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Evaluation of the Relationship Between Nutritional Status, Nutritional Knowledge, Caffeine Consumption and Body Composition of Professional Soccer and Volleyball Players

Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 3, 123 - 134, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.876856

Öz

The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional knowledge and nutritional intake of professional football and volleyball players and to compare the relationship between caffeine intake and body composition. It was conducted on a total of 43 professional male athletes aged 18-35, 19 professional football players who played in a football team of Turkish Football Federation (TFF) 1st League and 24 professional volleyball players from two different volleyball teams of Turkish Volleyball Federation (TVF). A questionnaire was applied to the participants in order to determine their sociodemographic characteristics, general characteristics, dietary habits and caffeine intake. Nutritional knowledge levels of the participants were determined by Turkish version of the Nutrition for Sport Knowledge Questionnaire (NSKQ). It was observed that the height (cm), body weight (kg) and body fat mass (kg) of volleyball players were higher than the football players (p<0.05). In this study, football players' energy (kcal), carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (%), pulp (g), vitamin A (µg / RE), vitamin E (mg) , thiamine (mg), riboflavin (mg), folate (mcg), vitamin C (mg), vitamin B6 (mg), potassium (mg), calcium (mg), magnesium (mg) and phosphorus (mg) was higher than volleyball players (p<0.05). In this study, the average daily caffeine intake of football players was 295.47±69.73 mg; and that of volleyball players was 347.53±238.62 mg, and there was a negative relationship between daily caffeine intake and body weight in both groups, but it was not statistically significant. Finally; It was determined that volleyball players have lower nutritional knowledge level compared to football players (p<0.05), but they have "less knowledge" level in both groups about sports nutrition. The results of this study; It has been shown that steps should be taken to eliminate the lack of nutritional knowledge of football players and volleyball players, to increase their knowledge in this field, to change their nutritional habits in a positive way and accordingly to improve their sportive performance.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Baysal, A. (2014). Beslenme. Ankara, Hatiboğlu Yayınevi, 15. Baskı.
  • 2. Baysal, A., Aksoy, M., Besler, T. (2014). Diyet el kitabı. Ankara, Hatipoğlu Yayınları, 8. Baskı.
  • 3. Burke, L.M. (2008). Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(6), 1319-34.
  • 4. Burke, L.M., van Loon, L.J., ve Hawley, J.A. (2016). Postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(5), 1055-67.
  • 5. Caldwell, A.R., Tucker, M.A., Butts, C.L., McDermott, B.P., Vingren, J.L., Kunces, L.J., ve diğ. (2017). Effect of caffeine on perceived soreness and functionality following an endurance cycling event. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 638-643.
  • 6. Chester, N., ve Wojek, N. (2008). Caffeine consumption amongst British athletes following changes to the 2004 WADA prohibited list. Sports Medicine International Open, 29(6), 524-528.
  • 7. Chia, J.S., Barrett, L.A., Chow, J.Y., ve Burns, S.F. (2017). Effects of caffeine supplementation on performance in ball games. Sports Medicine, 47(12), 2453-2471.
  • 8. Çırak, O., ve Çakıroğlu, F.P. (2019). Sporcu beslenme bilgisi ölçeğinin türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Ankara Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 1, 35-49.
  • 9. Desbrow, B., ve Leveritt, M. (2006). Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16(5), 545-558.
  • 10. Desbrow, B., Biddulph, C., Devlin, B., Grand, G.D., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., ve Leveritt, M.D. (2012). The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 30, 115-120.
  • 11. Devlin, B.L., Leveritt, M.D., Kingsley, M., ve Belski, R. (2017). Dietary intake, body composition, and nutrition knowledge of Australian football and soccer players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27, 130-138.
  • 12. Duncan, M.J., Eyre, E., Grgic, J., ve Tallis, J. (2019). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on upper and lower body anaerobic exercise performance. European Journal of Sports & Exercise Science, 19(10), 1359-1366.
  • 13. FAO. (2001). Human energy requirements, Food and nutrition technical report, Rome: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation.
