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Sporcularda Optimal Performans Duygu Durumu: Ruminatif Düşünce ve Akıldışı İnançların Rolü Üzerine Bir Çalışma

Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 2, 53 - 63, 07.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.760444

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı sporcularda ruminatif düşünce ve akıldışı inançların optimal performans duygu durumunu belirlemedeki rolünü araştırmaktır. Çalışmaya İstanbul ilinde bireysel spor ve takım sporu yapan 133 kadın (Xyaş: 21.41; SS = 4.33) ve 261 erkek (Xyaş: 21.92; SS = 3.94) olmak üzere toplam 394 sporcu (Xyaş: 21.75; SS = 4.07) katılmıştır. Sporculara “Kişisel Bilgi Formu”, “Ruminatif Düşünce Biçimi Ölçeği”, “Akıldışı Performans İnançları Envanteri-2” ve “Sürekli Etkinlik Tecrübe Ölçeği Kısa Formu (SDFS-2)” uygulanmıştır. Yapılan hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre, ruminatif düşünce optimal performans duygu durumunun anlamlı belirleyicisi değildir (p>0.05). Elde edilen bulgular, sporcuların akıldışı inanç düzeylerinin optimal performans duygu durumunu anlamlı olarak yordadığını göstermektedir (p<0.05). Akıldışı inanç alt boyutlarından düşük tolerans ile optimal performans duygu durumu arasında anlamlı pozitif ilişki bulunmuştur (β=0.22; p<0.05). Sonuç olarak; sporcuların zihnini meşgul eden tekrarlayıcı içsel düşünceler, sporcuların yaptığı aktivite ile özdeşleşip göreve odaklanmaları ile ilişkili değilken; sporcularda başarısızlığa ve belirlenen hedeflere ulaşamamaya karşı tahammülsüzlüğü ifade eden akıldışı inanç alt boyutlarından düşük toleransın, sporcuların optimal performans duygu durumunu belirlemede rol oynadığı görülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Ada, E.N., Çetinkalp, Z.K., Altıparmak, M.E., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2018). Flow experiences in physical education classes: The role of perceived motivational climate and situational motivation. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(2), 114-120.
  • 2. Altıntaş, A., Kelecek, S., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2013). Elit sporcularda durumsal güdülenme ve optimal performans duygu durumu arasındaki ilişki. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 4(4), 14-21.
  • 3. Aras, D., Yiğit, S., Kayam, S., Arslan, E., ve Akça, F. (2020). Bilişsel yorgunluğun egzersiz ve spor performansına etkileri. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(1), 1-32.
  • 4. Asakawa, K. (2004). Flow experience and autotelic personality in Japanese college students: How do they experience challenges in daily life? Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(2), 123-154.
  • 5. Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., ve Morgan, G. (2012). Mindfulness to enhance athletic performance: Theoretical considerations and possible impact mechanisms. Mindfulness, 3(3), 235-246.
  • 6. Borders, A., Earleywine, M., ve Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 28-44.
  • 7. Brinker, J.K., ve Dozois, J.A. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19.
  • 8. Burnette, J.L., Davis, D.E., Green, J.D., Worthington, E.L., ve Bradfield, E. (2009). Insecure attachment and depressive symptoms: The mediating role of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 276-280.
  • 9. Carver, C.S., ve Scheier, M.F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97(1), 19-35.
  • 10. Cervello, E., Moreno, J.A., Villodre, N.A., ve Iglesias, D. (2006). Goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow of high school students engaged in extracurricular physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(1), 87-92.
  • 11. Chang, E.C., ve D’Zurilla, T.J. (1996). Irrational beliefs as predictors of anxiety and depression in a college population. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(2), 215-219.
  • 12. Crust, L., ve Swann, C. (2011). Comparing two measures of mental toughness. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 217-221
  • 13. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • 14. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.
  • 15. Çağlar, E., Sarı, İ., Aşçı, F.H., Eklund, R.C., ve Jackson, S.A. (2020). Short versions of turkish flow scales: Reliability and validity study. Studia Psychologica, 62(3), 179-197.
  • 16. DiGiuseppe, R.A., ve David, O.A. (2015). Rational emotive behavior therapy. In: HT Prout, AL Fedewa (Ed), Counseling and Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents: Theory and Practice for School and Clinical Settings, (pp 155-216). John Wiley and Sons.
