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RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES

Yıl 2019, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 97 - 121, 31.01.2019
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.528002

Öz

Nowadays, Russia is one of those countries which crucially suffer

from the racist sentiments and movements. In this country, radical

right has an extensive social base and both ruling party and some

other political entities can put forward examples of extreme

nationalism. Caucasian-origin people have been the most negatively

influenced group from these approaches since the beginning. The

Caucasian immigrants from Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan

as well as the Northern Caucasians already holding Russian

citizenship have been target of numerous violent attacks especially

in the 2000s. At the same time, rising racism in Russia strengthens

expectations from the government to follow more active imperialist

policies as racist groups more intensely defend and voice the rights

of the Russians living in the former Soviet republics. Furthermore,

these groups provide an additional fighting power in the clashes

between Russia and post-Soviet countries and in this sense, they

compose a significant dimension of the interstate relations in this

geography.

Kaynakça

  • Asker, A. (2016). ‘Rusya’da Yabancılar ve Yabancılaşan Vatandaşlar Zenofobi Kıskacında’, TYB Akademi 6 (17), 173-186.
  • Cichock, M. A. (2013). Russian and Eurasian Politics: A Comparative Approach. New York: Longman.
  • ECRI, (2006). European Commission against Racism and Intolerance: Third Report on the Russian Federation. https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-commission-against-racism-and-intolerance/russian-federation.
  • Foxall, A. (2011). ‘Recent Developments in Inter-Ethnic Relations in Stavropol’skii Krai’, Russian Analytical Digest 93, 12-14.
  • BBC News. (2006). Georgia Slams Russian ‘Cleansing. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5415388.stm.
  • Hagendoorn, L., Linssen, H. and Tumanov, S. (2001). Intergroup Relations in States of the Former Soviet Union: The Perception of Russians. East Sussex: Psychology Press.
  • Horvath, R. (2013). Putin’s ‘Preventive Counter-Revolution’. New York: Routledge.
  • Killeen, T. (2012). Rising Radical Nationalism and Xenophobia among Russian Youth: The Problems, The Causes, and Potential Solutions, The Clough Journal of Constitutional Democracy, 3, 38-49.
  • Kisriev, E. F. (2011). Islamic Movements in the Northern Caucasus and Their Relations with the Authorities, in Hans-Georg Heinrich, Ludmilla Lobova and Alexey Malashenko (ed.) Will Russia Become a Muslim Society? (pp. 39-83). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
  • Asbarez. (2006). Kocharian Condemns Racially Motivated Killings of Armenia’s in Russia. online at http://asbarez.com/53803/kocharian-condemns-racially-motivated-killings-of-armenias-in-russia/.
  • Laruelle, M. (2008). ‘Alternative Identity, Alternative Religion? Neo-Paganism and the Aryan Myth in Contemporary Russia’, Nations and Nationalism 14(2), 283-301.
  • Laruelle, M. (2009). ‘Rethinking Russian Nationalism: Historical Continuity, Political Diversity, and Doctrinal Fragmentation’, in Marléne Laruelle (ed.), Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia (pp. 13-48). New York: Routledge.
