Düzeltme
BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Düzeltme: The Effect of Civic Participation and Transnational Aging on Social Trust: The Case of Europe

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 11 Sayı: 1, 423 - 458, 31.01.2024
Bu makalenin ilk hali 19 Ağustos 2022 tarihinde yayımlandı. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tesamakademi/issue/72221/1164111

Düzeltme Notu

Öz

Migrants hold a progressively larger share of older adults in many European countries, but transnational ageing experience has hardly been examined by scholars outside of health and economic dimensions. The present research addresses the question of how civic participation and sociodemographic factors including migration status effect social trust of older adults drawing on Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe data wave five. There are 30067 respondents age 50 and over in the sample from nine European countries. Our results support the theoretical perspective that the more civic participation types older adults were involved, the more social trust they had. The results of hierarchical regression also showed that being a first and second generation migrant effected social trust negatively, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors and health. This is surprising giving the fact that there were differences between migration generations in civic participation according to Poisson regression analysis: In reference to natives, while being a first generation migrant affected civic participation negatively, there were no significant effect of being a second generation migrant.

Kaynakça

  • Abbott, S. and Freeth, D. (2008). Starting to make sense of the role of generalized trust and reciprocity. Journal of Heath Psychology, 13(7), 874-883.
  • Adena, M. and Myck, M. (2014). Poverty and transitions in health in later life. Social Science & Medicine, 116, 202-210.
  • Anheier, H. and Kendall, J. (2002). Interpersonal trust and voluntary associations: examining three approaches. Br J Sociol, 53(3), 343-62.
  • Arsenijevic, J. and Groot, W. (2018). Lifestyle differences between older migrants and non-migrants in 14 European countries using propensity score matching method. Int J Public Health, 63, 337-347.
  • Aytaç, S.E.; Çarkoğlu, A. ve Ertan, G. (2017). Türkiye’de kişilerarası sosyal güven ve bireysel belirleyicileri. METU Studies in Development, 44(1), 1-25.
  • Bauman, Z. (2014). Modernlik ve müphemlik. (Ç. İ. Türkmen). İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
  • Bekkers, R. (2012). Trust and volunteering: selection or causation? evidence from a 4 year panel study. Polit Behav, 34, 225-247.
  • Bergmann, M., Bethmann, A. and De Luca, G. (2019). Sampling design in SHARE wave 7. M. Bergmann, A. Scherpenzeel, ve A. Börsch-Supan içinde, SHARE wave 7 methodology: panel ınnovations and life histories (pp. 81-88). Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  • Berchet, C. and Sirven, N. (2014). Older migrants’ social capital in host countries: a pan-european comparison. Eastern Economic Journal, 40, 166–180.
  • Bordone, V. and De Valk, H. A. G. (2016). Intergenerational support among migrant families in Europe. Eur J Ageing, 13, 259-270.
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 1. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w1.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 2. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w2.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 4. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w4.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 5. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w5.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A., M. Brandt, C. Hunkler, T. Kneip, J. Korbmacher, F. Malter, B. Schaan, S. Stuck and S. Zuber. (2013). Data resource profile: the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (SHARE). International Journal of Epidemiology. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyt088
  • Bui, N. B., Coyle, C. E. and Freeman, A. (2020). Promoting self-advocacy among older adults: lessons from boston’s senior civic academy. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 1–7.
  • Castles, S. and Kosack, G. (1973). Immigrant workers ans class structure in western Europe. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Ciobanu, R. O., Fokkema, T. and Nedelcu, M. (2017). Ageing as a migrant: vulnerabilities, agency, and policy implications. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 43(2), s. 164-181.
  • Claibourn, M. P. and Martin, P. S. (2000). Trusting and joining? an empirical test of the reciprocal nature of social capital. Political Behavior, 22, 267–291.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2016). Araştırma deseni: nitel, nicel ve karma yöntem yaklaşımları. (İkinci Baskı). Ankara: Eğiten Kitap.
  • Das, M., Vis, C. and Weerman, B. (2005). Developing the survey ınstruments for SHARE. A. Börsch-Supan, ve H. Jürges içinde, The Surveyof Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe: methodology (pp. 12-23). Mannheim: Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging (MEA).
  • Delhey, J. and Newton, K. (2003). Who trusts? The origins of social trust in seven societies. European Societies, 5, 93–137.
  • Erlinghagen, M. and Hank, K. (2006). The participation of older Europeans in volunteer work. Ageing and Society, 26(4), 567-584. 
  • Hank, K. and M. Erlinghagen. (2010). Volunteering in ‘old’ Europe – patterns, potentials, limitations. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(1), 3-20.
  • Haslam, C., Cruwys, T. and Haslam, S. A. (2014). “The we’s have it”: Evidence for the distinctive benefits of group engagement in enhancing cognitive health in aging. Social Science & Medicine, 120, 57-66.
  • Hooghe, M.; Reeskens, T.; Stolle, D. and Trappers, A. (2009). Ethnic diversity and generalized trust in Europe: A cross-national multilevel study. Comparative Political Studies, 42(2), 198-223.
  • Horn, S. and Schweppe, C. (2017). Transnational aging: toward a transnational perspective in old age research. Eur J Aging, 14, 335-339.