  • 17. Dormann, C.F., Elith, J., Bacher, S., Buchmann, C., Carl, G., Carré, G., Marquez, J.R.G., Gruber, B., Lafourcade, B., Leitao, P.J., Münkemüller, T., McClean, C., Osborne, P.T., Reineking, B., Schröder, B., Skidmore, A.K., Zurell, D., ve Lautenbach, S. (2013). Collinearity: A review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 36(1), 27-46.
  • 18. Dryden, W., ve Branch, R. (2008). Fundamentals of rational emotive behaviour therapy: A training handbook. John Wiley & Sons.
  • 19. Ellis A. (1996). Responses to criticisms of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT). Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 14, 97-121
  • 20. Ellis, A., David, D., ve Lynn, S.J. (2009). Rational and ırrational beliefs: A historical and conceptual perspective. In: D David, SJ Lynn, A Ellis, eds. Rational and Irrational Beliefs: Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice, (pp 3-22). Oxford University Press.
  • 21. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Eds). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • 22. Flett, A.L., Haghbin, M., Pychyl, T.A. (2016). Procrastination and depression from a cognitive perspective: An exploration of the associations among procrastinatory automatic thoughts, rumination, and mindfulness. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 34(3), 169-186.
  • 23. Gladwell, M. (2008). The 10 000 hour-rule. In: Outliers, (35-68). New York: Little, Bown and Co.
  • 24. González-Cutre, D., Sicilia, A., Moreno, J.A., ve Fernández-Balboa, J.M. (2009). Dispositional flow in physical education: Relationships with motivational climate, social goals, and perceived competence. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 28, 422-440.
  • 25. Gözmen, A., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2016). Sporcularda optimal performans duygu durumunun yordanmasında beş faktörlü kişilik özelliklerinin ve mükemmeliyetçiliğin rolü. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(1), 40-48.
  • 26. Hamilton, J.S., ve Schutte, N.S. (2016). The role of adherence in the effects of a mindfulness ıntervention for competitive athletes: Changes in mindfulness, flow, pessimism, and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 10, 99-117.
  • 27. Harrington, N. (2005). It's too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 873-883.
  • 28. Jackman, P.C., Hawkins, R.M., Crust, L., ve Swann, C. (2019). Flow states in exercise: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 45, 1-16.
  • 29. Jackman, P.C., Van Hout, M.C., Lane, A., ve Fitzpatrick, G. (2014). Experiences of flow in jockeys during flat-race conditions. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(3), 205-223.
  • 30. Jackson, S.A., ve Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Flow in sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
  • 31. Jackson, S.A., ve Eklund, R.C. (2004). The flow scales manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
  • 32. Jackson, S.A, Martin, A.J., ve Eklund, R.C. (2008). Long and short measures of flow: Examining construct validity of the FSS-2, DFS-2, and new brief counterparts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 561-587.
  • 33. Jackson, S.A., ve Roberts, G.C. (1992). Positive performance states of athletes: Toward a conceptual understanding of peak performance. The Sport Psychologist, 6(2), 156-171.
  • 34. Josefsson, T., Ivarsson, A., Lindwall, M., Gustafsson, H., Stenling, A., Böröy, J., Mattsson, E., Carnebratt, J., Sevholt, S., ve Falkevik, E. (2017). Mindfulness mechanisms in sports: Mediating effects of rumination and emotion regulation on sport-specific coping. Mindfulness, 5(1), 18-35.
  • 35. Karatepe, H.T., Yavuz, F., ve Türkcan, A. (2013). Ruminatif düşünme biçimi ölçeği’nin türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni, 23(3), 231-41.
  • 36. Kaufman, K.A., Glass, C.R., ve Arnkoff, D.B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 4, 334-356.
  • 37. Martin, L.L., ve Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In: Wyer RS, eds. Advances in Social Cognition (pp 1-47). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • 38. Moneta, G.B. (2004). The flow experience across cultures. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(2), 115–121
  • 39. Murcia, J.A.M., Gimeno, E.C., ve Coll, D.G. (2008). Relationships among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescent athletes: Differences by gender. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11(1), 181-191.
  • 40. Raes, F., ve Williams, J.M.G. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Mindfulness, 1, 199-203.
  • 41. Reid, D. (2011). Mindfulness and flow in occupational engagement: Presence in doing. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78, 50-56.