  • 14. Fink, H.H., Burgoon, L.A., ve Mikesky A.E. (2006). Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. Canada: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  • 15. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., ve diğ. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Caffeine and performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 5.
  • 16. Heaney, S., O'Connor, H., Michael, S., Gifford, J., ve Naughton, G. (2011). Nutrition knowledge in athletes: a systematic review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21(3), 248-261.
  • 17. IOM (Institue of Medicine). (2005). Dietary references intakes for energy, carbonhydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. Washington DC, National Academies Press.
  • 18. Jenner, S.L., Trakman, G., Coutts, A., Kempton, T., Ryan, S., Forsyth, A., ve diğ. (2018). Dietary intake of professional Australian football athletes surrounding body composition assessment. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15, 43.
  • 19. Jeukendrup, A.E. (2017). Periodized nutrition for athletes. Sports Medicine, 47(Suppl 1), 51-63.
  • 20. Kreider, R.B., Wilborn, C.D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A.L., Collins, R., ve diğ. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 7.
  • 21. Kerksick, C.M., Wilborn, C.D., Roberts, M.D., Smith-Ryan, A., Kleiner, S.M., Jäger, R., ve diğ. (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15, 38.
  • 22. Lohman, R., Carr, A., ve Condo, D. (2019). Nutritional intake in Australian Football Players: sports nutrition knowledge and macronutrient and micronutrient intake. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(3), 289-296.
  • 23. Mastaloudis, A., Driskell, J., ve Wolinsky, I. (2006). Sports nutrition: Vitamins and trace elements. New York: CRC/Taylor and Francis, p. 183-200.
  • 24. Miškulin, I., Šašvari, A., Dumić, A., Bilić-Kirin, V., Špiranović, Ž., Pavlović, N., ve diğ. (2019). The general nutrition knowledge of professional athletes. Food in Health and Disease, scientific-professional journal of nutrition and dietetics, 8(1), 25-32.
  • 25. Otman, Ö.T. (2017). Adolesan futbolcuların beslenme durumları ile sıvı tüketimleri ve kafein alımlarının değerlendirilmesi. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Diyetetik Programı Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi.
  • 26. Özdemir, G. (2010). Spor dallarına göre beslenme. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 8, 1-6.
  • 27. Papadopoulou, S.D., Papadopoulou, S.K., Vamvakoudis, E., ve Tsitskaris, G. (2008). Comparison of nutritional intake between volleyball and basketball women athletes of the olympic national teams. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche, 167(4), 147-52.
  • 28. Pickering, C., ve Kiely, J. (2019). What should we do about habitual caffeine use in athletes? Sports Medicine, 49 (6), 833-842.
  • 29. Potgieter, S., Wright, H.H., ve Smith, C. (2018). Caffeine improves triathlon performance: A field study in males and females. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28, 228-237.
  • 30. Ranchordas, M.K., King, G., Russell, M., Lynn, A., ve Russell, M. (2018). Effects of caffeinated gum on a battery of soccer-specific tests in trained university-standard male soccer players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28(6), 629-634.
  • 31. Rodriguez, N.R., DiMarco, N.M., ve Langley S. (2009). Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(3), 509-27.
  • 32. SB (Sağlık Bakanlığı). (2016). Türkiye Beslenme Rehberi 2015 TÜBER. Ankara, Yayın No: 1031.
  • 33. Southward, K., Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J., ve Ali, A. (2018). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48, 1913-1928.
  • 34. Spendlove, J.K., Heaney, S.E., Gifford, J.A., Prvan, T., Denyer, G.S., ve O’Connor, H.T. (2012). Evaluation of general nutrition knowledge in elite Australian athletes. British Journal of Nutrition, 107, 1871-1880.
  • 35. Spronk, I., Heaney, S.E., Prvan, T., ve O’Connor, H.T. (2015). Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in elite athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25, 243-251.
  • 36. Stojanović, E., Stojiljković, N., Scanlan, A.T., Dalbo, V.J., Stanković,. R, Antić, V., ve diğ. (2019). Acute caffeine supplementation promotes small to moderate improvements in performance tests indicative of in-game success in professional female basketball players. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 44 (8), 849-856.