  • The Moscow Times (2013). Leader of Migrant Federation Shot in Moscow. https://themoscowtimes.com/articles/leader-of-migrants-federation-shot-in-moscow-29489
  • Leonova, A. (2009). ‘Electoral Choice, Cultural Capital, and Xenophobic Attitudes in Russia, 1994-2006’, in Marléne Laruelle (ed.) Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia (pp. 145-166). New York: Routledge.
  • March, L. (2011). Is Nationalism Rising in Russian Foreign Policy?: The Case of Georgia. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 19(3), 187-207.
  • Mathyl, M. (2002). The National-Bolshevik Party and the Arctogaia: Two Neo-Fascist Groupuscules in the Post-Soviet Political Space. Journal Patterns of Prejudice, 36(3), 62-76.
  • RT Question More. (2013), Moscow Mayor Says No to More Mosques in the City. https://www.rt.com/politics/moscow-mayor-says-no-to-more-mosques-in-the-city-669/
  • Länder-Analysen (2011). Opinion Poll: Nationalism in Contemporary Russia. Russian Analytical Digest, 93, 10-11.
  • Länder-Analysen (2011). Opinion Poll: Russian Attitudes on Terrorism. Russian Analytical Diges. 93, 5-6.
  • Roman, M. L. (2002). Making Caucasians Black: Moscow since the Fall of the Communism and the Racialization of Non-Russians. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 18(2), 1-27.
  • Romov, Roman (2001). ‘Russian National Unity and the ‘Nation of Slaves’: New Versions of an Old Myth’. Russian Politics & Law, 39(3), 66-77.
  • Şamilkızı, K. (2013). Rusya’da Artan Irkçılığın Arka Planı. http://www.dunyabulteni.net/haber/279562/rusyada-artan-irkciligin-arka-plani.
  • Shiraev, E. (2010). Russian Government and Politics: Comparative Government and Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Snetkov, A. (2011). From an Existential Threat to a Security Risk and a Conceptual Impasse: Terrorism in Russia. Russian Analytical Digest, 93, 2-4.
  • Sokolovskiy, S. (2013). ‘Russian Government Policies and Minority Identities’, in Oleh Protsyk and Benedikt Harzl (ed.) Managing Ethnic Diversity in Russia (pp. 173-188). New York: Routledge.
  • The Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993). http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-01.htm.
  • The Russian Federation 2008 Hate Crime Survey (2008). https://www.humanrightsfirst.org/sites/default/files/FD-081103-hate-crime-survey-2008.pdf.
  • Umland, A. (2010). Russia: Nationalism’s Revenge. http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2010/12/17/russia-nationalisms-revenge/.
  • Varga, M. (2008). ‘How Political Opportunities Strengthen the Far-Right Militancy in Russia’, Europe-Asia Studies, 60(4), 561-579.
  • Verkhovsky, A. (2009). ‘Future Prospects of Contemporary Russian Nationalism’, in Marléne Laruelle (ed.) Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia (pp. 173-188). New York: Routledge.
  • Yudina, T. N. (2005). ‘Labour Migration into Russia: The Response of State and Society’. Current Sociology 53(4), 583-606.
  • Zakharov, Nikolay (2015). Race and Racism in Russia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Zuev, D. (2010). The Movement Against Illegal Immigration: Analysis of the Central Node in the Russian Extreme-Right Movement’. Nations and Nationalism, 16(2), 261-284.