  • 42. Roberts, H., Moberly, N.J., Cull, T., Gow, H., Honeysett, M., ve Dunn, BD. (2020). Short-term affective consequences of specificity of rumination about unresolved personal goals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 66, 101519.
  • 43. Rogatko, T.P. (2009). The influence of flow on positive affect in college students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(2), 133-148.
  • 44. Ryan, R.M., ve Brown, K.W. (2003). Why we don't need self-esteem: On fundamental needs, contingent love, and mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 71-76.
  • 45. Stavrou, N.A., Jackson, S.A., Zervas, Y., ve Karteroliotis, K. (2007). Flow experience and athletes’ performance with reference to the orthogonal model of flow. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 438-457.
  • 46. Swann, C., Keegan, R.J., Piggott, D., ve Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807-819.
  • 47. Swann, C., Piggott, D., Crust, L., Keegan, R.J., ve Hemmings, B. (2014). Exploring the interactions underlying flow states: A connecting analysis of flow occurrence in European Tour golfers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 60-69.
  • 48. Tabachnick, B.G., ve Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • 49. Turner, M.J., ve Allen, M.S. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the irrational performance beliefs ınventory (iPBI) in a sample of amateur and semi-professional athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 126-130.
  • 50. Turner, M.J., Allen, M.S., Slater, M.J., Barker, J.B., Woodcock, C., Harwood, C.G., ve McFayden, K. (2016). The development and initial validation of the irrational performance beliefs inventory (iPBI). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 32, 1-7.
  • 51. Ullén, F., Manzano, Ö., Almeida, R., Magnusson, K.E., Pedersen, N.L., Nakamura, J., Csíkszentmihályi, M., ve Madison, G. (2012). Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: Associations with personality and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 167-172.
  • 52. Urfa, O., Aşçı, F.H. (2018). Akıldışı performans inançları envanteri–2’nin psikometrik özelliklerinin sınanması. Psikoloji Çalışmaları, 38(2), 219-236.
  • 53. Watkins, R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 163-206.
  • 54. Wiggins, M., ve Freeman, P. (2000). Anxiety and flow: an examination of anxiety direction and the flow experience. International Sports Journal, 4, 78-87.
  • 55. Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., ve Anisman, H. (2007). Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1573-1584.

Flow in Athletes: A Study on the Role of Ruminative Thought and Irrational Beliefs

Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 2, 53 - 63, 07.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.760444

Öz

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ruminative thoughts and irrational beliefs in determining flow in athletes. One hundred thirty three female (M=21.41; SD=4.33 age) and 261 male (M=21.92; SD=3.94 age), in total 394 (M=21.75; SD=4.07 age) athletes participated in this study. “Demographic Information form”, “Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire”, “Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory-2”, and “Short Dispositional Flow Scale-2” were administered to participants. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that ruminative thought was not a significant determinant of flow experiences (p>0.05). On the other hand, the irrational belief of the athletes significantly predicted the flow experiences (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between low frustration tolerance sub-scales of irrational belief and flow experiences (β=0.22; p<0.05). In conclusion, the ruminative thoughts that occupy the minds of the athletes are not related to the athletes' identification with their activity and focusing on the task; it is seen that low tolerance, one of the sub-scales of irrational belief, which expresses intolerance to failure and inability to reach the determined goals in athletes, play a significant role in determining flow experiences of athletes.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Ada, E.N., Çetinkalp, Z.K., Altıparmak, M.E., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2018). Flow experiences in physical education classes: The role of perceived motivational climate and situational motivation. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(2), 114-120.
  • 2. Altıntaş, A., Kelecek, S., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2013). Elit sporcularda durumsal güdülenme ve optimal performans duygu durumu arasındaki ilişki. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 4(4), 14-21.
  • 3. Aras, D., Yiğit, S., Kayam, S., Arslan, E., ve Akça, F. (2020). Bilişsel yorgunluğun egzersiz ve spor performansına etkileri. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 18(1), 1-32.
  • 4. Asakawa, K. (2004). Flow experience and autotelic personality in Japanese college students: How do they experience challenges in daily life? Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(2), 123-154.
  • 5. Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., ve Morgan, G. (2012). Mindfulness to enhance athletic performance: Theoretical considerations and possible impact mechanisms. Mindfulness, 3(3), 235-246.
  • 6. Borders, A., Earleywine, M., ve Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination? Aggressive Behavior, 36(1), 28-44.