  • Hunkler, C.; Kneip, T.; Sand, G. and Schuth, M. (2015a). Identifying second-generation migrants and naturalized respondents in SHARE. In Malter, F. & A. Börsch-Supan (Eds.). SHARE wave 5: innovations & methodology (pp. 43-48). Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  • Hunkler, C.; Kneip, T.; Sand, G. and Schuth, M. (2015b). Growing old abroad: social and material deprivation among first- and second- generation migrants in Europe.In Börsch-Supan, A.; Kneip, T.; Litwin, H. et al. (Eds.), Ageing in Europe- Supporting Policies for an Inclusive Society (pp. 199-208). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.
  • Jürges, H. (2005). Interview, module, and question lenght in SHARE. A. Börsch, ve H. Jürges içinde, The Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe: Methodology (pp. 82-87). Mannheim: Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging.
  • Kruse, A. and Schmitt, E. (2015) Shared responsibility and civic engagement in very old age, Research in Human Development, 12(1-2), 133-148.
  • Lanari, D. and Bussini, O. (2012). International migration and health inequalities in later life. Ageing & Society, 32, 935-962.
  • Lancee, B. and Dronkers, J. (2011). Ethnic, religious and economic diversity in Dutch neighbourhoods: explaining quality of contact with neighbours, trust in the neighbourhood and inter-ethnic trust. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(4), 597-618.
  • Lenz, G. and Sahn, A. (2021). Achieving statistical significance with control variables and without transparency. Political Analysis, 29(3), 356-369.
  • Levels, M., Scheepers, P., Huijts, T. and Kraaykamp, G. (2015). Formal and ınformal social capital in Germany: The role of ınstitutions and ethnic diversity. European Sociological Review, 31(6), 766-779.
  • Li, T. and Fung, H. H., (2013). Age differences in trust: an investigation across 38 countries. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(3), 347–355.
  • Lolle, H. and Torpe, L. (2011). Growing ethnic diversity and social trust in European societies. Comparative European Politics, 9(2), 191-216.
  • Mehrbrodt, T., Gruber, S. and Wagner, M. (2019). SHARE scales and multi-ıtem ındicators. MEA.
  • Malter, F. and Börsch-Supan, A. (Eds.) (2015). SHARE Wave 5: Innovations & methodology. Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  • Murtin, F., Fleischer, L. and Siegerink, V. (2018). Trust and its determinents: Evidence from the trustlab experiment. Paris: OECD Statistics Working Papers.
  • Nummela, O. (2015). Social capital and self-rated health among ageing people in urban and rural locations in Finland and in Europe. in Social capital as a health resource in later life: the relevant of context. (Eds. Nyqvist, F., Forsman, A. K. Dordrecht), (pp. 191-205). London: Springer.
  • OECD. (2017). OECD guidelines on measuring trust. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Pallant, J. (2015). SPSS kullanma klavuzu: SPSS ile adım adım veri analizi. (S. Balcı ve B. Ahi) Ankara: Anı.
  • Patzelt, A. (2017). ‘A totally new world has been opening up for me’- experiences of older German migrants who are actively involved in the German-speaking community in Ottowa, Canada. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(2), 218-234.
  • Paxton, P. (2007). Association memberships and generalized trust: a multilevel model across 31 countries. Social Forces, 86(1), 47-76.
  • Polacsek, M. and Angus, J. (2016). Making themselves at home: support needs of older Germans in Australia. Australian Journal on Ageing, 35(3),  E1-E5.
  • Putnam, R. D., Leonardi, R. and Nanetti, R. (1993). Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tunning in and tunning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. Political Science and Politics, 28(4), 664-683.
  • Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. New York: Simon & Schuste.
  • Reus-Pons, M., Mulder, C. H., Kibele, E. U. B. and Janssen, F. (2018). Differences in the health transition patterns of migrants and non-migrants aged 50 and older in southern and western Europe (2004–2015). BMC Medicine, 16(57). 1-15.
  • Sand, G. (2018). Migration and well-being of older people in Europe. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Mannheim Üniversitesi.
  • Sand, G. and Gruber, S. (2018). Differences in subjective well-being between older migrants and natives in Europe. J. Immigrant Minority Health, 20, 83-90.
  • Scharf, T., Phillipson, C., Kingston, P. and Smith, A. E. (2001). Social exclusion and older people: Exploring the connections. Education and Ageing, 16, 303- 320.
  • Scrivens, K. and Smith, C. (2013). Four ınterpretations of social capital: an agenda for measurement. OECD Statistics Working Papers, Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Serrat, R., Scharf, T. and Villar, F. (2021). Mapping civic engagement in later life: a scoping review of gerontological definitions and typology proposal. Voluntas.
  • Serrat, R., Scharf, T., Villar, F. and Gomez, C. (2020). Fifty-five years of research ınto older people’s civic participation: recent trends, future directions. Gerontologist, 60(1). e38-e51.
  • SHARE Release Guide 7.0.0. (2019) Erişim tarihi 14.02.2021 http://www.share-project.org/fileadmin/pdf_documentation/SHARE_release_guide_7-0-0.pdf
  • Stolle, D. and Lewis, J. (2002). Social capital: an emerging concept, in B. Hobson, J. Lewis and B. Siim Key. Concepts in gender and European social politics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Press.
  • Sunata, U. (2013). Göçmen işçinin sıla hasreti: bir yabancılaşma hikayesi. Sosyoloji Dergisi, 27(3), 197-218.
  • Şentürk, M. (2021). Dünyada Yaşlanma Araştırmaları. Ankara: Nobel.
  • Torche, F. and Valenzuela, E. (2011). Trust and reciprocity: A theoretical distinction of the sources of social capital. European Journal of Social Theory, 14 (2), 181-198.
  • UNESCO. (2006). International standart classification of education: ISCED 1997. ISBN 92-9189-035-9
  • UNECE/European Commission. (2019). 2018 active ageing index: analytical report. Erişim tarihi 26.12.2021, http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/pau/age/Active_Ageing_Index/ECE-WG-33.pdf
  • Uslaner, E. M. and Conley, R. S. (2003). Civic engagement and particularized trust - The ties that bind people to their ethnic communities. American Politics Research, 31(4), 331-360.
  • van Londen, M., Phalet, K. and Hagendoorn, L. (2007). Civic engagement and voter participation among Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Rotterdam. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(8), 1201-1226.
  • Warnes, A. and Williams, A. M. (2006). Older migrants in Europe: An innovative focus for migration studies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(8), 1257-1281.

