One of the most important tools developed by medicine in the struggle against diseases is vaccination. By means of this application, people could be protected before they get sick, and so many people's lives can be saved. However, at the beginning of the 19th century, since the first vaccines were produced and mass vaccination started, some objections were expressed against this practice, and in this context, non-governmental organizations that adopted anti-vaccination attitudes (distrust, hesitation, refusal towards vaccines) were established. This opposition, which came to the fore from time to time in the following century, has spread to almost every country in the world at this point and has been declared as a global health threat by the World Health Organization. For this reason, it is important to define and describe the fact and to determine the factors that are effective in the emergence of such fact. There are many individuals, social and historical factors that affect the emergence and prevalence of anti-vaccine attitudes. In other words, the content of the fact presents a multidimensional aspect. Our study dealt with the issue with its social dimensions and aimed to reveal the sociocultural and religious factors behind the negative attitudes towards the vaccines. In this context, it has been concluded that factors such as distrust of health institutions and vaccine companies, the presence of religiously objectionable products in the content of vaccines, the medicalization of life and the reaction against Western civilization play a role in the emergence of these attitudes.