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A Comparative Study on The Humanitarian Relief Operations: Van-Turkey and Tohoku-Japan earthquakes

Yıl 2019, Cilt 7, Sayı 14, 392 - 410, 18.12.2019

Öz

The purpose of this article is to compare the humanitarian relief operations in Van- Turkey earthquake and Tohoku- Japan earthquake 2011. Essentially, this study questions whether the long experiences of Turkey and Japan in the management of natural disasters, especially earthquakes, have affected the development of humanitarian relief operations, what are the humanitarian relief operations of the two countries to overcome the disaster and manage it and what measures should be taken in this regard to prepare fully for humanitarian relief for major disasters in the future. Through this study, we found that the Turkish and Japanese experiences in disaster management over the years created flexibility in both countries in dealing with the Van earthquake in Turkey and the Tohoku earthquake in Japan and this contributed to the acceleration of the recovery process. However, both countries have some weaknesses in disaster management which will be evaluated through this article.

 

Kaynakça

  • AFAD., (2014), "Müdahale, İyileştirme ve Sosyoekonomik açıdan 2011 Van Depremi". [online] AFAD. Available at: https://www.afad.gov.tr/upload/Node/17944/xfiles/mudahale_-iyilestirme-ve-sosyoekonomik-acidan-2011-van-depremi-raporu_2_.pdf [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Aljazeera Turk., (2013), "Van depremi 'geçmişi' hatırlattı". [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/haber-analiz/van-depremi-gecmisi-hatirlatti [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Assembly, U. G., (2003), "International cooperation on humanitarian assistance in the field of natural disasters, from relief to development". In United Nations documents related to disaster reduction 2000-2002: Advance copy (pp. 221-28). UN. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). Secretariat.Banerji, P and Singh, N., (2013), "Disaster Policy and Education Changes over 15 Years in Japan". IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 13(6), 62-74.Bennett, I., (2012), "Natural Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance to 2020: Relief and Recovery on a Global Scale (Workshop)." Natural Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance to 2020: Relief and Recovery on a Global Scale (Workshop) | STAR-TIDES, star-tides.net/documents/natural-disasters-and-humanitarian-assistance-2020-relief-and-recovery-global-scale.Bisri, M. B. F., (2016), "Comparative study on inter-organizational cooperation in disaster situations and impact on humanitarian aid operations". Journal of International Humanitarian Action, 1(1), 8.Comfort, Louise K., (1999), "Shared Risks: Complex Systems in Seismic Response". Oxford, UK: Pergamon/Elsevier Science. Quoted from: Waugh Jr, W. L., &Streib, G. (2006), "Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management". Public administration review, 66, 131-140.Coppola, D. P., (2006), "Introduction to international disaster management". Elsevier.Demirci, A. and Karakuyu, M. (2004), "Afet yönetiminde coğrafi bilgi teknolojilerinin rolü". Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 9(12), 67-100.Deniz, O., (2017), "2011 Van Depreminin Etkilediği Alanlarda Ortaya Çıkan Göç Eğilimi". [online] Van: Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi. Available at: https://www.yyu.edu.tr/images/files/2011_Van_Depreminin_Etkiledigi_Alanlarda_Ortaya_Cikan_Goc_Egilimi.pdf [Accessed 31 Jul. 2018].Des Marais, E. A., Bhadra, S. and Dyer, A. R., (2012), "In the Wake of Japan's Triple Disaster: Rebuilding Capacity through International Collaboration". Advances in Social Work, 13(2), 340-357.Feng, C. and Tian, X., (2016), "Research on Trust of Post-disaster Humanitarian Logistics". Innovation and Supply Chain Management, 10(1), 1-7.Hayashi H., (2010), "Natural Disasters in Japan". In: Marquina A. (eds) Global Warming and Climate Change. Energy, Climate and the Environment Series. Palgrave Macmillan, LondonHermansson, H., (2017), "Centralized disaster management collaboration in Turkey" (Doctoral dissertation, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis).Holguín-Veras, J., Taniguchi, E., Ferreira, F., Jaller, M., Thompson, R. G., and Imanishi, Y. (2012, January), "The Tohoku disasters: preliminary findings concerning the post disaster humanitarian logistics response". In Proc., 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.Hunter, J., (2015), "Earthquakes in Japan: a review article". Modern Asian Studies, 50 (1). pp. 415-435. