Araştırma Makalesi
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Osmanlı Devletinde Çocukluk: Kaynaklar, Metot, Tarihsel ve Disiplinlerarası Perspektifler

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 44 - 68, 25.06.2021

Öz

Bu makale Osmanlı döneminde çocukluk algısının oluşması ve değişim süreci ile farklı sınıf, coğrafya, din ve ırka mensup toplumlarda çocukluk algısı üzerine bilgi sunacak kaynakların neler olduğu, kaynakların hangi yöntem ve metotlarla değerlendirilmesi gerektiği hususunda bilgi sunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Geçmişte çocukluk konusu birçok farklı disiplinin araştırma konusu içerisindedir. Soyut ve yetişkinler tarafından inşa edilen sosyal bir kurgu olan çocukluk, farklı disiplinler tarafından farklı şekilde tanımlanmış ve buna göre yaklaşım metotları ortaya konulmuştur. Tarih alanında ise çocukluk, 1960’lı yıllardan itibaren popüler bir araştırma konusu haline gelmiş ve özellikle batıdaki tarih yazımında geçmişte çocukluğu analiz etmek, tanımlamak ve yeniden inşa etmek için birçok eser yayınlanmıştır. Batıdaki çocukluk çalışmalarına kıyasla Osmanlı Devletinde çocukluk konsepti üzerine yeterince çalışma yapılmamıştır. İşte bu noktada makalemiz geçmişte çocukluk konusunda araştırma yapmak isteyen tarihçilere rehberlik yapmak amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Batıda çocukluk konseptinin ortaya çıkışı ve gelişim süreci bölgenin tarihi süreç içerisinde geçirdiği ekonomik ve kültürel dönüşüm içerisinde değerlendirilmesi gerektiğini öne süren makalemiz, Osmanlı Devletinde çocukluk konseptinin ortaya çıkışı ve gelişimi Batı’dan Osmanlı’ya geçtiği kabul edilerek, ancak Osmanlı’nın geçirdiği kültürel, politik ve ekonomik dönüşüm içerisinde değerlendirilmesini önermektedir. Makalenin son kısmında geçmişte çocukluk konusunda disiplinlerarası çalışmanın önemine değinilmiş ve bu tür çalışmanın geliştirilmesi hususunda önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Alkan, M. Ö. (2000). Modernization from empire to republic and education in the process of nationalism. Kemal Karpat (Ed.), Ottoman Past and Today's Turkey. Leiden: Brill, 47-132.
  • Araz, Y. (2020). Osmanlı İstanbul’unda çocuk emeği: Ev içi hizmetlerde istihdam edilen çocuklar (1750-1920), İstanbul: Kitap.
  • Aries, P. (1962). Centuries of childhood a social history of family life. R. Baldick Çev., New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Baxter, J. E., Vey,S., McGuire, E. H., Conway, S. ve Blom, D. E. (2017). Reflections on interdisciplinarity in the study of childhood in the past. Childhood in the Past, (10:1), 57-71.
  • Brown, I. Q. (1967). Philippe Aries on education and society in seventeenth and eighteen century France. History of Education Quarterly, (7), 357-368.
  • Çapar, A. (2021). Creating the image of ‘the greatest sultan’: indoctrination of children through children’s periodicals under the Hamidian regime (1876-1908), Middle Eastern Studies, (57:2), 249-264.
  • Çelebioğlu, A. (1984). Türk Edebiyatında Yaşnameler. Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, (1), 151-286.
  • Crawford S. ve Lewis C. (2009). Childhood studies and the society for the study of childhood in the past. Childhood in the Past, (1), 5-16.
  • Gittins, D. (2009). The historical construction of childhood, M. J. Kehily (Ed) An introduction to childhood studies. New York: Open University, 35-49.
  • Hendrick, H. (2005). Constructions and reconstructions of British childhood: An interpretative survey, 1800 to the present. A. James ve A. Prout (Ed.) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood, London: Falmer, 33-60
  • Heywood, C. (2010). Centuries of childhood: An anniversary- and an epitaph?. The Journal of History of Childhood and Youth, (3), 341-365.
  • Heywood, C. (2009). History of childhood: Children and childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Honeck M. ve Marten, J. (2019). More than victims: Framing the history of modern childhood and war. M. Honeck J. Marten (Ed.) War and childhood in the era of Two World Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1-14.
  • Hunt, H. (2009). Children’s literature and childhood. M. J. Kehily (Ed.) An introduction to childhood studies. New York: Open University, 50-69.
  • Maksudyan, N. (2014). Orphans and destitute children in the late Ottoman Empire. Syracuse: Syracuse University.
  • Maksudyan, N. (2019). Ottoman children and youth during World War I. Syracuse: Syracuse University.
  • Mary Jane Kehily, M. J. (2009). Understanding childhood: An introduction to some key themes and issues M. J. Kehily (Ed.) An introduction to childhood studies. New York: Open University, 1-16.
  • King, M. L. (2007). Concept of childhood: What we know and where we might go. Renaissance Quarterly, (60), 371-407.
  • Mayhew, H. (1864). London labour and the London poor. Vol I, London: Charles Griffin and Company.
  • Morrison, H. (2015). Childhood and colonial modernity in Egypt. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Onur, B. (2005). Türkiye’de çocukluğun tarihi. Ankara: İmge.
  • Onur, B. (2007). Çocuk tarih ve toplum. Ankara: İmge.
  • Orme, N. (2001). Medieval children. New Haven: Yale University.
  • Pollock, L. A. (1983). Forgotten children: Parent–child relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
  • Prout, A. ve James, A. (2005). A new paradigm for the sociology of childhood? Provenance, promise and problems. A. James ve A. Prout (Ed.) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood, London: Falmer, 7-32.
  • Quataert, D. (2006). Miners and the state in the Ottoman Empire: the Zonguldak coalfield, 1822–1920, New York: Berghahn Books
  • Rayner, J. (2014).‘Where “Daddy” and danger were’: The portrayal of children in War Illustrated, 1914–16. Childhood in the Past, (7:1), 14-34.
  • Romero, M. S. (2017). Landscapes of childhood: bodies, places and material culture. Childhood in the Past, (10:1), 16-37.
  • Stearns, P. N. (2006). Childhood in world history. New York: Rouledge.
  • Stearns, P. N. (2008). Challenges in the history of childhood. The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. (1:1), 35-42.
  • Tan, M. (1990), Çağlar boyunca çocukluk. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi (22:1), 71–88.
  • Wilson, A. (1980). The infancy of the history of childhood: An appraisal of Philippe Aries. History and Theory, (19), 343-367.
  • Yazbak, M. (2002). Minor marriages and khiyār al-bulūgh in Ottoman Palestine: A note on women's strategies in a patriarchal society. Islamic Law and Society, (9:3), 386-409.
  • Zwemer, S. M. (1915). Childhood in the Moslem world. London and Edinburg: Fleeming H. Revell Company.

