Araştırma Makalesi
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KORONAVİRÜS(COVİD-19) SALGINININ SERBEST MESLEK SAHİPLERİNE ETKİLERİ VE DEVLETLERİN SOSYOEKONOMİK DESTEK POLİTİKALARI: İNGİLTERE, AMERİKA BİRLEŞİK DEVLETLERİ VE ALMANYA ÖRNEKLERİ

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 22 Sayı: 1, 41 - 56, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.30976/susead.1093092

Öz

Amaç - Bu makalede serbest meslek sahiplerinin Koronavirüs (Covid-19) salgınından nasıl etkilendikleri ve devletlerin serbest meslek sahiplerine yönelik destek politikaları araştırılmıştır.
Yöntem - Bu makalede literatür taraması ve doküman incelemesi yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Resmi kurumlara ait internet sitelerinden güncel veriler elde edilmiştir.
Bulgular – Araştırma sonucunda, online alışveriş uygulamaları kapsamında çalışan paket teslimatı kuryeleri dışındaki serbest meslek sahibi sınıfı çalışanlarının, Covid-19 salgınından önemli ölçüde olumsuz etkilendikleri gözlemlenmiştir.
Sonuç – Devletlerin, sosyal güvenlik sistemlerinde serbest meslek sahiplerine yönelik sosyal koruma eksikliklerini gidermesi ve tüm faydalara ulaşmaları için gerekli politikaları geliştirmesi gerekmektedir. Kadınların serbest meslek sahibi olabilmelerinin önündeki engeller kaldırılmalı ve teşvik edici politikalar uygulanmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Adams-Prassl, Abi, Teodora Boneva, Marta Golin, Christopher Rauh (2020). “Inequality in the Impact of the Coronavirus Shock: Evidence from Real Time Surveys”. Discussion Paper Series. IZA DP No. 13183. The IZA Institute of Labor Economics. Bonn. Germany. https://ftp.iza.org/dp13183.pdf
  • Bariola, N. & Collins, C. (2021). The Gendered Politics Of Pandemic Relief: Labor And Family Policies İn Denmark, Germany, And The United States During COVID-19. American Behavioral Scientist. https://doi.org/10.1177/00027642211003140
  • Blanchflower, David G. & Freeman, Richard B. (1997). The Attitudinal Legacy of Communist Labor Relations. ILR Review. 50(3). https://doi.org/10.1177%2F001979399705000304
  • Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J. (1998). What Makes an Entrepreneur? Journal of Labor Economics. 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1086/209881
  • Blanchflower, David G. (2000). Self-employment in OECD countries. Labour Economics. 7(5). 471-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-5371(00)00011-7
  • Block, Joern, Kritikos, Alexander, Priem, Maximilian & Caroline Stiel (2020). “Emergency Aid for Self-employed in the COVID-19 pandemic: A Flash in the Pan?” Discussion Papers. Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung. Berlin. https://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.807899.de/dp1924.pdf
  • Blundell, Jack, Stephen Machin & Maria Ventura (2020). “Covid-19 and the self-employed:Six months into the crisis”. Centre for Economic Performance. London School of Economics and Political Science. https://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/abstract.asp?index=7546
  • Brewer, Mike & Gardiner, Laura (2020). “The İnitial İmpact Of COVID-19 And Policy Responses On Household İncomes”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 36(1). 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/graa024
  • Cantillon, Bea, Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin, Van der Veen, Romke (2021). “The COVID-19 crisis and policy responses by continental European welfare states”. Social Policy Administration. 55(2). 326-338. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/spol.12715
  • Development Bank of Germany, [KFW] (2020). Successful Financial Year 2019 - Currently Focusing On Supporting The Economy Due To The Corona Pandemic. https://www.kfw.de/KfW-Konzern/Newsroom/Aktuelles/Pressemitteilungen-Details_577408.html . E.T:26.11.2021
  • Development Bank of Germany, [KFW] (2021). Corona Aid For One Year From Kfw. https://www.kfw.de/stories/wirtschaft/unternehmen/ein-jahr-coronahilfe/?kfwmc=kfw-konzern . E.T:26.11.2021
  • Dunn, Thomas A.& Holtz-Eakin, Douglas (2000). “Financial capital, human capital, and the transition to self-employment: Evidence from intergenerational links”. Journal of Labor Economics. 18(2). 282-305. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/209959
  • DW, (2020b). Almanya’da korona mağdurlarına devlet yardımı. https://www.dw.com/tr/almanyada-korona-ma%C4%9Fdurlar%C4%B1na-devlet-yard%C4%B1m%C4%B1/a-52990112. E.T:28.11.2021
  • Federal Ministry of Finance Germany, (2021). A stimulus package for everyone in Germany. https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Web/EN/Issues/Priority-Issues/stimulus-package-for-everyone/stimulus-package-for-everyone.html . E.T:26.11.2021
