TL, Robbe RG, Brindle KA. (2004). Physeal changes and range-of-motion differences in the dominant shoulders of skeletally immature baseball players. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 13(5), 487-491.
  • 26. Monteiro ER, Brown AF, Bigio L, Palma A, dos Santos LG, Cavanaugh MT, ve diğ. (2016). Male relative muscle strength exceeds females for bench press and back squat. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 19(5), 79-86.
  • 27. Nimphius S, McBride JM, Rice PE, Goodman-Capps CL, Capps CR. (2019). Comparison of quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity during an ısometric squat between strength-matched men and women. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 18(1), 101-108.
  • 28. Osbahr DC, Cannon DL, Speer KP. (2002). Retroversion of the humerus in the throwing shoulder of college baseball pitchers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30 (3), 347-353.
  • 29. Reagan KM, Meister K, Horodyski MB, Werner DW, Carruthers C, Wilk K. (2002). Humeral retroversion and its relationship to glenohumeral rotation in the shoulder of college baseball players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(3), 354-360.
  • 30. Rogol IM, Ernst G, Perrin DH. (1998). Open and closed kinetic chain exercises improve shoulder joint reposition sense equally in healthy subjects. Journal of Athletic Training, 33(4), 315-318.
  • 31. Safran MR, Borsa PA, Lephart SM, Fu FH, Warner JJ. (2001). Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 10(5), 438-444.
  • 32. Sell TC, Lephart SM. (2018). Neuromuscular differences between men and women. In ACL Injuries in the Female Athlete. s. 133-152. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • 33. Sell TC, Lovalekar MT, Nagai T, Wirt MD, Abt JP, Lephart SM. (2018). Gender differences in static and dynamic postural stability of soldiers in the army’s 101st airborne division (Air Assault). Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 27(2), 126-131.
  • 34. Sezer YS, Çelikel BE, Gür E, Savucu Y. (2017). Okçularin el kavrama kuvvetine birim antrenmanin etkisi effect of unit exercise on hand grip strength of the archers. International Refereed Academic Journal of Sports, Health and Medical Sciences, 24,14-26.
  • 35. Şimşek D, Ertan H. (2011). Postural kontrol ve spor: spor branşlarına yönelik postural sensör-motor stratejiler ve postural salınım. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(3), 81-90.

Okçularda Tutuş ve Çekme Kollarının Omuz Eklemi Kas Kuvveti, Esneklik ve Propriosepsiyon Duyusunun Karşılaştırılması

Yıl 2020, Cilt 31, Sayı 1, 20 - 28, 10.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.538393