  • 37. Tallis, J., Duncani M.J., ve James, R.S. (2015). What can isolated skeletal muscle experiments tell us about the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. British Journal of Pharmacology, 172, 3703-3713.
  • 38. Thomas, D.T., Erdman, K.A., ve Burke, L.M. (2016). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48, 543-68.
  • 39. Trakman, G.L., Forsyth, A., Devlin, B.L., ve Belski, R. (2016). A systematic review of athletes’ and coaches’ nutrition knowledge and reflections on the quality of current nutrition knowledge measures. Nutrients, 8(9), 570.
  • 40. Williams, C., Rollo, I. (2015). Carbohydrate nutrition and team sport performance. Sports Medicine, 45, 1(1), 13-22.
  • 41. Zorba, E. (1989). Milli Takım Düzeyindeki Türk Güreşçileri için Derialtı Yağ Kalınlığı Denklemi Geliştirilmesi. Doktora Tezi. Marmara Üniversitesi.

Profesyonel Futbol ve Voleybol Oyuncularının Beslenme Durumları, Beslenme Bilgi Düzeyleri, Kafein Alımları ve Vücut Kompozisyonları Arasındaki İlişkinin Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 3, 123 - 134, 27.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17644/sbd.876856

Öz

Bu çalışma; profesyonel futbolcular ve voleybolcuların beslenme bilgi düzeyleri ve besin tüketim durumlarının değerlendirilmesi ile kafein alımları ve vücut kompozisyonları arasındaki ilişkinin karşılaştırılması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmaya; Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu (TFF) 1. Lig’de yer alan bir futbol kulübünde oynayan 19 futbolcu ile Türkiye Voleybol Federasyonu’na (TVF) bağlı iki farklı voleybol takımında oynayan 24 voleybolcu olmak üzere 18-35 yaş arası toplam 43 erkek sporcu katılmıştır. Sporcuların; sosyodemografik özellikleri, beslenme alışkanlıkları ve kafein alımları çoktan seçmeli soruların olduğu anket formuyla, beslenme bilgi düzeyleri ise Sporcu Beslenme Bilgisi Ölçeği (SBBÖ) ile belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada voleybolcuların boy uzunluğu (cm), vücut ağırlığı (kg) ve vücut yağ kütlesinin (kg) futbolculara kıyasla daha yüksek olduğu görülmüştür (p<0.05). Çalışmada futbolcuların enerji (kkal), karbonhidrat (%), çoklu doymamış yağ asitleri (%), posa (g), A vitamini (µg/RE), E vitamini (mg), tiamin (mg), riboflavin (mg), folat (mcg), C vitamini (mg) ve B6 vitamini (mg), potasyum (mg), kalsiyum (mg), magnezyum (mg) ve fosfor (mg) alımları voleybolculara göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur (p<0.05). Çalışmada futbolcuların toplam günlük kafein alım miktarları ortalama 295.47±69.73 mg; voleybolcuların ise 347.53±238.62 mg olduğu ve her iki grupta günlük kafein alımı ile vücut ağırlığı arasında negatif yönde bir ilişki olduğu görülmüş ancak istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı bulunmamıştır. Son olarak; voleybolcuların futbolculara kıyasla daha düşük beslenme bilgi düzeyine sahip olduğu (p<0.05) ancak spor beslenmesi konusunda her iki grubun da “zayıf bilgi” düzeyine sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışma sonuçları; futbolcular ve voleybolcuların beslenme bilgisi yetersizliğini gidermek, bu alandaki bilgilerini artırmak, beslenme alışkanlıklarını olumlu yönde değiştirmek ve buna bağlı olarak sportif performanslarını iyileştirmek için adımlar atılması gerektiğini göstermiştir.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Baysal, A. (2014). Beslenme. Ankara, Hatiboğlu Yayınevi, 15. Baskı.
