Araştırma Makalesi
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Turizm Taksonomisi: Kavram Açımlaması Tekniği ile Epistemolojik Bir Analiz

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 19 Sayı: 2, 287 - 310, 25.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.24010/soid.1101866

Öz

Turizm teorisindeki terim-anlam uyumsuzluğu ve zeminsizlik sorunsalı, bu araştırmanın ana çıkış noktası olmuştur. Sorunun çözümüne yönelik bilimsel bir teknik ve bu sayede de bir sınıflandırma modeli geliştirmek ise araştırmanın ana amacını oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda araştırma deseni olarak nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden gömülü teoriye başvurulmuştur. Literatür dayanakları, yapılandırılmış mülakat yöntemiyle elde edilen katılımcı akademisyen görüşüyle karşılaştırılmış ve kavram açımlaması tekniğiyle epistemolojik olarak incelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre (1) turizm kavramları, sistematik olarak değerlendirilebilmekte, (2) tür adlandırmaları bazen tür olma gerçekliğini yansıtmamaktadır. Kavram Açımlaması (KA) yöntemi ve Hiyerarşik Turizm Taksonomisi (HTT) modeli, birlikte kullanıldıkları takdirde, turizm tür sınıflandırması için bir değerlendirme aracı olarak kullanılabileceği düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S. ve Yıldırım, E. (2010). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı, 6. Baskı. Sakarya: Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Arcodia, C. ve Robb, A. (2000). A Future for Event Management: A Taxonomy of Event Management Terms. İçinde Allen, R. Harris, L. K. Jago ve A. J. Veal (Editörler), Events Beyond 2000: Setting the Agenda Proceedings of Conference on Event Evaluation, Research and Education, ss. 154-160. Sydney: Australian Centre for Event Management.
  • Athiyaman, A. (1997). Knowledge development in tourism: Tourism demand research. Tourism Management, 18(4), 221-228.
  • Avcıkurt, C. (2009). Turizm Sosyolojisi Genel ve Yapısal Yaklaşım,3. Baskı. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Aziz, A. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri ve Teknikleri. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Bailey, K. D. (2011). Typologies and Taxonomies in Social Sciences. İçinde Typologies and taxonomies: An introduction to classification techniques, ss. 1-16. Sage University paper series on quantitative applications in the social sciences, series no. 07-102. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. (Erişim adresi: https://methods.sagepub.com/base/download/BookChapter/typologies-and-taxonomies/n1.xml
  • Baum, T., Kralj, A., Robinson, R. N. S. ve Solnet, D. J. (2016). Tourism workforce research: A review, taxonomy and agenda. Annals of Tourism Research, 60, 1-22.
  • Benckendorff, P. ve Zehrer, A. (2013). A network analysis of tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 121-143.
  • Boyne, S., Hall, D. ve Williams, F. (2003). Policy, support and promotion for food-related tourism initiatives. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 14(3-4), 131-154.
  • Boyne, S., Williams, F. ve Hall, D. R. (2002). On the trail of regional success: Tourism, food production and the Isle of Arran Taste Trail. İçinde Richards, G. & Hjalager, A-M. (Editörler), Tourism and Gastronomy, ss.91-114. London: Routledge.
  • Brink, H. I. (1993). Validity and reliability in qualitative research. Journal of the Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa, 16(2), 35-38.
  • Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social Research, 39(1), 164-182.
  • Cohen, E. (1984). The sociology of tourism: approaches, issues, and findings. Annual Review of Sociology, 10(1984), 373-392.
  • Corbin, J. ve Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21.
  • Echtner, C. ve Jamal, T. (1997). The disciplinary dilemma of tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 868-883.
  • Erkuş, A. (2008). Bilimsel Araştırmaların “Nitel” Olup Olmayacağı Üzerine “Akıl Yürütme”. İçinde Prof. Dr. Fermani Maviş Anı Kitabı, ss. 479-484. Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Fennel, D. (2008). Ecotourism, 3. Baskı. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Franklin, A. ve Crang, M. (2001). The trouble with tourism and travel theory?, Tourist Studies, 1(1), 5-22.
  • Gibson, H. J. (1998). Sport tourism: a critical analysis of research. Sport Management Review, 1, 45-76.
  • Glaser, B. G. ve Strauss, A. L. (2006). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. London: Aldine Transaction.
  • Gökçe, A. (2020). Turizm Taksonomisi: Epistemolojik Bir Analiz. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Sakarya Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, Sakarya.
  • Gökçe, A. (2021). Turizm Türleri ve Taksonomisi. Sakarya: Değişim Yayınları.
  • Guilamo-Ramos, V., Jaccard, J., McCarthy, K., Quiňones, Z., Lushin, V., Skinner-Day, M. Padilla, M. ve Meisterlin, L. (2013). Taxonomy of Caribbean tourism alcohol venues: Implications for HIV transmission. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132, 238–243.
  • Howard, R. W. (2010). Urban tourism districts: A taxonomy and a study of a new proposed type. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(4), 415-428.