Rusya’da Irkçılık ve Bunun Kafkasya Bölgesine ve Halklarına Etkisi

Yıl 2019, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 97 - 121, 31.01.2019
https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.528002

Öz

Rusya son yıllarda ırkçı düşünceler ve hareketler sebebiyle en fazla sıkıntı yaşayan ülkelerden biri konumundadır. Bu ülkede radikal sağ geniş bir toplumsal tabana sahiptir ve hem iktidar partisi hem de diğer bazı siyasi oluşumlar aşırı milliyetçilik örnekleri ortaya koyabilmektedir. Kafkas kökenliler, başlangıçtan beri, bu yaklaşımlardan en olumsuz biçimde etkilenen grup olmuştur. Gürcistan, Ermenistan ve Azerbaycan’dan bu ülkeye gelen göçmenlerle Rus vatandaşlığına sahip Kuzey Kafkasyalılar 2000’li yıllarda çok sayıda şiddet eyleminin hedefi haline gelmiştir. Aynı zamanda, Rusya’da yükselen ırkçılık, aşırı sağ grupların eski Sovyet cumhuriyetlerinde yaşayan Rusların haklarını daha güçlü olarak savunmaları ve seslendirmelerinden dolayı, hükümetin daha aktif emperyalist politikalar izlemesi yönündeki beklentileri güçlendirmektedir. Üstelik, bu gruplar Rusya ve post-Sovyet ülkeleri arasındaki çatışmalarda destekleyici savaş grupları olarak da işlev görmekte ve böylece bu coğrafyada devletlerarası ilişkilerin kayda değer bir boyutu olarak öne çıkmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Asker, A. (2016). ‘Rusya’da Yabancılar ve Yabancılaşan Vatandaşlar Zenofobi Kıskacında’, TYB Akademi 6 (17), 173-186.
  • Cichock, M. A. (2013). Russian and Eurasian Politics: A Comparative Approach. New York: Longman.
  • ECRI, (2006). European Commission against Racism and Intolerance: Third Report on the Russian Federation. https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-commission-against-racism-and-intolerance/russian-federation.
  • Foxall, A. (2011). ‘Recent Developments in Inter-Ethnic Relations in Stavropol’skii Krai’, Russian Analytical Digest 93, 12-14.
  • BBC News. (2006). Georgia Slams Russian ‘Cleansing. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5415388.stm.
  • Hagendoorn, L., Linssen, H. and Tumanov, S. (2001). Intergroup Relations in States of the Former Soviet Union: The Perception of Russians. East Sussex: Psychology Press.
  • Horvath, R. (2013). Putin’s ‘Preventive Counter-Revolution’. New York: Routledge.
  • Killeen, T. (2012). Rising Radical Nationalism and Xenophobia among Russian Youth: The Problems, The Causes, and Potential Solutions, The Clough Journal of Constitutional Democracy, 3, 38-49.
  • Kisriev, E. F. (2011). Islamic Movements in the Northern Caucasus and Their Relations with the Authorities, in Hans-Georg Heinrich, Ludmilla Lobova and Alexey Malashenko (ed.) Will Russia Become a Muslim Society? (pp. 39-83). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
  • Asbarez. (2006). Kocharian Condemns Racially Motivated Killings of Armenia’s in Russia. online at http://asbarez.com/53803/kocharian-condemns-racially-motivated-killings-of-armenias-in-russia/.
  • Laruelle, M. (2008). ‘Alternative Identity, Alternative Religion? Neo-Paganism and the Aryan Myth in Contemporary Russia’, Nations and Nationalism 14(2), 283-301.
  • Laruelle, M. (2009). ‘Rethinking Russian Nationalism: Historical Continuity, Political Diversity, and Doctrinal Fragmentation’, in Marléne Laruelle (ed.), Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia (pp. 13-48). New York: Routledge.
  • The Moscow Times (2013). Leader of Migrant Federation Shot in Moscow. https://themoscowtimes.com/articles/leader-of-migrants-federation-shot-in-moscow-29489
  • Leonova, A. (2009). ‘Electoral Choice, Cultural Capital, and Xenophobic Attitudes in Russia, 1994-2006’, in Marléne Laruelle (ed.) Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia (pp. 145-166). New York: Routledge.
  • March, L. (2011). Is Nationalism Rising in Russian Foreign Policy?: The Case of Georgia. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 19(3), 187-207.
  • Mathyl, M. (2002). The National-Bolshevik Party and the Arctogaia: Two Neo-Fascist Groupuscules in the Post-Soviet Political Space. Journal Patterns of Prejudice, 36(3), 62-76.
  • RT Question More. (2013), Moscow Mayor Says No to More Mosques in the City. https://www.rt.com/politics/moscow-mayor-says-no-to-more-mosques-in-the-city-669/
  • Länder-Analysen (2011). Opinion Poll: Nationalism in Contemporary Russia. Russian Analytical Digest, 93, 10-11.
  • Länder-Analysen (2011). Opinion Poll: Russian Attitudes on Terrorism. Russian Analytical Diges. 93, 5-6.