Düzeltme: Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği

Yıl 2024, Cilt: 11 Sayı: 1, 423 - 458, 31.01.2024
Bu makalenin ilk hali 19 Ağustos 2022 tarihinde yayımlandı. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tesamakademi/issue/72221/1164111

Düzeltme Notu

Söz konusu makalenin "Extended Abstract kısmının üçüncü cümlesinde yer alan "We see civic participation and social trust are subjects that are studied sufficiently older adults nor older migrants" ifadesi "We see that civic participation and social trust are subjects that are not studied sufficiently regarding older migrants" olarak değiştirilmiştir.

Öz

Avrupa’da hem yaşlanan hem de ulusötesi yaşlanan nüfus artmaktadır. Ulusötesi yaşlanma çalışmaları, 2000’lerden itibaren hız kazanmışsa da sağlık ve emeklilik ön plana çıkmakta, sosyal boyutlar arka planda kalmaktadır. Bu araştırma yaygın literatürden farklı olarak, 50 yaş ve üzeri nüfusun sosyal sermayesini (sivil katılım ile sosyal güven ilişkisine odaklanarak) ele almakta ve bunu yaparken yerli ve göçmen ayrımını incelemektedir. Kuramsal olarak sivil katılımın sosyal güveni olumlu etkilemesi beklenmiştir. Nicel veri kaynağı Avrupa Sağlık, Yaşlanma ve Emeklilik Araştırması’dır (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Örneklemde 9 ülkeden 30067 kişi vardır. Hiyerarşik çoklu regresyon analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Sosyal güvenin tek soru ile ölçülmesi ve makro faktörlerin ele alınmaması çalışmanın sınırlılıklarıdır. Çalışmanın ulaştığı bulgular üç açıdan önemlidir. Birincisi, yaşlı ve yaşlanan nüfus için sivil katılım çeşitliliğinin sosyal güveni olumlu etkilediğini göstererek sosyal sermaye kuramını desteklemiştir. İkincisi, sosyodemografik özellikler kontrol edildikten sonra bile ulusötesi yaşlanan kişilerin sosyal güveninin (göçmen olmaktan) negatif etkilendiğini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Üçüncüsü, birinci ve ikinci nesil göçmenler arasında fark olmaksızın sosyal güvenin yerlilerden düşük olduğunu ortaya çıkarmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Abbott, S. and Freeth, D. (2008). Starting to make sense of the role of generalized trust and reciprocity. Journal of Heath Psychology, 13(7), 874-883.
  • Adena, M. and Myck, M. (2014). Poverty and transitions in health in later life. Social Science & Medicine, 116, 202-210.
  • Anheier, H. and Kendall, J. (2002). Interpersonal trust and voluntary associations: examining three approaches. Br J Sociol, 53(3), 343-62.
  • Arsenijevic, J. and Groot, W. (2018). Lifestyle differences between older migrants and non-migrants in 14 European countries using propensity score matching method. Int J Public Health, 63, 337-347.
  • Aytaç, S.E.; Çarkoğlu, A. ve Ertan, G. (2017). Türkiye’de kişilerarası sosyal güven ve bireysel belirleyicileri. METU Studies in Development, 44(1), 1-25.
  • Bauman, Z. (2014). Modernlik ve müphemlik. (Ç. İ. Türkmen). İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
  • Bekkers, R. (2012). Trust and volunteering: selection or causation? evidence from a 4 year panel study. Polit Behav, 34, 225-247.
  • Bergmann, M., Bethmann, A. and De Luca, G. (2019). Sampling design in SHARE wave 7. M. Bergmann, A. Scherpenzeel, ve A. Börsch-Supan içinde, SHARE wave 7 methodology: panel ınnovations and life histories (pp. 81-88). Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  • Berchet, C. and Sirven, N. (2014). Older migrants’ social capital in host countries: a pan-european comparison. Eastern Economic Journal, 40, 166–180.
  • Bordone, V. and De Valk, H. A. G. (2016). Intergenerational support among migrant families in Europe. Eur J Ageing, 13, 259-270.
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 1. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w1.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 2. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w2.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 4. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w4.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A. (2022). Survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (SHARE) Wave 5. Release version: 8.0.0. SHARE-ERIC. Data set. DOI: 10.6103/SHARE.w5.800
  • Börsch-Supan, A., M. Brandt, C. Hunkler, T. Kneip, J. Korbmacher, F. Malter, B. Schaan, S. Stuck and S. Zuber. (2013). Data resource profile: the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (SHARE). International Journal of Epidemiology. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyt088