  • Hrubcova, G., Loster, T. ve Obergruber, P. (2016). The taxonomy of the least developed countries based on the tourism economic impact analysis. Procedia Economics and Finance, 39, 446-450.
  • Hunter, W. C. (2008). A typology of photographic representations for tourism: Depictions of groomed spaces. Tourism Management, 29(2008), 354–365.
  • Jones, A. (1987). Green tourism. Tourism Management, 26, 354-356.
  • Jovicic, Z. (1988). A plea for tourismological theory and methodology. Revue de Tourisme, 43(3), 2-5.
  • Kaplan, A. (1964). The Conduct of Inquiry. San Francisco: Chandler.
  • Kennedy-Eden, H. ve Gretzel, U. (2012). A taxonomy of mobile applications in tourism. e-Review of Tourism Research, 10(2), 47-50.
  • Laws, E. ve Scott, N. (2015). Tourism Research: Building from other disciplines. Tourism Recreation Research, 49 (1), 48-58.
  • Leiper, N. (1979). The framework of tourism: Towards a definition of tourism, tourist, and the tourist industry. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 390-407.
  • Mapingure, C. (2018). Tourists’ Taxonomy as a Management Tool for Destination Competitiveness, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, North-West University, Zimbabwe.
  • Mazanec, J. A. (2009). Unraveling myths in tourism research. Tourism Recreation Research, 34(3), 319-323.
  • McKrecher, B. (2016). Towards a taxonomy of tourism products. Tourism Management, 54(2016), 196-208.
  • Meethan, K. (2001) Tourism in Global Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
  • Merton, R. K. (1967). On Theoretical Sociology. New York: Free Press.
  • Noy, C. (2007). A Narrative Community: The Voices of Israeli Backpackers. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press
  • OECD (2020). Glossary of Statistical Terms. (Erişim adresi: https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=350)
  • Pritchard, A. (2012). Critical tourism research. İçinde I. Ateljevic, N. Morgan ve A. Pritchard (Editörler), The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Creating an Academy of Hope. ss. 11-13. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Schuetz, A. (1944) The stranger: An essay in social psychology. American Journal of Sociology, 49(6), 499-507.
  • Selin, S. (1999) Developing a typology of sustainable tourism partnerships. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(3-4), 260-273.
  • Simpson, G. G. (1961). Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Smith, S. L. J. ve Lee, H. (2010). A Typology of ‘Theory’ in Tourism. İçinde D. G. Pearce ve R.W. Butler (Editörler), A 20-20 Vision of Tourism Research: Roads Traveled, Hills to Climb, ss. 28-39. London: Goodfellow Publishers.
  • Sneath, P. H. A. ve Sokal, R. R.(1973). Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: Freeman.
  • Sundbo, J., Orfila-Sintes, F. ve Sørensen, F. (2007). The innovative behaviour of tourism firms: Comparative studies of Denmark and Spain. Research Policy, 36(1), 88-106.
  • Sutton, R. I. ve Staw, B. M. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 371-384. Tan, S.-K., Luh, D.-B. ve Kung, S.-F. (2014). A taxonomy of creative tourists in creative tourism. Tourism Management, 42, 248-259.
  • TDK (2020a). Güncel Türkçe Sözlük. [Aranılan kelime “Teori”] (Erişim adresi: https://sozluk.gov.tr/ Erişim tarihi: 15.11.2020).
  • TDK (2020b). Güncel Türkçe Sözlük. [Aranılan kelime “Açımlamak”] (Erişim adresi: https://sozluk.gov.tr/ Erişim tarihi: 27.09.2020)
  • Thau, D. M. (2010). Reasoning about Taxonomies. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, University of California, Office of Graduate Students, California.
  • Tosun, C. (1999). Towards a typology of community participation in the tourism development process. Anatolia An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 113-134.
  • Tribe, J. (2006). The truth about tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(2), 360-381. United Nations (2010). International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008. New York: United Nations Publication Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division (Erişim adresi: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/Seriesm/SeriesM_83rev1e.pdf#page=21).
  • UNWTO (2019). UNWTO Tourism Definitions. Madrid, İspanya: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). (Erişim adresi: https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284420858?download=true)
  • Weick, K. E. (1995). Definition of theory. İçinde N. Nicholson (Editör), Blackwell Dictionary of Organizational Behavior, ss. 565–567. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek H. (2006). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Matbaası.
  • Young, C. A., Corsun, D. L. ve Baloglu, S. (2007). A taxonomy of hosts visiting friends and relatives. Annals of Tourism Research, 34( 2), 497-516.
  • Yurtseven, H. R., Erkul, H. ve Kekeç Morkoç, D. (2013). Örneklerle Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntem ve Teknikleri. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Yüksel, A. ve Yüksel F. (2004). Turizmde Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi.
  • Zima, P. V. (2007). What is Theory? Cultural Theory as Discourse and Dialogue. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Tourism Taxonomy: An Epistemological Analysis with Concept Elucidation Technique