  • 7. Brinker, J.K., ve Dozois, J.A. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19.
  • 8. Burnette, J.L., Davis, D.E., Green, J.D., Worthington, E.L., ve Bradfield, E. (2009). Insecure attachment and depressive symptoms: The mediating role of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 276-280.
  • 9. Carver, C.S., ve Scheier, M.F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97(1), 19-35.
  • 10. Cervello, E., Moreno, J.A., Villodre, N.A., ve Iglesias, D. (2006). Goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow of high school students engaged in extracurricular physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(1), 87-92.
  • 11. Chang, E.C., ve D’Zurilla, T.J. (1996). Irrational beliefs as predictors of anxiety and depression in a college population. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(2), 215-219.
  • 12. Crust, L., ve Swann, C. (2011). Comparing two measures of mental toughness. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 217-221
  • 13. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • 14. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.
  • 15. Çağlar, E., Sarı, İ., Aşçı, F.H., Eklund, R.C., ve Jackson, S.A. (2020). Short versions of turkish flow scales: Reliability and validity study. Studia Psychologica, 62(3), 179-197.
  • 16. DiGiuseppe, R.A., ve David, O.A. (2015). Rational emotive behavior therapy. In: HT Prout, AL Fedewa (Ed), Counseling and Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents: Theory and Practice for School and Clinical Settings, (pp 155-216). John Wiley and Sons.
  • 17. Dormann, C.F., Elith, J., Bacher, S., Buchmann, C., Carl, G., Carré, G., Marquez, J.R.G., Gruber, B., Lafourcade, B., Leitao, P.J., Münkemüller, T., McClean, C., Osborne, P.T., Reineking, B., Schröder, B., Skidmore, A.K., Zurell, D., ve Lautenbach, S. (2013). Collinearity: A review of methods to deal with it and a simulation study evaluating their performance. Ecography, 36(1), 27-46.
  • 18. Dryden, W., ve Branch, R. (2008). Fundamentals of rational emotive behaviour therapy: A training handbook. John Wiley & Sons.
  • 19. Ellis A. (1996). Responses to criticisms of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT). Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 14, 97-121
  • 20. Ellis, A., David, D., ve Lynn, S.J. (2009). Rational and ırrational beliefs: A historical and conceptual perspective. In: D David, SJ Lynn, A Ellis, eds. Rational and Irrational Beliefs: Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice, (pp 3-22). Oxford University Press.
  • 21. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Eds). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • 22. Flett, A.L., Haghbin, M., Pychyl, T.A. (2016). Procrastination and depression from a cognitive perspective: An exploration of the associations among procrastinatory automatic thoughts, rumination, and mindfulness. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 34(3), 169-186.
  • 23. Gladwell, M. (2008). The 10 000 hour-rule. In: Outliers, (35-68). New York: Little, Bown and Co.
  • 24. González-Cutre, D., Sicilia, A., Moreno, J.A., ve Fernández-Balboa, J.M. (2009). Dispositional flow in physical education: Relationships with motivational climate, social goals, and perceived competence. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 28, 422-440.
  • 25. Gözmen, A., ve Aşçı, F.H. (2016). Sporcularda optimal performans duygu durumunun yordanmasında beş faktörlü kişilik özelliklerinin ve mükemmeliyetçiliğin rolü. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 27(1), 40-48.
  • 26. Hamilton, J.S., ve Schutte, N.S. (2016). The role of adherence in the effects of a mindfulness ıntervention for competitive athletes: Changes in mindfulness, flow, pessimism, and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 10, 99-117.
  • 27. Harrington, N. (2005). It's too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 873-883.
  • 28. Jackman, P.C., Hawkins, R.M., Crust, L., ve Swann, C. (2019). Flow states in exercise: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 45, 1-16.
  • 29. Jackman, P.C., Van Hout, M.C., Lane, A., ve Fitzpatrick, G. (2014). Experiences of flow in jockeys during flat-race conditions. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(3), 205-223.
  • 30. Jackson, S.A., ve Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Flow in sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics.
  • 31. Jackson, S.A., ve Eklund, R.C. (2004). The flow scales manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
  • 32. Jackson, S.A, Martin, A.J., ve Eklund, R.C. (2008). Long and short measures of flow: Examining construct validity of the FSS-2, DFS-2, and new brief counterparts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 561-587.