Childhood in the Ottoman Empire: Sources, Method, Historical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 1, 44 - 68, 25.06.2021

Öz

This article delves into the construction of the concept of childhood and its evolution in the Ottoman Empire, and a wide range of primary sources provide a glimpse on concept of childhood on different social classes and communities belonging to various geographies, ethnicities and religions. The article also suggests methods and approaches to examine these materials, contributing to the understanding of the concept of childhood in the Ottoman period. Many scholars from diverse disciplines engaged in the subject of childhood in the past. As being a social construction developed by adults, various disciplines defined childhood differently and applied particular methods to study it. Following the groundbreaking work of Aries in the 1960s, the concept of childhood in the past become a prevalent research theme among scholars, which led to publication of several scholarly works defining, analyzing and reconstructing childhood in the past. Compared to childhood studies in the West, the number of scholarly works on the concept of childhood in the Ottoman Empire was scarce. Herein, this article proposes to guide researchers intending to conduct research on that topic. Western influenced normative ideas or concept of childhood should be challenged as they were not applicable in non-Western societies. Thus, this paper proposes that researchers should localize and periodize their researches on exploring childhood in the Ottoman Empire because of the multiplicity of childhood within the empire. In addition, researchers should explore the emergence and development of the concept of childhood in the Ottoman Empire within its own cultural, economic and political transformation. In the last part, the article emphasizes the usefulness of interdisciplinary approach and offers proposals to promote interdisciplinary research on the topic.