  • Bui, N. B., Coyle, C. E. and Freeman, A. (2020). Promoting self-advocacy among older adults: lessons from boston’s senior civic academy. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 1–7.
  • Castles, S. and Kosack, G. (1973). Immigrant workers ans class structure in western Europe. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Ciobanu, R. O., Fokkema, T. and Nedelcu, M. (2017). Ageing as a migrant: vulnerabilities, agency, and policy implications. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 43(2), s. 164-181.
  • Claibourn, M. P. and Martin, P. S. (2000). Trusting and joining? an empirical test of the reciprocal nature of social capital. Political Behavior, 22, 267–291.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2016). Araştırma deseni: nitel, nicel ve karma yöntem yaklaşımları. (İkinci Baskı). Ankara: Eğiten Kitap.
  • Das, M., Vis, C. and Weerman, B. (2005). Developing the survey ınstruments for SHARE. A. Börsch-Supan, ve H. Jürges içinde, The Surveyof Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe: methodology (pp. 12-23). Mannheim: Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging (MEA).
  • Delhey, J. and Newton, K. (2003). Who trusts? The origins of social trust in seven societies. European Societies, 5, 93–137.
  • Erlinghagen, M. and Hank, K. (2006). The participation of older Europeans in volunteer work. Ageing and Society, 26(4), 567-584. 
  • Hank, K. and M. Erlinghagen. (2010). Volunteering in ‘old’ Europe – patterns, potentials, limitations. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(1), 3-20.
  • Haslam, C., Cruwys, T. and Haslam, S. A. (2014). “The we’s have it”: Evidence for the distinctive benefits of group engagement in enhancing cognitive health in aging. Social Science & Medicine, 120, 57-66.
  • Hooghe, M.; Reeskens, T.; Stolle, D. and Trappers, A. (2009). Ethnic diversity and generalized trust in Europe: A cross-national multilevel study. Comparative Political Studies, 42(2), 198-223.
  • Horn, S. and Schweppe, C. (2017). Transnational aging: toward a transnational perspective in old age research. Eur J Aging, 14, 335-339.
  • Hunkler, C.; Kneip, T.; Sand, G. and Schuth, M. (2015a). Identifying second-generation migrants and naturalized respondents in SHARE. In Malter, F. & A. Börsch-Supan (Eds.). SHARE wave 5: innovations & methodology (pp. 43-48). Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  • Hunkler, C.; Kneip, T.; Sand, G. and Schuth, M. (2015b). Growing old abroad: social and material deprivation among first- and second- generation migrants in Europe.In Börsch-Supan, A.; Kneip, T.; Litwin, H. et al. (Eds.), Ageing in Europe- Supporting Policies for an Inclusive Society (pp. 199-208). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.
  • Jürges, H. (2005). Interview, module, and question lenght in SHARE. A. Börsch, ve H. Jürges içinde, The Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe: Methodology (pp. 82-87). Mannheim: Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging.
  • Kruse, A. and Schmitt, E. (2015) Shared responsibility and civic engagement in very old age, Research in Human Development, 12(1-2), 133-148.
  • Lanari, D. and Bussini, O. (2012). International migration and health inequalities in later life. Ageing & Society, 32, 935-962.
  • Lancee, B. and Dronkers, J. (2011). Ethnic, religious and economic diversity in Dutch neighbourhoods: explaining quality of contact with neighbours, trust in the neighbourhood and inter-ethnic trust. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(4), 597-618.
  • Lenz, G. and Sahn, A. (2021). Achieving statistical significance with control variables and without transparency. Political Analysis, 29(3), 356-369.
  • Levels, M., Scheepers, P., Huijts, T. and Kraaykamp, G. (2015). Formal and ınformal social capital in Germany: The role of ınstitutions and ethnic diversity. European Sociological Review, 31(6), 766-779.
  • Li, T. and Fung, H. H., (2013). Age differences in trust: an investigation across 38 countries. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(3), 347–355.
  • Lolle, H. and Torpe, L. (2011). Growing ethnic diversity and social trust in European societies. Comparative European Politics, 9(2), 191-216.
  • Mehrbrodt, T., Gruber, S. and Wagner, M. (2019). SHARE scales and multi-ıtem ındicators. MEA.
  • Malter, F. and Börsch-Supan, A. (Eds.) (2015). SHARE Wave 5: Innovations & methodology. Munich: MEA, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  • Murtin, F., Fleischer, L. and Siegerink, V. (2018). Trust and its determinents: Evidence from the trustlab experiment. Paris: OECD Statistics Working Papers.