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2004), "Living with risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives" (Vol. 1). United Nations Publications.Japanese Red Cross Society., (2013), "Japan: Earthquake and Tsunami". Period covered by this report: 11 March 2011 - 31 March 2013. [online] Available at: http://www.jrc.or.jp/vcms_lf/Ops_Update_24monthReport_Final.pdf [Accessed 29 Jul. 2018].Karanci, N., (2013), "Facilitating community participation in disaster risk management: Risk perception and preparedness behaviours in Turkey". In Cities at Risk (pp. 93-108). Springer, Dordrecht.Kovács, G. and Spens, K. M., (2007), "Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations". International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 37(2), 99-114.Kumakı, Y., (2014), "Geographical study of the disaster in Japan". Geographical review of Japan series B, 86(2), 132-137.Lee, H. W. and Zbinden, M., (2003), "Marrying logistics and technology for effective relief". Forced Migration Review, 18(3), 34-35.Leelawat, N., Suppasri, A. and Imamura, F., (2015), "Disaster recovery and reconstruction following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami: A business process management perspective". International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(3), 310-314.Lin Moe, T., and Pathranarakul, P., (2006), "An integrated approach to natural disaster management: public project management and its critical success factors". Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 15(3), 396-413. / UN/ISDR (2002), "Living with risk: a global review of disaster reduction initiatives", Preliminary version prepared as an interagency effort coordinated by the ISDR Secretariat, Geneva.Long, D.C. and Wood, D.F., (1995),"The logistics of famine relief", Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 213‐29. OCHA., (2011), "Japan: earthquake & tsunami situation" report no. 10. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. [online] Available at:https://japan.resiliencesystem.org/sites/default/files/Sitrep%202011%20Mar%2021%20OCHA%2010%20EOJ.pdf [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].OCHA., (2011), "Japan: earthquake and tsunami situation" report no 1. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. [online] Available at:https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/60C5286F730C9B6449257851004A922B-Full_Report.pdf[Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Office of the UN Resident Coordinator., (2011), "Turkey · Van Earthquake Situation" Report. 14. [online] Office of the UN Resident Coordinator. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/SitRep%2014%20Van%20EQ%2011Nov11.pdf [Accessed 2 Aug. 2018].Oktay, F., Tetik, C., Gokce, O. and Cebi, G., (2013), "New disaster management system in Turkey: a case study of the 2011 Van earthquake". WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 179, 1387-1398. Norio, O., Ye, T., Kajitani, Y., Shi, P., &Tatano, H. (2011). The 2011 eastern Japan great earthquake disaster: Overview and comments. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2(1), 34-42.Öztürk, N., (2003), "Türkiye'de Afet Yönetimi: Karşılaşılan Sorunlar ve Çözüm Önerileri". Çağdaş Yerel Yönetimler Dergisi, 12(4), 42-64.Roberts, P. S., (2010), "Private choices, public harms: The evolution of national disaster organizations in the United States". Disaster and the politics of intervention, 42-69.Seck, P., (2007), "Links between natural disasters, humanitarian assistance and disaster risk reduction: A critical perspective". Occasional Paper, (15).Somers, N., (2009), "International Humanitarian Aid Policy Document." Www.entwicklung.at, Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs Department for Development Cooperation and Cooperation with Eastern Europe, 2009,www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Fotos/Themen/HuHi/Englisch/PD_International_humanitarian_aid_03.pdfSuganuma, K., (2006), "Recent Trends in Earthquake Disaster Managementin Japan". NISTEP Science & Technology Foresight Center.Tercan, B., (2018), "Türkiye'de afet politikaları ve kentsel dönüşüm". Abant Kültürel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(5): 102-120TÜSEV., (2012), "VAN depremi ve STK'LAR VAKA Analizi". [online] İstanbul: TÜSEV. Available at: http://www.tusev.org.tr/usrfiles/files/VanVakaAnalizi_23_10_13.pdf [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Umeda, S., (2016), "Japan legal responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011". The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center.United Nations Statistics Division., (2011), "Session 3: Natural Disasters Statistics and Indicators". Workshop on Environment Statistics (Yaoundé, 5-9 December 2011). [online]. Available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/envpdf/UNSD_Yaounde_Workshop/Session%2003-3%20Natural%20disasters%20(UNSD).pdf [Accessed 19 Aug. 2018].Waugh Jr, W. L. and Streib, G., (2006), "Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management". Public administration review, 66, 131-140.World Health Organization., (2008), Relief Web glossary of humanitarian terms. [online]. Available at: http://www.who.int/hac/about/reliefweb-aug2008.pdf[Accessed 19 Aug. 2018].Yavaş, H., (2005), "Türkiye'de Doğal Afetlerin Merkez-Yerel İlişkiler Açısından Yönetim Sorunları". DEÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(3), 280-301.Yazılıtaş, A., (2015), "The Importance Of Risk-Based Management In Turkish Disaster Management System". Türk İdare Dergisi, 559- 477. [online]. Available at: http://www.tid.gov.tr/Makaleler/T%C3%BCrk%20Afet%20Y%C3%B6netim%20Sisteminde%20Risk%20Odakl%C4%B1%20Y%C3%B6netimin%20%C3%96nemi.pdf Zaré, M., and Afrouz, S. G., (2012), "Crisis management of Tohoku; Japan earthquake and tsunami, 11 March 2011". Iranian journal of public health, 41(6), 12.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE HUMANITARIAN RELIEF OPERATIONS: VAN-TURKEY AND TOHOKU-JAPAN EARTHQUAKES