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı okçularda çekiş kolu ile tutuş kolunun omuz eklemi izometrik kas kuvveti, esneklik ve propriyosepsiyon duyusunun incelenmesidir. Çalışmamıza milli takım düzeyinde 21 okçu (9 kadın, 12 erkek) katıldı. Sporcuların omuz abdüktör ve addüktör kaslarının izometrik kas kuvveti 90º abdüksiyon açısında IsoMed 2000 cihazı ile değerlendirildi. Esneklik ölçümleri C7-T5 referans noktaları kullanılarak yapıldı. Propriyosepsiyon duyusu dijital inklinometre ile aktif repozisyon testi ile değerlendirildi ve ölçümler 60º-90º-120º hedef omuz abdüksiyon açısında yapıldı. Verilerin analizi gruplar arası ve grup içi olmasına göre Mann Whitney-U testi ve Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test kullanılarak yapıldı. Çalışmamız sonucunda tutuş kolu omuz abdüktör kaslarının kuvvetinin çekiş koluna göre, çekiş kolu omuz addüktör kaslarının kuvvetinin tutuş koluna göre daha fazla olduğu, çekiş kolu omuz eksternal rotatör kaslarının esnekliğinin daha fazla olduğu belirlendi (p<0,05). Çekiş kolu ve tutuş kolunun omuz propriosepsiyon duyusu ve internal rotatör kaslarının esnekliğinin birbirine benzer olduğu belirlendi (p>0,05). Kadın ve erkek sporcuların çekiş kolu ve tutuş kolu izometrik kas kuvvetinin erkekler lehine farklı olduğu (p<0,05), eksternal rotatör kaslarının esnekliğinin kadınlar lehine farklı olduğu (p<0,05), internal rotatör kaslarının esnekliği ve propriosepsiyon duyusunun ise cinsiyetler arasında birbirine benzer olduğu belirlendi (p>0,05). Okçularda tutuş kolu omuz abdüktör ve çekiş kolu omuz addüktör kaslarının izometrik kas kuvveti ile çekiş kolu omuz eksternal rotatör kaslarının esnekliğinin diğer tarafa göre daha fazla olduğu belirlendi. Erkek sporcuların omuz abdüktör ve addüktör kaslarının izometrik kas kuvvetinin kadın sporculara göre, kadın sporcuların omuz eksternal rotatör kaslarının esnekliğinin erkek sporculara göre daha fazla olduğu belirlendi.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Alonso J, McHugh MP, Mullaney MJ, Tyler TF. (2009). Effect of hamstring flexibility on isometric knee flexion angle-torque relationship. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 19(2), 252-256.
  • 2. Aslan CS, Ziynet Ç. (2012). Aktif veya sedanter kadin ve erkek bireylerin seçilmiş fiziksel ve fizyolojik özelliklerinin karşilaştirilmasi. Spor Hekimliği Dergisi, 47(1), 29-36.
  • 3. Brockett CL, Morgan DL, Proske U. (2004). Predicting hamstring strain injury in elite athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(3), 379-387.
  • 4. Borms J. (1986). The child and exercise: An overview. Journal of Sports Sciences, 4(1), 3-20.
  • 5. Carter JE. (1981). Somatotypes of female athletes. (J. Borms, M. Hebbelinck, A. Venerando, Eds.), The Female Athlete (pp. 85-116). Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
  • 6. Crockett HC, Lyndon BG, Kevin EW, Martin LS, Jamie R, Jay O, ve diğ. (2002). Osseous adaptation and range of motion at the glenohumeral joint in professional baseball pitchers, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(1), 20-26.
  • 7. Dilek B, Gulbahar S, Gundogdu M, Ergin B, Manisali M, Ozkan M,ve diğ. (2016). Efficacy of proprioceptive exercises in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a single-blinded randomized controlled study. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(3), 169-182.
  • 8. Dallinga JM, van der Does HT, Benjaminse A, Lemmink KA. (2016). Dynamic postural stability differences between male and female players with and without ankle sprain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 17, 69-75.
  • 9. De Lira CAB, Vargas VZ, Vancini RL, Andrade MS. (2019). Profiling isokinetic strength of shoulder rotator muscles in adolescent asymptomatic male volleyball players. Sports, 7(2), 49.
  • 10. Edwards TB, Bostick RD, Greene CC, Baratta RV, Drez D. (2002). Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the measurement of shoulder internal rotation by vertebral level. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 11(1), 40-42.
  • 11. Ellenbecker TS, Roetert EP, Bailie DS, Davies GJ, Brown SW. (2002). Glenohumeral joint total rotation range of motion in elite tennis players and baseball pitchers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(12), 2052-2056.
  • 12. Ertan H, Kentel B, Tümer ST, Korkusuz F. (2003). Activation patterns in forearm muscles during archery shooting. Human Movement Science, 22(1), 37-45.
  • 13. Ertan H, Kentel BB, Tümer ST, Korkusuz F. (2005). Reliability and validity testing of an archery chronometer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 4(2), 95-104.
  • 14. Hayes K, Walton JR, Szomor ZR, Murrell GA. (2001). Reliability of five methods for assessing shoulder range of motion. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 47(4), 289-94.
  • 15. Horak FB. (2006). Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?. Age and Ageing, 35 (suppl_2), ii7-ii11.
  • 16. Ihalainen S, Kuitunen S, Mononen K, Linnamo V. (2016). Determinants of elite‐level air rifle shooting performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 26(3), 266-274.
  • 17. Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Martin HJ, Simmonds SJ, Cooper C, Sayer AA. (2007). Southampton women's survey study group. Size at birth and its relation to muscle strength in young adult women. Journal of Internal Medicine, 262(3), 368-374.