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 19 Sayı: 2, 287 - 310, 25.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.24010/soid.1101866

Öz

The problem of term-meaning incompatibility and groundlessness in tourism theory has been the main starting point of this research. The main purpose thereby is to develop a scientific technique for the solution of the problem and thus a classification model. In this context, grounded theory, one of the qualitative research methods, has been used. The literature bases are compared with the opinion of the participant academicians obtained by the structured interview method and have been examined epistemologically with the concept explanation technique. According to the results obtained, (1) tourism concepts can be evaluated systematically, (2) tourism type designations sometimes do not reflect the reality of being a type. It is thought that the Concept Elucidation (CE) technique and the Hierarchical Tourism Taxonomy (HTT) model can be used as an evaluation tool for tourism type taxonomy, if they are used together.

Kaynakça

  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S. ve Yıldırım, E. (2010). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı, 6. Baskı. Sakarya: Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Arcodia, C. ve Robb, A. (2000). A Future for Event Management: A Taxonomy of Event Management Terms. İçinde Allen, R. Harris, L. K. Jago ve A. J. Veal (Editörler), Events Beyond 2000: Setting the Agenda Proceedings of Conference on Event Evaluation, Research and Education, ss. 154-160. Sydney: Australian Centre for Event Management.
  • Athiyaman, A. (1997). Knowledge development in tourism: Tourism demand research. Tourism Management, 18(4), 221-228.
  • Avcıkurt, C. (2009). Turizm Sosyolojisi Genel ve Yapısal Yaklaşım,3. Baskı. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Aziz, A. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri ve Teknikleri. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • Bailey, K. D. (2011). Typologies and Taxonomies in Social Sciences. İçinde Typologies and taxonomies: An introduction to classification techniques, ss. 1-16. Sage University paper series on quantitative applications in the social sciences, series no. 07-102. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. (Erişim adresi: https://methods.sagepub.com/base/download/BookChapter/typologies-and-taxonomies/n1.xml
  • Baum, T., Kralj, A., Robinson, R. N. S. ve Solnet, D. J. (2016). Tourism workforce research: A review, taxonomy and agenda. Annals of Tourism Research, 60, 1-22.
  • Benckendorff, P. ve Zehrer, A. (2013). A network analysis of tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 121-143.
  • Boyne, S., Hall, D. ve Williams, F. (2003). Policy, support and promotion for food-related tourism initiatives. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 14(3-4), 131-154.
  • Boyne, S., Williams, F. ve Hall, D. R. (2002). On the trail of regional success: Tourism, food production and the Isle of Arran Taste Trail. İçinde Richards, G. & Hjalager, A-M. (Editörler), Tourism and Gastronomy, ss.91-114. London: Routledge.
  • Brink, H. I. (1993). Validity and reliability in qualitative research. Journal of the Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa, 16(2), 35-38.
  • Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social Research, 39(1), 164-182.
  • Cohen, E. (1984). The sociology of tourism: approaches, issues, and findings. Annual Review of Sociology, 10(1984), 373-392.
  • Corbin, J. ve Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3-21.
  • Echtner, C. ve Jamal, T. (1997). The disciplinary dilemma of tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 868-883.