Yıl 2019, Cilt 7, Sayı 14, 392 - 410, 18.12.2019

Öz

Bu makalenin amacı, 2011 yılında Van- Türkiye ve Tohoku – Japonya’da meydana gelen iki büyük depremdeki insanı yardım operasyonlarını karşılaştırmaktır. Temel olarak, bu çalışma, Türkiye ve Japonya'nın doğal afetlerin yönetimi, özellikle depremler konusundaki uzun deneyimlerinin insani yardım operasyonlarının gelişimini etkileyip etkilemediğini, Afetin üstesinden gelmek ve onu yönetmek için her iki ülkenin insanı yardım işlemlerinin neler olduğunu ve gelecekteki büyük felaketlere yönelik insanı yardımın sağlam bir şekilde hazırlanması için alınması gereken önlemler neler olduğunu sorgulamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Türk ve Japonların afet yönetiminde yıllar boyunca yaşadıkları deneyimlerin, 2011 yılında her iki ülkede meydana gelen Van ve Tohoku depremleri ile ilgili esneklik yarattıklarını ve bu iyileşme sürecinin hızlanmasına katkıda bulunduğunu tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, her iki ülkenin afet yönetimi konusunda bazı zayıf yönleri bulunmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • AFAD., (2014), "Müdahale, İyileştirme ve Sosyoekonomik açıdan 2011 Van Depremi". [online] AFAD. Available at: https://www.afad.gov.tr/upload/Node/17944/xfiles/mudahale_-iyilestirme-ve-sosyoekonomik-acidan-2011-van-depremi-raporu_2_.pdf [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Aljazeera Turk., (2013), "Van depremi 'geçmişi' hatırlattı". [online] Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/haber-analiz/van-depremi-gecmisi-hatirlatti [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Assembly, U. G., (2003), "International cooperation on humanitarian assistance in the field of natural disasters, from relief to development". In United Nations documents related to disaster reduction 2000-2002: Advance copy (pp. 221-28). UN. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). Secretariat.Banerji, P and Singh, N., (2013), "Disaster Policy and Education Changes over 15 Years in Japan". IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 13(6), 62-74.Bennett, I., (2012), "Natural Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance to 2020: Relief and Recovery on a Global Scale (Workshop)." Natural Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance to 2020: Relief and Recovery on a Global Scale (Workshop) | STAR-TIDES, star-tides.net/documents/natural-disasters-and-humanitarian-assistance-2020-relief-and-recovery-global-scale.Bisri, M. B. F., (2016), "Comparative study on inter-organizational cooperation in disaster situations and impact on humanitarian aid operations". Journal of International Humanitarian Action, 1(1), 8.Comfort, Louise K., (1999), "Shared Risks: Complex Systems in Seismic Response". Oxford, UK: Pergamon/Elsevier Science. Quoted from: Waugh Jr, W. L., &Streib, G. (2006), "Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management". Public administration review, 66, 131-140.Coppola, D. P., (2006), "Introduction to international disaster management". Elsevier.Demirci, A. and Karakuyu, M. (2004), "Afet yönetiminde coğrafi bilgi teknolojilerinin rolü". Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi, 9(12), 67-100.Deniz, O., (2017), "2011 Van Depreminin Etkilediği Alanlarda Ortaya Çıkan Göç Eğilimi". [online] Van: Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi. Available at: https://www.yyu.edu.tr/images/files/2011_Van_Depreminin_Etkiledigi_Alanlarda_Ortaya_Cikan_Goc_Egilimi.pdf [Accessed 31 Jul. 2018].Des Marais, E. A., Bhadra, S. and Dyer, A. R., (2012), "In the Wake of Japan's Triple Disaster: Rebuilding Capacity through International Collaboration". Advances in Social Work, 13(2), 340-357.Feng, C. and