  • Nummela, O. (2015). Social capital and self-rated health among ageing people in urban and rural locations in Finland and in Europe. in Social capital as a health resource in later life: the relevant of context. (Eds. Nyqvist, F., Forsman, A. K. Dordrecht), (pp. 191-205). London: Springer.
  • OECD. (2017). OECD guidelines on measuring trust. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Pallant, J. (2015). SPSS kullanma klavuzu: SPSS ile adım adım veri analizi. (S. Balcı ve B. Ahi) Ankara: Anı.
  • Patzelt, A. (2017). ‘A totally new world has been opening up for me’- experiences of older German migrants who are actively involved in the German-speaking community in Ottowa, Canada. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(2), 218-234.
  • Paxton, P. (2007). Association memberships and generalized trust: a multilevel model across 31 countries. Social Forces, 86(1), 47-76.
  • Polacsek, M. and Angus, J. (2016). Making themselves at home: support needs of older Germans in Australia. Australian Journal on Ageing, 35(3),  E1-E5.
  • Putnam, R. D., Leonardi, R. and Nanetti, R. (1993). Making democracy work: civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Putnam, R. D. (1995). Tunning in and tunning out: The strange disappearance of social capital in America. Political Science and Politics, 28(4), 664-683.
  • Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. New York: Simon & Schuste.
  • Reus-Pons, M., Mulder, C. H., Kibele, E. U. B. and Janssen, F. (2018). Differences in the health transition patterns of migrants and non-migrants aged 50 and older in southern and western Europe (2004–2015). BMC Medicine, 16(57). 1-15.
  • Sand, G. (2018). Migration and well-being of older people in Europe. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Mannheim Üniversitesi.
  • Sand, G. and Gruber, S. (2018). Differences in subjective well-being between older migrants and natives in Europe. J. Immigrant Minority Health, 20, 83-90.
  • Scharf, T., Phillipson, C., Kingston, P. and Smith, A. E. (2001). Social exclusion and older people: Exploring the connections. Education and Ageing, 16, 303- 320.
  • Scrivens, K. and Smith, C. (2013). Four ınterpretations of social capital: an agenda for measurement. OECD Statistics Working Papers, Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Serrat, R., Scharf, T. and Villar, F. (2021). Mapping civic engagement in later life: a scoping review of gerontological definitions and typology proposal. Voluntas.
  • Serrat, R., Scharf, T., Villar, F. and Gomez, C. (2020). Fifty-five years of research ınto older people’s civic participation: recent trends, future directions. Gerontologist, 60(1). e38-e51.
  • SHARE Release Guide 7.0.0. (2019) Erişim tarihi 14.02.2021 http://www.share-project.org/fileadmin/pdf_documentation/SHARE_release_guide_7-0-0.pdf
  • Stolle, D. and Lewis, J. (2002). Social capital: an emerging concept, in B. Hobson, J. Lewis and B. Siim Key. Concepts in gender and European social politics. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Press.
  • Sunata, U. (2013). Göçmen işçinin sıla hasreti: bir yabancılaşma hikayesi. Sosyoloji Dergisi, 27(3), 197-218.
  • Şentürk, M. (2021). Dünyada Yaşlanma Araştırmaları. Ankara: Nobel.
  • Torche, F. and Valenzuela, E. (2011). Trust and reciprocity: A theoretical distinction of the sources of social capital. European Journal of Social Theory, 14 (2), 181-198.
  • UNESCO. (2006). International standart classification of education: ISCED 1997. ISBN 92-9189-035-9
  • UNECE/European Commission. (2019). 2018 active ageing index: analytical report. Erişim tarihi 26.12.2021, http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/pau/age/Active_Ageing_Index/ECE-WG-33.pdf
  • Uslaner, E. M. and Conley, R. S. (2003). Civic engagement and particularized trust - The ties that bind people to their ethnic communities. American Politics Research, 31(4), 331-360.
  • van Londen, M., Phalet, K. and Hagendoorn, L. (2007). Civic engagement and voter participation among Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Rotterdam. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(8), 1201-1226.
  • Warnes, A. and Williams, A. M. (2006). Older migrants in Europe: An innovative focus for migration studies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(8), 1257-1281.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyoloji
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ferhan Saniye PALAZ Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-1729-1364