  • Erkuş, A. (2008). Bilimsel Araştırmaların “Nitel” Olup Olmayacağı Üzerine “Akıl Yürütme”. İçinde Prof. Dr. Fermani Maviş Anı Kitabı, ss. 479-484. Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Fennel, D. (2008). Ecotourism, 3. Baskı. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Franklin, A. ve Crang, M. (2001). The trouble with tourism and travel theory?, Tourist Studies, 1(1), 5-22.
  • Gibson, H. J. (1998). Sport tourism: a critical analysis of research. Sport Management Review, 1, 45-76.
  • Glaser, B. G. ve Strauss, A. L. (2006). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. London: Aldine Transaction.
  • Gökçe, A. (2020). Turizm Taksonomisi: Epistemolojik Bir Analiz. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Sakarya Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, Sakarya.
  • Gökçe, A. (2021). Turizm Türleri ve Taksonomisi. Sakarya: Değişim Yayınları.
  • Guilamo-Ramos, V., Jaccard, J., McCarthy, K., Quiňones, Z., Lushin, V., Skinner-Day, M. Padilla, M. ve Meisterlin, L. (2013). Taxonomy of Caribbean tourism alcohol venues: Implications for HIV transmission. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132, 238–243.
  • Howard, R. W. (2010). Urban tourism districts: A taxonomy and a study of a new proposed type. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(4), 415-428.
  • Hrubcova, G., Loster, T. ve Obergruber, P. (2016). The taxonomy of the least developed countries based on the tourism economic impact analysis. Procedia Economics and Finance, 39, 446-450.
  • Hunter, W. C. (2008). A typology of photographic representations for tourism: Depictions of groomed spaces. Tourism Management, 29(2008), 354–365.
  • Jones, A. (1987). Green tourism. Tourism Management, 26, 354-356.
  • Jovicic, Z. (1988). A plea for tourismological theory and methodology. Revue de Tourisme, 43(3), 2-5.
  • Kaplan, A. (1964). The Conduct of Inquiry. San Francisco: Chandler.
  • Kennedy-Eden, H. ve Gretzel, U. (2012). A taxonomy of mobile applications in tourism. e-Review of Tourism Research, 10(2), 47-50.
  • Laws, E. ve Scott, N. (2015). Tourism Research: Building from other disciplines. Tourism Recreation Research, 49 (1), 48-58.
  • Leiper, N. (1979). The framework of tourism: Towards a definition of tourism, tourist, and the tourist industry. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 390-407.
  • Mapingure, C. (2018). Tourists’ Taxonomy as a Management Tool for Destination Competitiveness, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, North-West University, Zimbabwe.
  • Mazanec, J. A. (2009). Unraveling myths in tourism research. Tourism Recreation Research, 34(3), 319-323.
  • McKrecher, B. (2016). Towards a taxonomy of tourism products. Tourism Management, 54(2016), 196-208.
  • Meethan, K. (2001) Tourism in Global Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
  • Merton, R. K. (1967). On Theoretical Sociology. New York: Free Press.
  • Noy, C. (2007). A Narrative Community: The Voices of Israeli Backpackers. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press
  • OECD (2020). Glossary of Statistical Terms. (Erişim adresi: https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=350)
  • Pritchard, A. (2012). Critical tourism research. İçinde I. Ateljevic, N. Morgan ve A. Pritchard (Editörler), The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Creating an Academy of Hope. ss. 11-13. Oxon: Routledge.
  • Schuetz, A. (1944) The stranger: An essay in social psychology. American Journal of Sociology, 49(6), 499-507.
  • Selin, S. (1999) Developing a typology of sustainable tourism partnerships. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(3-4), 260-273.