Tian, X., (2016), "Research on Trust of Post-disaster Humanitarian Logistics". Innovation and Supply Chain Management, 10(1), 1-7.Hayashi H., (2010), "Natural Disasters in Japan". In: Marquina A. (eds) Global Warming and Climate Change. Energy, Climate and the Environment Series. Palgrave Macmillan, LondonHermansson, H., (2017), "Centralized disaster management collaboration in Turkey" (Doctoral dissertation, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis).Holguín-Veras, J., Taniguchi, E., Ferreira, F., Jaller, M., Thompson, R. G., and Imanishi, Y. (2012, January), "The Tohoku disasters: preliminary findings concerning the post disaster humanitarian logistics response". In Proc., 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.Hunter, J., (2015), "Earthquakes in Japan: a review article". Modern Asian Studies, 50 (1). pp. 415-435. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2004), "Living with risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives" (Vol. 1). United Nations Publications.Japanese Red Cross Society., (2013), "Japan: Earthquake and Tsunami". Period covered by this report: 11 March 2011 - 31 March 2013. [online] Available at: http://www.jrc.or.jp/vcms_lf/Ops_Update_24monthReport_Final.pdf [Accessed 29 Jul. 2018].Karanci, N., (2013), "Facilitating community participation in disaster risk management: Risk perception and preparedness behaviours in Turkey". In Cities at Risk (pp. 93-108). Springer, Dordrecht.Kovács, G. and Spens, K. M., (2007), "Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations". International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 37(2), 99-114.Kumakı, Y., (2014), "Geographical study of the disaster in Japan". Geographical review of Japan series B, 86(2), 132-137.Lee, H. W. and Zbinden, M., (2003), "Marrying logistics and technology for effective relief". Forced Migration Review, 18(3), 34-35.Leelawat, N., Suppasri, A. and Imamura, F., (2015), "Disaster recovery and reconstruction following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami: A business process management perspective". International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(3), 310-314.Lin Moe, T., and Pathranarakul, P., (2006), "An integrated approach to natural disaster management: public project management and its critical success factors". Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 15(3), 396-413. / UN/ISDR (2002), "Living with risk: a global review of disaster reduction initiatives", Preliminary version prepared as an interagency effort coordinated by the ISDR Secretariat, Geneva.Long, D.C. and Wood, D.F., (1995),"The logistics of famine relief", Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 213‐29. OCHA., (2011), "Japan: earthquake & tsunami situation" report no. 10. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. [online] Available at:https://japan.resiliencesystem.org/sites/default/files/Sitrep%202011%20Mar%2021%20OCHA%2010%20EOJ.pdf [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].OCHA., (2011), "Japan: earthquake and tsunami situation" report no 1. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. [online] Available at:https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/60C5286F730C9B6449257851004A922B-Full_Report.pdf[Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Office of the UN Resident Coordinator., (2011), "Turkey · Van Earthquake Situation" Report. 14. [online] Office of the UN Resident Coordinator. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/SitRep%2014%20Van%20EQ%2011Nov11.pdf [Accessed 2 Aug. 2018].Oktay, F., Tetik, C., Gokce, O. and Cebi, G., (2013), "New disaster management system in Turkey: a case study of the 2011 Van earthquake". WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 179, 1387-1398. Norio, O., Ye, T., Kajitani, Y., Shi, P., &Tatano, H. (2011). The 2011 eastern Japan great earthquake disaster: Overview and comments. