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Farklı Spor Dallarında Spor ve Enerji İçeceklerinin Kullanımı ve Performansa Etkileri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 31, Sayı 1, 29 - 44, 10.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.669792

Öz

Sporcularda sıvı dengesinin sağlanamaması ve glikojen depolarının tükenmesi, yorgunluğa neden olarak performansı olumsuz etkilemektedir. Yorgunluğun azaltılarak optimal spor performansının sağlanabilmesi için çeşitli beslenme stratejileri geliştirilmiştir. Spor içecekleri hem sıvı dengesinin korunmasına yardımcı olarak dehidrasyonu önlediği, hem de egzersiz anında substrat ve elektrolit desteği sağladığı için egzersiz yapan bireyler tarafından yaygın olarak kullanılan beslenme destekleridir. Spor içecekleri temel olarak içerisinde az miktarda karbonhidrat (6-8 g/100 ml) ve elektrolit (sodyum, potasyum, kalsiyum, magnezyum) içeren ürünlerdir. Kullanım amacına göre farklı içeriklere sahiptirler. Spor içeceklerine alternatif olarak sunulan enerji içecekleri ise yüksek miktarda karbonhidratla birlikte kafein gibi bir takım ergojenik destekler içeren ürünlerdir. Bu içecekler, dikkat algısını ve mental uyanıklığı geliştirmeyi hedeflemektedir. Bu derlemede, spor ve enerji içeceklerinin türleri ve bunların farklı spor dallarında kullanım amaçları ve performansa etkileri incelenmiştir. Branşa ve/veya amaca özgü olarak spor içeceklerinin tüketimi; hidrasyonu ve elektrolit dengesinin sağlanmasını, karbonhidrat depolarının yenilenmesini, protein alımı ile kas hasarının önlenmesini ve kas protein sentezinin arttırılmasını sağlayarak spor performansını ve toparlanmayı olumlu etkilemektedir. Ancak enerji içeceklerinin, yüksek karbonhidrat konsantrasyonuna sahip olmaları nedeniyle, egzersiz sırasında substrat kaynağı olmaya ve rehidrasyon sağlamaya uygun olmadıkları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca kuvvet sporlarında güç/kuvvet kazanımına olası olumlu etkisinin dışında diğer spor branşlarında performansa etkisinin net ortaya konulamadığı ve daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğu görülmüştür.

Kaynakça

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Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks in Different Sports Branches and Their Effects on Performance

Yıl 2020, Cilt 31, Sayı 1, 29 - 44, 10.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.669792

Öz

In athletes, failure to provide fluid balance and depletion of muscle glycogen causes fatigue and performance is adversely affected. Various nutritional strategies have been developed to provide optimal sport performance by reducing fatigue. Sports drinks are nutritional supplements commonly used by athletes, as they both help to prevent dehydration and provide substrates and electrolytes during exercise. These are beverages usually containing small amounts of carbohydrates (6-8 g/100 ml) and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium). They have different contents depending on the purpose of use. Energy drinks, which are offered as an alternative to sports drinks, are products containing a high amount of carbohydrates and some nutrients such as caffeine. These drinks aim to improve attention, perception and mental alertness. This paper reviews the types of sports and energy drinks, their use for different purposes and the effects on performance in various sports branches. Consuming the appropriate sports drink specific to the branch or purpose is effective in improving performance and recovery by providing proper hydration and electrolyte balance, replacing carbohydrate stores, preventing muscle damage and increasing muscle synthesis by protein intake. However, the general consensus in the literature is that energy drinks were not suitable to be a source of substrate or to provide rehydration during exercise due to their high carbohydrate concentration. In addition, although the potential positive effect on power/strength gain in resistance sports, are warranted the impact on performance in other sport branches could not be clearly determined yet and requires further studies were needed

Kaynakça

  • Abian-Vicen, J., Puente, C., Salinero, J. J., Gonzalez-Millan, C., Areces, F., Munoz, G., ve diğ. (2014). A caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance in adolescent basketball players. Amino Acids, 46(5), 1333-1341.
  • Ali, F., Rehman, H., Babayan, Z., Stapleton, D., Joshi, D. D. (2015). Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence. Postgrad Med, 127(3), 308-322.
  • Apostu, M. (2014). A Strategy for Maintaining Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Aerobic Effort. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 117, 323-328.
  • Astorino, T. A., Matera, A. J., Basinger, J., Evans, M., Schurman, T., Marquez, R. (2012). Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Amino Acids, 42(5), 1803-1808.
  • Bachle, L., Eckerson, J., Albertson, L., Ebersole, K., Goodwin, J., Petzel, D. (2001). The effect of fluid replacement on endurance performance. J Strength Cond Res, 15(2), 217-224.
  • Baker, L. B. (2017). Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability. Sports Med, 47(Suppl 1), 111-128.
  • Baker, L. B., Reimel, A. J., Sopena, B. C., Barnes, K. A., Nuccio, R. P., De Chavez, P. J. D., ve diğ. (2017). Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates. Physiol Rep, 5(18).
  • Barnes, K. A., Anderson, M. L., Stofan, J. R., Dalrymple, K. J., Reimel, A. J., Roberts, T. J., ve diğ. (2019). Normative data for sweating rate, sweat sodium concentration, and sweat sodium loss in athletes: An update and analysis by sport. J Sports Sci, 37(20), 2356-2366.
  • Bell, D. G., McLellan, T. M., Boyne, S. (2002). Commercial sport drinks versus light meal combat rations: effect on simulated combat maneuvers. Mil Med, 167(8), 692-697.
  • Bibiloni, M. D. M., Vidal-Garcia, E., Carrasco, M., Julibert, A., Pons, A., Tur Mari, J. A. (2018). Hydration habits before, during and after training and competition days among amateur basketball players. Nutr Hosp, 35(3), 612-619.
  • Blomstrand, E. (2001). Amino acids and central fatigue. Amino Acids, 20(1), 25-34.
  • Bowtell, J. L., Gelly, K., Jackman, M. L., Patel, A., Simeoni, M., Rennie, M. J. (2000). Effect of different carbohydrate drinks on whole body carbohydrate storage after exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985), 88(5), 1529-1536.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Yayınlanma Tarihi Bahar
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Hüsrev TURNAGÖL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-6547-8839
Türkiye


Selin AKTİTİZ>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-6781-8681
Türkiye


Derya Canan KORUR>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-5685-0029
Türkiye


Dilara KURU>
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-8518-8019
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 10 Nisan 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 3 Ocak 2020
Kabul Tarihi 6 Nisan 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 31, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Turnagöl, H. , Aktitiz, S. , Korur, D. C. & Kuru, D. (2020). Farklı Spor Dallarında Spor ve Enerji İçeceklerinin Kullanımı ve Performansa Etkileri . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 31 (1) , 29-44 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.669792