  • 18. Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang ZM, Ross R. (1985). Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18–88 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(1), 81-88.
  • 19. Janwantanakul P, Magarey ME, Jones MA, Dansie BR. (2001). Variation in shoulder position sense at mid and extreme range of motion. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(6), 840-844.
  • 20. Kocahan T, Akinoğlu B, Ünüvar E, Hasanoğlu A. (2018). Havalı tabanca atıcılık sporcularında tetik kolu ve diğer kolun omuz eklemi izometrik kas kuvveti ve propriyosepsiyon duyusunun karşılaştırılması. Turkiye Klinikleri Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 10 (3),116-122.
  • 21. Eroğlu Kolayiş İ, Mimaroğlu E. (2008). Okçuluk milli takımının antrenman ortamında kalp atım hızı ve nişan alma süresinin atış puanı üzerindeki etkileri. Uluslar arası İnsan Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(1), 1-18.
  • 22. Konttinen N, Landers DM, Lyytinen H. (2000). Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(3), 169-177.
  • 23. Leroyer P, Van Hoecke J, Helal JN. (1993). Biomechanical study of the final push‐pull in archery. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(1), 63-69.
  • 24. Lopes L, Povoas S, Mota J, Okely AD, Coelho ESMJ, Cliff DP, ve diğ. (2017). Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(12), 1806-1813.
  • 25. Mair SD, Uhl TL, Robbe RG, Brindle KA. (2004). Physeal changes and range-of-motion differences in the dominant shoulders of skeletally immature baseball players. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 13(5), 487-491.
  • 26. Monteiro ER, Brown AF, Bigio L, Palma A, dos Santos LG, Cavanaugh MT, ve diğ. (2016). Male relative muscle strength exceeds females for bench press and back squat. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 19(5), 79-86.
  • 27. Nimphius S, McBride JM, Rice PE, Goodman-Capps CL, Capps CR. (2019). Comparison of quadriceps and hamstring muscle activity during an ısometric squat between strength-matched men and women. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 18(1), 101-108.
  • 28. Osbahr DC, Cannon DL, Speer KP. (2002). Retroversion of the humerus in the throwing shoulder of college baseball pitchers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30 (3), 347-353.
  • 29. Reagan KM, Meister K, Horodyski MB, Werner DW, Carruthers C, Wilk K. (2002). Humeral retroversion and its relationship to glenohumeral rotation in the shoulder of college baseball players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(3), 354-360.
  • 30. Rogol IM, Ernst G, Perrin DH. (1998). Open and closed kinetic chain exercises improve shoulder joint reposition sense equally in healthy subjects. Journal of Athletic Training, 33(4), 315-318.
  • 31. Safran MR, Borsa PA, Lephart SM, Fu FH, Warner JJ. (2001). Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 10(5), 438-444.
  • 32. Sell TC, Lephart SM. (2018). Neuromuscular differences between men and women. In ACL Injuries in the Female Athlete. s. 133-152. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • 33. Sell TC, Lovalekar MT, Nagai T, Wirt MD, Abt JP, Lephart SM. (2018). Gender differences in static and dynamic postural stability of soldiers in the army’s 101st airborne division (Air Assault). Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 27(2), 126-131.
  • 34. Sezer YS, Çelikel BE, Gür E, Savucu Y. (2017). Okçularin el kavrama kuvvetine birim antrenmanin etkisi effect of unit exercise on hand grip strength of the archers. International Refereed Academic Journal of Sports, Health and Medical Sciences, 24,14-26.
  • 35. Şimşek D, Ertan H. (2011). Postural kontrol ve spor: spor branşlarına yönelik postural sensör-motor stratejiler ve postural salınım. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 9(3), 81-90.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Yayınlanma Tarihi Bahar
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Banu KABAK
Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı, Spor Genel Müdürlüğü, Sağlık İşleri Dairesi Başkanlığı, Ankara.
0000-0002-5848-5974
Türkiye


Tuğba KOCAHAN
Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı, Spor Genel Müdürlüğü, Sağlık İşleri Dairesi Başkanlığı, Ankara.
0000-0002-0567-857X
Türkiye


Bihter AKINOĞLU (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon Bölümü, Ankara.
0000-0002-8214-7895
Türkiye


Adnan HASANOĞLU
Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı, Spor Genel Müdürlüğü, Sağlık İşleri Dairesi Başkanlığı, Ankara.
0000-0003-4486-5092
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 10 Nisan 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 11 Mart 2019
Kabul Tarihi 17 Mart 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 31, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Kabak, B. , Kocahan, T. , Akınoğlu, B. & Hasanoğlu, A. (2020). Okçularda Tutuş ve Çekme Kollarının Omuz Eklemi Kas Kuvveti, Esneklik ve Propriosepsiyon Duyusunun Karşılaştırılması . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 31 (1) , 20-28 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.538393