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2(1), 34-42.Öztürk, N., (2003), "Türkiye'de Afet Yönetimi: Karşılaşılan Sorunlar ve Çözüm Önerileri". Çağdaş Yerel Yönetimler Dergisi, 12(4), 42-64.Roberts, P. S., (2010), "Private choices, public harms: The evolution of national disaster organizations in the United States". Disaster and the politics of intervention, 42-69.Seck, P., (2007), "Links between natural disasters, humanitarian assistance and disaster risk reduction: A critical perspective". Occasional Paper, (15).Somers, N., (2009), "International Humanitarian Aid Policy Document." Www.entwicklung.at, Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs Department for Development Cooperation and Cooperation with Eastern Europe, 2009,www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Fotos/Themen/HuHi/Englisch/PD_International_humanitarian_aid_03.pdfSuganuma, K., (2006), "Recent Trends in Earthquake Disaster Managementin Japan". NISTEP Science & Technology Foresight Center.Tercan, B., (2018), "Türkiye'de afet politikaları ve kentsel dönüşüm". Abant Kültürel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(5): 102-120TÜSEV., (2012), "VAN depremi ve STK'LAR VAKA Analizi". [online] İstanbul: TÜSEV. Available at: http://www.tusev.org.tr/usrfiles/files/VanVakaAnalizi_23_10_13.pdf [Accessed 27 Jul. 2018].Umeda, S., (2016), "Japan legal responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011". The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center.United Nations Statistics Division., (2011), "Session 3: Natural Disasters Statistics and Indicators". Workshop on Environment Statistics (Yaoundé, 5-9 December 2011). [online]. Available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/envpdf/UNSD_Yaounde_Workshop/Session%2003-3%20Natural%20disasters%20(UNSD).pdf [Accessed 19 Aug. 2018].Waugh Jr, W. L. and Streib, G., (2006), "Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management". Public administration review, 66, 131-140.World Health Organization., (2008), Relief Web glossary of humanitarian terms. [online]. Available at: http://www.who.int/hac/about/reliefweb-aug2008.pdf[Accessed 19 Aug. 2018].Yavaş, H., (2005), "Türkiye'de Doğal Afetlerin Merkez-Yerel İlişkiler Açısından Yönetim Sorunları". DEÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(3), 280-301.Yazılıtaş, A., (2015), "The Importance Of Risk-Based Management In Turkish Disaster Management System". Türk İdare Dergisi, 559- 477. [online]. Available at: http://www.tid.gov.tr/Makaleler/T%C3%BCrk%20Afet%20Y%C3%B6netim%20Sisteminde%20Risk%20Odakl%C4%B1%20Y%C3%B6netimin%20%C3%96nemi.pdf Zaré, M., and Afrouz, S. G., (2012), "Crisis management of Tohoku; Japan earthquake and tsunami, 11 March 2011". Iranian journal of public health, 41(6), 12.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yaser SNOUBAR> (Sorumlu Yazar)
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-6193-3408
Türkiye


Oktay TANRISEVER>
ORTA DOĞU TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLGE MERKEZİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 18 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 7, Sayı 14

Kaynak Göster

APA Snoubar, Y. & Tanrısever, O. (2019). A Comparative Study on The Humanitarian Relief Operations: Van-Turkey and Tohoku-Japan earthquakes . Siirt Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , 7 (14) , 392-410 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/susbid/issue/50727/613593

TELİF HAKKI POLİTİKASI

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