  • 2. Baysal, A., Aksoy, M., Besler, T. (2014). Diyet el kitabı. Ankara, Hatipoğlu Yayınları, 8. Baskı.
  • 3. Burke, L.M. (2008). Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(6), 1319-34.
  • 4. Burke, L.M., van Loon, L.J., ve Hawley, J.A. (2016). Postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(5), 1055-67.
  • 5. Caldwell, A.R., Tucker, M.A., Butts, C.L., McDermott, B.P., Vingren, J.L., Kunces, L.J., ve diğ. (2017). Effect of caffeine on perceived soreness and functionality following an endurance cycling event. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 638-643.
  • 6. Chester, N., ve Wojek, N. (2008). Caffeine consumption amongst British athletes following changes to the 2004 WADA prohibited list. Sports Medicine International Open, 29(6), 524-528.
  • 7. Chia, J.S., Barrett, L.A., Chow, J.Y., ve Burns, S.F. (2017). Effects of caffeine supplementation on performance in ball games. Sports Medicine, 47(12), 2453-2471.
  • 8. Çırak, O., ve Çakıroğlu, F.P. (2019). Sporcu beslenme bilgisi ölçeğinin türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Ankara Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 1, 35-49.
  • 9. Desbrow, B., ve Leveritt, M. (2006). Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16(5), 545-558.
  • 10. Desbrow, B., Biddulph, C., Devlin, B., Grand, G.D., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., ve Leveritt, M.D. (2012). The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 30, 115-120.
  • 11. Devlin, B.L., Leveritt, M.D., Kingsley, M., ve Belski, R. (2017). Dietary intake, body composition, and nutrition knowledge of Australian football and soccer players: Implications for Sports Nutrition Professionals in Practice. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27, 130-138.
  • 12. Duncan, M.J., Eyre, E., Grgic, J., ve Tallis, J. (2019). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on upper and lower body anaerobic exercise performance. European Journal of Sports & Exercise Science, 19(10), 1359-1366.
  • 13. FAO. (2001). Human energy requirements, Food and nutrition technical report, Rome: report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation.
  • 14. Fink, H.H., Burgoon, L.A., ve Mikesky A.E. (2006). Practical Applications in Sports Nutrition. Canada: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  • 15. Goldstein, E.R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., ve diğ. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: Caffeine and performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 5.
  • 16. Heaney, S., O'Connor, H., Michael, S., Gifford, J., ve Naughton, G. (2011). Nutrition knowledge in athletes: a systematic review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21(3), 248-261.
  • 17. IOM (Institue of Medicine). (2005). Dietary references intakes for energy, carbonhydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. Washington DC, National Academies Press.
  • 18. Jenner, S.L., Trakman, G., Coutts, A., Kempton, T., Ryan, S., Forsyth, A., ve diğ. (2018). Dietary intake of professional Australian football athletes surrounding body composition assessment. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15, 43.
  • 19. Jeukendrup, A.E. (2017). Periodized nutrition for athletes. Sports Medicine, 47(Suppl 1), 51-63.
  • 20. Kreider, R.B., Wilborn, C.D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A.L., Collins, R., ve diğ. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 7.
  • 21. Kerksick, C.M., Wilborn, C.D., Roberts, M.D., Smith-Ryan, A., Kleiner, S.M., Jäger, R., ve diğ. (2018). ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: Research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15, 38.
  • 22. Lohman, R., Carr, A., ve Condo, D. (2019). Nutritional intake in Australian Football Players: sports nutrition knowledge and macronutrient and micronutrient intake. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(3), 289-296.
  • 23. Mastaloudis, A., Driskell, J., ve Wolinsky, I. (2006). Sports nutrition: Vitamins and trace elements. New York: CRC/Taylor and Francis, p. 183-200.
  • 24. Miškulin, I., Šašvari, A., Dumić, A., Bilić-Kirin, V., Špiranović, Ž., Pavlović, N., ve diğ. (2019). The general nutrition knowledge of professional athletes. Food in Health and Disease, scientific-professional journal of nutrition and dietetics, 8(1), 25-32.