  • Roman, M. L. (2002). Making Caucasians Black: Moscow since the Fall of the Communism and the Racialization of Non-Russians. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, 18(2), 1-27.
  • Romov, Roman (2001). ‘Russian National Unity and the ‘Nation of Slaves’: New Versions of an Old Myth’. Russian Politics & Law, 39(3), 66-77.
  • Şamilkızı, K. (2013). Rusya’da Artan Irkçılığın Arka Planı. http://www.dunyabulteni.net/haber/279562/rusyada-artan-irkciligin-arka-plani.
  • Shiraev, E. (2010). Russian Government and Politics: Comparative Government and Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Snetkov, A. (2011). From an Existential Threat to a Security Risk and a Conceptual Impasse: Terrorism in Russia. Russian Analytical Digest, 93, 2-4.
  • Sokolovskiy, S. (2013). ‘Russian Government Policies and Minority Identities’, in Oleh Protsyk and Benedikt Harzl (ed.) Managing Ethnic Diversity in Russia (pp. 173-188). New York: Routledge.
  • The Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993). http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-01.htm.
  • The Russian Federation 2008 Hate Crime Survey (2008). https://www.humanrightsfirst.org/sites/default/files/FD-081103-hate-crime-survey-2008.pdf.
  • Umland, A. (2010). Russia: Nationalism’s Revenge. http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2010/12/17/russia-nationalisms-revenge/.
  • Varga, M. (2008). ‘How Political Opportunities Strengthen the Far-Right Militancy in Russia’, Europe-Asia Studies, 60(4), 561-579.
  • Verkhovsky, A. (2009). ‘Future Prospects of Contemporary Russian Nationalism’, in Marléne Laruelle (ed.) Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia (pp. 173-188). New York: Routledge.
  • Yudina, T. N. (2005). ‘Labour Migration into Russia: The Response of State and Society’. Current Sociology 53(4), 583-606.
  • Zakharov, Nikolay (2015). Race and Racism in Russia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Zuev, D. (2010). The Movement Against Illegal Immigration: Analysis of the Central Node in the Russian Extreme-Right Movement’. Nations and Nationalism, 16(2), 261-284.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Can KAKIŞIM (Sorumlu Yazar)
KARABÜK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ocak 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tesamakademi528002, journal = {TESAM Akademi Dergisi}, issn = {2148-2462}, eissn = {2458-9217}, address = {}, publisher = {TESAM Ekonomik Siyasal ve Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi Derneği}, year = {2019}, volume = {6}, pages = {97 - 121}, doi = {10.30626/tesamakademi.528002}, title = {RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES}, key = {cite}, author = {Kakışım, Can} }
APA Kakışım, C. (2019). RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES . TESAM Akademi Dergisi , 6 (1) , 97-121 . DOI: 10.30626/tesamakademi.528002
MLA Kakışım, C. "RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES" . TESAM Akademi Dergisi 6 (2019 ): 97-121 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tesamakademi/issue/43473/528002>
Chicago Kakışım, C. "RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 6 (2019 ): 97-121
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES AU - Can Kakışım Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.528002 DO - 10.30626/tesamakademi.528002 T2 - TESAM Akademi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 97 EP - 121 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - 2148-2462-2458-9217 M3 - doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.528002 UR - https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.528002 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 TESAM Akademi Dergisi RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES %A Can Kakışım %T RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES %D 2019 %J TESAM Akademi Dergisi %P 2148-2462-2458-9217 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.30626/tesamakademi.528002 %U 10.30626/tesamakademi.528002
ISNAD Kakışım, Can . "RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES". TESAM Akademi Dergisi 6 / 1 (Ocak 2019): 97-121 . https://doi.org/10.30626/tesamakademi.528002
AMA Kakışım C. RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2019; 6(1): 97-121.
Vancouver Kakışım C. RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2019; 6(1): 97-121.
IEEE C. Kakışım , "RACISM IN RUSSIA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE CAUCASIAN REGION AND PEOPLES", TESAM Akademi Dergisi, c. 6, sayı. 1, ss. 97-121, Oca. 2019, doi:10.30626/tesamakademi.528002