  • 33. Jackson, S.A., ve Roberts, G.C. (1992). Positive performance states of athletes: Toward a conceptual understanding of peak performance. The Sport Psychologist, 6(2), 156-171.
  • 34. Josefsson, T., Ivarsson, A., Lindwall, M., Gustafsson, H., Stenling, A., Böröy, J., Mattsson, E., Carnebratt, J., Sevholt, S., ve Falkevik, E. (2017). Mindfulness mechanisms in sports: Mediating effects of rumination and emotion regulation on sport-specific coping. Mindfulness, 5(1), 18-35.
  • 35. Karatepe, H.T., Yavuz, F., ve Türkcan, A. (2013). Ruminatif düşünme biçimi ölçeği’nin türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni, 23(3), 231-41.
  • 36. Kaufman, K.A., Glass, C.R., ve Arnkoff, D.B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 4, 334-356.
  • 37. Martin, L.L., ve Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In: Wyer RS, eds. Advances in Social Cognition (pp 1-47). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • 38. Moneta, G.B. (2004). The flow experience across cultures. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5(2), 115–121
  • 39. Murcia, J.A.M., Gimeno, E.C., ve Coll, D.G. (2008). Relationships among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescent athletes: Differences by gender. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11(1), 181-191.
  • 40. Raes, F., ve Williams, J.M.G. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Mindfulness, 1, 199-203.
  • 41. Reid, D. (2011). Mindfulness and flow in occupational engagement: Presence in doing. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78, 50-56.
  • 42. Roberts, H., Moberly, N.J., Cull, T., Gow, H., Honeysett, M., ve Dunn, BD. (2020). Short-term affective consequences of specificity of rumination about unresolved personal goals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 66, 101519.
  • 43. Rogatko, T.P. (2009). The influence of flow on positive affect in college students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(2), 133-148.
  • 44. Ryan, R.M., ve Brown, K.W. (2003). Why we don't need self-esteem: On fundamental needs, contingent love, and mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 71-76.
  • 45. Stavrou, N.A., Jackson, S.A., Zervas, Y., ve Karteroliotis, K. (2007). Flow experience and athletes’ performance with reference to the orthogonal model of flow. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 438-457.
  • 46. Swann, C., Keegan, R.J., Piggott, D., ve Crust, L. (2012). A systematic review of the experience, occurrence, and controllability of flow states in elite sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 807-819.
  • 47. Swann, C., Piggott, D., Crust, L., Keegan, R.J., ve Hemmings, B. (2014). Exploring the interactions underlying flow states: A connecting analysis of flow occurrence in European Tour golfers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 60-69.
  • 48. Tabachnick, B.G., ve Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • 49. Turner, M.J., ve Allen, M.S. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the irrational performance beliefs ınventory (iPBI) in a sample of amateur and semi-professional athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 126-130.
  • 50. Turner, M.J., Allen, M.S., Slater, M.J., Barker, J.B., Woodcock, C., Harwood, C.G., ve McFayden, K. (2016). The development and initial validation of the irrational performance beliefs inventory (iPBI). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 32, 1-7.
  • 51. Ullén, F., Manzano, Ö., Almeida, R., Magnusson, K.E., Pedersen, N.L., Nakamura, J., Csíkszentmihályi, M., ve Madison, G. (2012). Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: Associations with personality and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 167-172.
  • 52. Urfa, O., Aşçı, F.H. (2018). Akıldışı performans inançları envanteri–2’nin psikometrik özelliklerinin sınanması. Psikoloji Çalışmaları, 38(2), 219-236.
  • 53. Watkins, R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 163-206.
  • 54. Wiggins, M., ve Freeman, P. (2000). Anxiety and flow: an examination of anxiety direction and the flow experience. International Sports Journal, 4, 78-87.
  • 55. Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., ve Anisman, H. (2007). Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1573-1584.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Yayınlanma Tarihi Yaz
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Human Feyzanur AKSOY> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Marmara University
0000-0002-6232-2035
Türkiye


F.hülya ASCI>
Marmara University
0000-0002-6650-6931
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 7 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Kabul Tarihi 6 Nisan 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Aksoy, H. F. & Ascı, F. (2021). Sporcularda Optimal Performans Duygu Durumu: Ruminatif Düşünce ve Akıldışı İnançların Rolü Üzerine Bir Çalışma . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 32 (2) , 53-63 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.760444