  • 25. Otman, Ö.T. (2017). Adolesan futbolcuların beslenme durumları ile sıvı tüketimleri ve kafein alımlarının değerlendirilmesi. Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Diyetetik Programı Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi.
  • 26. Özdemir, G. (2010). Spor dallarına göre beslenme. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 8, 1-6.
  • 27. Papadopoulou, S.D., Papadopoulou, S.K., Vamvakoudis, E., ve Tsitskaris, G. (2008). Comparison of nutritional intake between volleyball and basketball women athletes of the olympic national teams. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche, 167(4), 147-52.
  • 28. Pickering, C., ve Kiely, J. (2019). What should we do about habitual caffeine use in athletes? Sports Medicine, 49 (6), 833-842.
  • 29. Potgieter, S., Wright, H.H., ve Smith, C. (2018). Caffeine improves triathlon performance: A field study in males and females. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28, 228-237.
  • 30. Ranchordas, M.K., King, G., Russell, M., Lynn, A., ve Russell, M. (2018). Effects of caffeinated gum on a battery of soccer-specific tests in trained university-standard male soccer players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28(6), 629-634.
  • 31. Rodriguez, N.R., DiMarco, N.M., ve Langley S. (2009). Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(3), 509-27.
  • 32. SB (Sağlık Bakanlığı). (2016). Türkiye Beslenme Rehberi 2015 TÜBER. Ankara, Yayın No: 1031.
  • 33. Southward, K., Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J., ve Ali, A. (2018). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 48, 1913-1928.
  • 34. Spendlove, J.K., Heaney, S.E., Gifford, J.A., Prvan, T., Denyer, G.S., ve O’Connor, H.T. (2012). Evaluation of general nutrition knowledge in elite Australian athletes. British Journal of Nutrition, 107, 1871-1880.
  • 35. Spronk, I., Heaney, S.E., Prvan, T., ve O’Connor, H.T. (2015). Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in elite athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 25, 243-251.
  • 36. Stojanović, E., Stojiljković, N., Scanlan, A.T., Dalbo, V.J., Stanković,. R, Antić, V., ve diğ. (2019). Acute caffeine supplementation promotes small to moderate improvements in performance tests indicative of in-game success in professional female basketball players. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 44 (8), 849-856.
  • 37. Tallis, J., Duncani M.J., ve James, R.S. (2015). What can isolated skeletal muscle experiments tell us about the effects of caffeine on exercise performance. British Journal of Pharmacology, 172, 3703-3713.
  • 38. Thomas, D.T., Erdman, K.A., ve Burke, L.M. (2016). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48, 543-68.
  • 39. Trakman, G.L., Forsyth, A., Devlin, B.L., ve Belski, R. (2016). A systematic review of athletes’ and coaches’ nutrition knowledge and reflections on the quality of current nutrition knowledge measures. Nutrients, 8(9), 570.
  • 40. Williams, C., Rollo, I. (2015). Carbohydrate nutrition and team sport performance. Sports Medicine, 45, 1(1), 13-22.
  • 41. Zorba, E. (1989). Milli Takım Düzeyindeki Türk Güreşçileri için Derialtı Yağ Kalınlığı Denklemi Geliştirilmesi. Doktora Tezi. Marmara Üniversitesi.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Yayınlanma Tarihi Güz
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Aysu AYHAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, BESLENME VE DİYETETİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-6765-9892
Türkiye


Selen MÜFTÜOĞLU>
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, BESLENME VE DİYETETİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-6099-1182
Türkiye


Beril KÖSE>
BAŞKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, BESLENME VE DİYETETİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-5173-2389
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Eylül 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 9 Şubat 2021
Kabul Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 32, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Ayhan, A. , Müftüoğlu, S. & Köse, B. (2021). Profesyonel Futbol ve Voleybol Oyuncularının Beslenme Durumları, Beslenme Bilgi Düzeyleri, Kafein Alımları ve Vücut Kompozisyonları Arasındaki İlişkinin Değerlendirilmesi . Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 32 (3) , 123-134 . DOI: 10.17644/sbd.876856