Murat ŞENTÜRK Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-9628-6300

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ocak 2024
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2024 Cilt: 11 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA PALAZ, F. S., & ŞENTÜRK, M. (2024). Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, 11(1), 423-458.
AMA PALAZ FS, ŞENTÜRK M. Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. Ocak 2024;11(1):423-458.
Chicago PALAZ, Ferhan Saniye, ve Murat ŞENTÜRK. “Sivil Katılımın Ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği”. TESAM Akademi Dergisi 11, sy. 1 (Ocak 2024): 423-58.
EndNote PALAZ FS, ŞENTÜRK M (01 Ocak 2024) Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği. TESAM Akademi Dergisi 11 1 423–458.
IEEE F. S. PALAZ ve M. ŞENTÜRK, “Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği”, TESAM Akademi Dergisi, c. 11, sy. 1, ss. 423–458, 2024.
ISNAD PALAZ, Ferhan Saniye - ŞENTÜRK, Murat. “Sivil Katılımın Ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği”. TESAM Akademi Dergisi 11/1 (Ocak 2024), 423-458.
JAMA PALAZ FS, ŞENTÜRK M. Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2024;11:423–458.
MLA PALAZ, Ferhan Saniye ve Murat ŞENTÜRK. “Sivil Katılımın Ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği”. TESAM Akademi Dergisi, c. 11, sy. 1, 2024, ss. 423-58.
Vancouver PALAZ FS, ŞENTÜRK M. Sivil Katılımın ve Ulusötesi Yaşlanmanın Sosyal Güvene Etkisi: Avrupa Örneği. TESAM Akademi Dergisi. 2024;11(1):423-58.