  • Simpson, G. G. (1961). Principles of Animal Taxonomy. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Smith, S. L. J. ve Lee, H. (2010). A Typology of ‘Theory’ in Tourism. İçinde D. G. Pearce ve R.W. Butler (Editörler), A 20-20 Vision of Tourism Research: Roads Traveled, Hills to Climb, ss. 28-39. London: Goodfellow Publishers.
  • Sneath, P. H. A. ve Sokal, R. R.(1973). Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco: Freeman.
  • Sundbo, J., Orfila-Sintes, F. ve Sørensen, F. (2007). The innovative behaviour of tourism firms: Comparative studies of Denmark and Spain. Research Policy, 36(1), 88-106.
  • Sutton, R. I. ve Staw, B. M. (1995). What theory is not. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 371-384. Tan, S.-K., Luh, D.-B. ve Kung, S.-F. (2014). A taxonomy of creative tourists in creative tourism. Tourism Management, 42, 248-259.
  • TDK (2020a). Güncel Türkçe Sözlük. [Aranılan kelime “Teori”] (Erişim adresi: https://sozluk.gov.tr/ Erişim tarihi: 15.11.2020).
  • TDK (2020b). Güncel Türkçe Sözlük. [Aranılan kelime “Açımlamak”] (Erişim adresi: https://sozluk.gov.tr/ Erişim tarihi: 27.09.2020)
  • Thau, D. M. (2010). Reasoning about Taxonomies. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, University of California, Office of Graduate Students, California.
  • Tosun, C. (1999). Towards a typology of community participation in the tourism development process. Anatolia An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 113-134.
  • Tribe, J. (2006). The truth about tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(2), 360-381. United Nations (2010). International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008. New York: United Nations Publication Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division (Erişim adresi: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/Seriesm/SeriesM_83rev1e.pdf#page=21).
  • UNWTO (2019). UNWTO Tourism Definitions. Madrid, İspanya: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). (Erişim adresi: https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284420858?download=true)
  • Weick, K. E. (1995). Definition of theory. İçinde N. Nicholson (Editör), Blackwell Dictionary of Organizational Behavior, ss. 565–567. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek H. (2006). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Matbaası.
  • Young, C. A., Corsun, D. L. ve Baloglu, S. (2007). A taxonomy of hosts visiting friends and relatives. Annals of Tourism Research, 34( 2), 497-516.
  • Yurtseven, H. R., Erkul, H. ve Kekeç Morkoç, D. (2013). Örneklerle Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntem ve Teknikleri. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Yüksel, A. ve Yüksel F. (2004). Turizmde Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi.
  • Zima, P. V. (2007). What is Theory? Cultural Theory as Discourse and Dialogue. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Turizm (Diğer)
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Akif GÖKÇE
SAKARYA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-7204-6601
Türkiye


Orhan BATMAN
SAKARYA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7186-7064
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Cilt: 19 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Gökçe, A. & Batman, O. (2022). Turizm Taksonomisi: Kavram Açımlaması Tekniği ile Epistemolojik Bir Analiz . Seyahat ve Otel İşletmeciliği Dergisi , 19 (2) , 287-310 . DOI: 10.24010/soid.1101866

Seyahat ve Otel İşletmeciliği (Journal of Travel and Hotel Business) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).
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