  • Graeber, Daniel, Kritikos, Alexander S., Seebauer, Johannes (2021). “Covid-19: A crisis of the female self-employed”. Journal of Population Economics. 34. 1141-1187. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00148-021-00849-y
  • HM Revenue& Customs, [HMRC] (2021a). Changes to the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/changes-to-the-coronavirus-job-retention-scheme/changes-to-the-coronavirus-job-retention-scheme
  • HM Revenue& Customs, [HMRC] (2021b). Self-Employment Income Support Scheme statistics: November 2021. Government efficiency, transparency and accountability. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/self-employment-income-support-scheme-statistics-november-2021/self-employment-income-support-scheme-statistics-november-2021
  • Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie & Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff (2020). “Initial Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Employment and Hours of Self-Employed Coupled and Single Workers by Gender and Parental Status”. IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. IZA DP No. 13443. https://ftp.iza.org/dp13443.pdf
  • Kawaguchi, Daiji,(2003). “Human capital accumulation of salaried and self-employed workers”. Labour Economics. 10(1). 55-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-5371(02)00134-3
  • Le, Anh T. (1999). Empırıcal Studıes Of Self-Employment. Journal Of Economıc Surveys. 13(4). 381-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6419.00088
  • Martinez Dy, Angela & Jayawarna, Dilani (2020). “Bios, mythoi and women entrepreneurs: A Wynterian analysis of the intersectional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-employed women and women-owned businesses”. International Small Business Journal. 38(5). 391-403. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0266242620939935
  • Nicola, M., Alsafi Z., Sohrabi C., Kerwan A., Al-Cabir A., Iosifidis C., Ağa M., Ağa R. (2020). “The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review”. International Journal of Surgery. 78, 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018
  • OECD (2020). Labour Force Statistics. Department of Economics and Statistics. https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/employment/oecd-labour-force-statistics-2020_5842cc7f-en#page29
  • OECD (2021b). Self-employment rate. OECD Data. https://data.oecd.org/emp/self-employment-rate.htm
  • OECD, (2021a). OECD Employment Outlook 2021 : Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis and Recovery. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/7e1e1ad3-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/7e1e1ad3-en
  • OECD, (2021c). OECD Employment Outlook 2021: Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis and Recovery. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/c4c76f50-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/c4c76f50-en
  • Office for Budget Responsibility, [OBR] [2020). Coronavirus analysis. Coronavirus policy monitoring database – 4 June 2020. https://obr.uk/coronavirus-analysis/ Scarpeta, Stefano (2021). Editorial: Seizing the moment to build a more inclusive labour market. OECD. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/de3dc7dd-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/de3dc7dd-en
  • Schoukens, Paul & Weber, Enzo (2020). “Unemployment insurance for the self-employed: a way forward post-corona”. IAB Discussion Paper, 32|2020. https://doku.iab.de/discussionpapers/2020/dp3220.pdf
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. [BLS] (2021). American Time Use Survey -May To December 2019 And 2020 Results. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/atus.pdf
  • US Department of the Treasury, (2021a). The CARES act provides assistance to small businesses. Policy Issues. https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/cares/assistance-for-small-businesses. E.T:28.11.2021
  • US Department of the Treasury, (2021b). The CARES act preserves jobs for american ındustry. Policy Issues. https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/cares/preserving-jobs-for-american-industry. E.T:28.11.2021
  • Visual Capitals (2020). The anatomy of the $2 trillion covıd-19 stimulus bill. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/the-anatomy-of-the-2-trillion-covid-19-stimulus-bill/ World Economic Forum [WEF] (2020). The Future of Jobs Report 2020. https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-future-of-jobs-report-2020.
  • Yue, Wei & Cowling, Marc (2021). “The Covid-19 Lockdown İn The United Kingdom And Subjective Well-Being: Have The Self-Employed Suffered More Due To Hours And İncome Reductions?” International Small Business Journal. 39(2). 93-108. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0266242620986763