Kaynakça

  • Alkan, M. Ö. (2000). Modernization from empire to republic and education in the process of nationalism. Kemal Karpat (Ed.), Ottoman Past and Today's Turkey. Leiden: Brill, 47-132.
  • Araz, Y. (2020). Osmanlı İstanbul’unda çocuk emeği: Ev içi hizmetlerde istihdam edilen çocuklar (1750-1920), İstanbul: Kitap.
  • Aries, P. (1962). Centuries of childhood a social history of family life. R. Baldick Çev., New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Baxter, J. E., Vey,S., McGuire, E. H., Conway, S. ve Blom, D. E. (2017). Reflections on interdisciplinarity in the study of childhood in the past. Childhood in the Past, (10:1), 57-71.
  • Brown, I. Q. (1967). Philippe Aries on education and society in seventeenth and eighteen century France. History of Education Quarterly, (7), 357-368.
  • Çapar, A. (2021). Creating the image of ‘the greatest sultan’: indoctrination of children through children’s periodicals under the Hamidian regime (1876-1908), Middle Eastern Studies, (57:2), 249-264.
  • Çelebioğlu, A. (1984). Türk Edebiyatında Yaşnameler. Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, (1), 151-286.
  • Crawford S. ve Lewis C. (2009). Childhood studies and the society for the study of childhood in the past. Childhood in the Past, (1), 5-16.
  • Gittins, D. (2009). The historical construction of childhood, M. J. Kehily (Ed) An introduction to childhood studies. New York: Open University, 35-49.
  • Hendrick, H. (2005). Constructions and reconstructions of British childhood: An interpretative survey, 1800 to the present. A. James ve A. Prout (Ed.) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood, London: Falmer, 33-60
  • Heywood, C. (2010). Centuries of childhood: An anniversary- and an epitaph?. The Journal of History of Childhood and Youth, (3), 341-365.
  • Heywood, C. (2009). History of childhood: Children and childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Honeck M. ve Marten, J. (2019). More than victims: Framing the history of modern childhood and war. M. Honeck J. Marten (Ed.) War and childhood in the era of Two World Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1-14.
  • Hunt, H. (2009). Children’s literature and childhood. M. J. Kehily (Ed.) An introduction to childhood studies. New York: Open University, 50-69.
  • Maksudyan, N. (2014). Orphans and destitute children in the late Ottoman Empire. Syracuse: Syracuse University.
  • Maksudyan, N. (2019). Ottoman children and youth during World War I. Syracuse: Syracuse University.
  • Mary Jane Kehily, M. J. (2009). Understanding childhood: An introduction to some key themes and issues M. J. Kehily (Ed.) An introduction to childhood studies. New York: Open University, 1-16.
  • King, M. L. (2007). Concept of childhood: What we know and where we might go. Renaissance Quarterly, (60), 371-407.
  • Mayhew, H. (1864). London labour and the London poor. Vol I, London: Charles Griffin and Company.
  • Morrison, H. (2015). Childhood and colonial modernity in Egypt. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Onur, B. (2005). Türkiye’de çocukluğun tarihi. Ankara: İmge.
  • Onur, B. (2007). Çocuk tarih ve toplum. Ankara: İmge.
  • Orme, N. (2001). Medieval children. New Haven: Yale University.
  • Pollock, L. A. (1983). Forgotten children: Parent–child relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
  • Prout, A. ve James, A. (2005). A new paradigm for the sociology of childhood? Provenance, promise and problems. A. James ve A. Prout (Ed.) Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood, London: Falmer, 7-32.
  • Quataert, D. (2006). Miners and the state in the Ottoman Empire: the Zonguldak coalfield, 1822–1920, New York: Berghahn Books
  • Rayner, J. (2014).‘Where “Daddy” and danger were’: The portrayal of children in War Illustrated, 1914–16. Childhood in the Past, (7:1), 14-34.
  • Romero, M. S. (2017). Landscapes of childhood: bodies, places and material culture. Childhood in the Past, (10:1), 16-37.
  • Stearns, P. N. (2006). Childhood in world history. New York: Rouledge.
  • Stearns, P. N. (2008). Challenges in the history of childhood. The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. (1:1), 35-42.
  • Tan, M. (1990), Çağlar boyunca çocukluk. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi (22:1), 71–88.
  • Wilson, A. (1980). The infancy of the history of childhood: An appraisal of Philippe Aries. History and Theory, (19), 343-367.
  • Yazbak, M. (2002). Minor marriages and khiyār al-bulūgh in Ottoman Palestine: A note on women's strategies in a patriarchal society. Islamic Law and Society, (9:3), 386-409.
  • Zwemer, S. M. (1915). Childhood in the Moslem world. London and Edinburg: Fleeming H. Revell Company.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma/İnceleme
Yazarlar

Ali ÇAPAR (Sorumlu Yazar)
ÇANKIRI KARATEKİN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8221-8649
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Çapar, A. (2021). Osmanlı Devletinde Çocukluk: Kaynaklar, Metot, Tarihsel ve Disiplinlerarası Perspektifler . Tarihyazımı , 3 (1) , 44-68 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tarihyazimi/issue/63039/929272

Etik Kurul Onayı:

25 Şubat 2020 tarihli ULAKBİM kararı gereği İnsanlar üzerindeki çalışmalar için (yaş sınırlaması olmaksızın) Etik Kurul Onayı alınmış olmalı, bu onay makalenin Yöntem bölümünde belirtilmeli ve imzalı Etik Kurul Onayı makale ile birlikte sisteme yüklenmelidir. 2020 itibariyle bu şartları yerine getirmeyen çalışmalar değerlendirilmeye alınmayacaktır. 

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