THE EFFECTS OF THE CORONAVIRUS(COVID-19) PANDEMIC ON SELF-EMPLOYEE OWNERS AND THE SOCIOECONOMIC SUPPORT POLICIES OF THE STATES: EXAMPLES OF THE UK, THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY

Yıl 2022, Cilt: 22 Sayı: 1, 41 - 56, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.30976/susead.1093092

Öz

Purpose - In this article, it is aimed to examine how the self-employed is affected by the Coronavirus (Covid-19) epidemic and to investigate the support policies of the states for the self-employed.
Methodology – In this article, literature review and document review methods are used. Up-to-date data were obtained from the websites of official institutions.
Findings – As a result of the research, it was observed that the self-employed class employees, except for the package delivery couriers working within the scope of on-line shopping applications, were significantly adversely affected by the Covid-19 outbreak.
Conclusions – States need to address the social protection gaps for the self-employed in their social security systems and develop the necessary policies so that they can enjoy all the benefits. Barriers to women's self-employment should be removed and encouraging policies should be implemented.

Kaynakça

  • Adams-Prassl, Abi, Teodora Boneva, Marta Golin, Christopher Rauh (2020). “Inequality in the Impact of the Coronavirus Shock: Evidence from Real Time Surveys”. Discussion Paper Series. IZA DP No. 13183. The IZA Institute of Labor Economics. Bonn. Germany. https://ftp.iza.org/dp13183.pdf
  • Bariola, N. & Collins, C. (2021). The Gendered Politics Of Pandemic Relief: Labor And Family Policies İn Denmark, Germany, And The United States During COVID-19. American Behavioral Scientist. https://doi.org/10.1177/00027642211003140
  • Blanchflower, David G. & Freeman, Richard B. (1997). The Attitudinal Legacy of Communist Labor Relations. ILR Review. 50(3). https://doi.org/10.1177%2F001979399705000304
  • Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J. (1998). What Makes an Entrepreneur? Journal of Labor Economics. 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1086/209881
  • Blanchflower, David G. (2000). Self-employment in OECD countries. Labour Economics. 7(5). 471-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-5371(00)00011-7
  • Block, Joern, Kritikos, Alexander, Priem, Maximilian & Caroline Stiel (2020). “Emergency Aid for Self-employed in the COVID-19 pandemic: A Flash in the Pan?” Discussion Papers. Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung. Berlin. https://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.807899.de/dp1924.pdf
  • Blundell, Jack, Stephen Machin & Maria Ventura (2020). “Covid-19 and the self-employed:Six months into the crisis”. Centre for Economic Performance. London School of Economics and Political Science. https://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/abstract.asp?index=7546
  • Brewer, Mike & Gardiner, Laura (2020). “The İnitial İmpact Of COVID-19 And Policy Responses On Household İncomes”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 36(1). 187-199. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/graa024
  • Cantillon, Bea, Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin, Van der Veen, Romke (2021). “The COVID-19 crisis and policy responses by continental European welfare states”. Social Policy Administration. 55(2). 326-338. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/spol.12715
  • Development Bank of Germany, [KFW] (2020). Successful Financial Year 2019 - Currently Focusing On Supporting The Economy Due To The Corona Pandemic. https://www.kfw.de/KfW-Konzern/Newsroom/Aktuelles/Pressemitteilungen-Details_577408.html . E.T:26.11.2021
  • Development Bank of Germany, [KFW] (2021). Corona Aid For One Year From Kfw. https://www.kfw.de/stories/wirtschaft/unternehmen/ein-jahr-coronahilfe/?kfwmc=kfw-konzern . E.T:26.11.2021
  • Dunn, Thomas A.& Holtz-Eakin, Douglas (2000). “Financial capital, human capital, and the transition to self-employment: Evidence from intergenerational links”. Journal of Labor Economics. 18(2). 282-305. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/209959
  • DW, (2020b). Almanya’da korona mağdurlarına devlet yardımı. https://www.dw.com/tr/almanyada-korona-ma%C4%9Fdurlar%C4%B1na-devlet-yard%C4%B1m%C4%B1/a-52990112. E.T:28.11.2021
  • Federal Ministry of Finance Germany, (2021). A stimulus package for everyone in Germany. https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Web/EN/Issues/Priority-Issues/stimulus-package-for-everyone/stimulus-package-for-everyone.html . E.T:26.11.2021
  • Graeber, Daniel, Kritikos, Alexander S., Seebauer, Johannes (2021). “Covid-19: A crisis of the female self-employed”. Journal of Population Economics. 34. 1141-1187. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00148-021-00849-y
  • HM Revenue& Customs, [HMRC] (2021a). Changes to the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/changes-to-the-coronavirus-job-retention-scheme/changes-to-the-coronavirus-job-retention-scheme
  • HM Revenue& Customs, [HMRC] (2021b). Self-Employment Income Support Scheme statistics: November 2021. Government efficiency, transparency and accountability. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/self-employment-income-support-scheme-statistics-november-2021/self-employment-income-support-scheme-statistics-november-2021
  • Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie & Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff (2020). “Initial Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Employment and Hours of Self-Employed Coupled and Single Workers by Gender and Parental Status”. IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. IZA DP No. 13443. https://ftp.iza.org/dp13443.pdf
  • Kawaguchi, Daiji,(2003). “Human capital accumulation of salaried and self-employed workers”. Labour Economics. 10(1). 55-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-5371(02)00134-3
  • Le, Anh T. (1999). Empırıcal Studıes Of Self-Employment. Journal Of Economıc Surveys. 13(4). 381-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6419.00088
  • Martinez Dy, Angela & Jayawarna, Dilani (2020). “Bios, mythoi and women entrepreneurs: A Wynterian analysis of the intersectional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-employed women and women-owned businesses”. International Small Business Journal. 38(5). 391-403. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0266242620939935
  • Nicola, M., Alsafi Z., Sohrabi C., Kerwan A., Al-Cabir A., Iosifidis C., Ağa M., Ağa R. (2020). “The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review”. International Journal of Surgery. 78, 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018
  • OECD (2020). Labour Force Statistics. Department of Economics and Statistics. https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/employment/oecd-labour-force-statistics-2020_5842cc7f-en#page29
  • OECD (2021b). Self-employment rate. OECD Data. https://data.oecd.org/emp/self-employment-rate.htm
  • OECD, (2021a). OECD Employment Outlook 2021 : Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis and Recovery. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/7e1e1ad3-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/7e1e1ad3-en
  • OECD, (2021c). OECD Employment Outlook 2021: Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis and Recovery. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/c4c76f50-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/c4c76f50-en
  • Office for Budget Responsibility, [OBR] [2020). Coronavirus analysis. Coronavirus policy monitoring database – 4 June 2020. https://obr.uk/coronavirus-analysis/ Scarpeta, Stefano (2021). Editorial: Seizing the moment to build a more inclusive labour market. OECD. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/de3dc7dd-en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/de3dc7dd-en
  • Schoukens, Paul & Weber, Enzo (2020). “Unemployment insurance for the self-employed: a way forward post-corona”. IAB Discussion Paper, 32|2020. https://doku.iab.de/discussionpapers/2020/dp3220.pdf
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. [BLS] (2021). American Time Use Survey -May To December 2019 And 2020 Results. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/atus.pdf
  • US Department of the Treasury, (2021a). The CARES act provides assistance to small businesses. Policy Issues. https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/cares/assistance-for-small-businesses. E.T:28.11.2021
  • US Department of the Treasury, (2021b). The CARES act preserves jobs for american ındustry. Policy Issues. https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/cares/preserving-jobs-for-american-industry. E.T:28.11.2021
  • Visual Capitals (2020). The anatomy of the $2 trillion covıd-19 stimulus bill. https://www.visualcapitalist.com/the-anatomy-of-the-2-trillion-covid-19-stimulus-bill/ World Economic Forum [WEF] (2020). The Future of Jobs Report 2020. https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-future-of-jobs-report-2020.
  • Yue, Wei & Cowling, Marc (2021). “The Covid-19 Lockdown İn The United Kingdom And Subjective Well-Being: Have The Self-Employed Suffered More Due To Hours And İncome Reductions?” International Small Business Journal. 39(2). 93-108. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0266242620986763

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Turgut ÇILĞIN 0000-0003-1629-9759

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 25 Mart 2022
Kabul Tarihi 25 Nisan 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Cilt: 22 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA ÇILĞIN, T. (2022). KORONAVİRÜS(COVİD-19) SALGINININ SERBEST MESLEK SAHİPLERİNE ETKİLERİ VE DEVLETLERİN SOSYOEKONOMİK DESTEK POLİTİKALARI: İNGİLTERE, AMERİKA BİRLEŞİK DEVLETLERİ VE ALMANYA ÖRNEKLERİ. Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 22(1), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.30976/susead.1093092

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