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Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 64 Sayı: 3, 253 - 266, 06.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.927117

Öz

This study is a palynological and stratigraphical investigation of E1 and E10 core samples from the southern part of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey). Core samples were taken by a gravity corer from different water depths. Deposits in the core samples include mostly laminated rhythmic sediments, massive and graded layers and a tephra layer from E10 core, representing different time spans because of the faulted ground of the lake. Tentative time scales of the core samples are based on pollen and tephra correlation with Lake Van deposits. According to the palynological investigations, palaeovegetation of Greenlandian is represented by Amaranthaceae-dominant halophytic vegetation and semi-arid palaeoclimate conditions based on pollen analysis around Lake Erçek. The Meghalayan stage is mainly characterized by Poaceae-dominated steppe vegetation and increasing human impact according to anthropogenic pollen indicators. The Meghalayan palaeoclimate of Lake Erçek was more humid than Greenlandian and is represented by maximum deciduous Quercus expansion in recent times around the Lake Erçek area.

Destekleyen Kurum

Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi

Teşekkür

This study was funded by Scientific Research Projects Unit of Van Yüzüncü Yıl University (Project Number: MİM-B-075). I would like to thank my undergraduate students for their helps during field studies.

Kaynakça

  • Alan, H., Bozkurt, E., Çaglan, D., Dirik, K., Özkaymak, Ç., Sözbilir, H. ve Topal, T. (2011). Report of Van Earthquakes (Tabanlı-Edremit). TMMOB Society of Geological Engineering, Publication, 110, Ankara.
  • Beug, H.J. (2004). Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung. Verlag dr. Friedrich Pfeil (München) Germany.
  • Behre, K.E. (1981). The interpretation of anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. Pollen et Spores, 23, 235-247.
  • Biltekin, D., Eriş, K. K., Çağatay, M. N., Akçer-Ön, S. & Akkoca, D. B. (2018). Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change in eastern Turkey: a multiproxy palaeoecological data of vegetation and lake-catchment changes. Journal of Quaternary Science, 33(5) 575-585. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3037
  • Çağatay, M. N., Öğretmen, N., Damcı, E., Stockhecke, M., Sancar, Ü., Eriş, K. K. & Özeren, S. (2014). Lake level and climate records of the last 90 ka from the Northern Basin of Lake Van, eastern Turkey. Quaternary Science Reviews, 104, 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.027
  • Dean, J. R., Jones M. D., Leng, M. J., Stephen R. Noble, S. R., Metcalfe, S. E., Sloane, H. J., Sahy, D., Eastwood, W. J. & Roberts, C. N. (2015). Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate over the late glacial and Holocene, reconstructed from the sediments of Nar Lake, central Turkey, using stable isotopes and carbonate mineralogy. Quaternary International, 124, 162-174.
  • Djamali, M., de Beaulieu, J-L., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Berberian, M., Miller, NF., Gandouin, E., Lahijani, H., Shah-Hosseini, M., Ponel, P., Salimian, M. & Guiter, F. (2009). A late Holocene pollen record from Lake Almalou in NW Iran: evidence for changing land-use in relation to some historical events during the last 3700 years. Journal Archaeological Science, 36, 1364–1375.
  • Ediger, V. S. (1986). Sieving techniques in palynological sample processing with special reference to the MRA system. Micropaleontology, 32(3), 256-270.
  • Eken, G., Bozdoğan, M., İsfendiyaroğlu, S., Kılıç, D.T. & Lise, Y. (editörler) (2006). Türkiye’nin Önemli Doğa Alanları. Doğa Derneği.
  • Erdtman, G. (1943). An Introduction to Pollen Analysis. Chronica Botanica, New York.
  • Eriş, K. K. (2013). Late Pleistocene Holocene sedimentary records of climate and lake-level changes in Lake Hazar, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Quaternay International, 302, 123-134.
  • Faegri, K. & Iversen, J. (1989). Textbook of Pollen Analysis, fourth ed. Wiley, New York.
  • Fiłoc M, Kupryjanowicz M, Szeroczyńska K, Suchora, & Rzodkiewicz, M. (2017). Environmental changes related to the 8.2 ka event and other climate fluctuations during the Middle Holocene: evidence from two dystrophic lakes in NE Poland. The Holocene, 27, 1550–1566. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683617702233
  • Hayrapetyan, N., Hakobyan, E., Kvavadze, E., Gabrielyan, I., Brunch A. A. (2018). Late Holocene environmental changes in the Lake Sevan basin–implications from palynological and carpological analyses of peatbog sediments from Tsovinar-1, Armenia. PRIDE-RCMNS conference Ecosystem isolation and connection: rise and demise of biota in the Pontocaspian-Caucasian region (48).
  • İpek, S. & Sarı, M. (1998). Erçek Gölü’nün Batimetrik Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi (Determination of the bathymetric features of Lake Erçek), (YDABÇAG–609-A). Project of Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey.
  • Kamar, G. (2018). Palynology of Lake Arin (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) deposits and its relation with water level change of Lake Van: Preliminary findings. Quaternary International, 486, 83-88.
  • Kaplan, G. (2010). Van Gölü Kuzey Havzası’nın Geç Holosen Palinolojisi [Yayımlanmamış Doktora tezi]. Yüzüncü Yıl University.
  • Kaplan, G., Örçen, S. (2011). Late Holocene Paleoflora of Lake Van Northern Basin. Bulletin of the Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University, 32(2) 139-150.
  • Kaplan, G. (2013a). Palynological analysis of the Late Pleistocene terrace deposits of Lake Van, eastern Turkey: Reconstruction of paleovegetation and paleoclimate. Quaternary International, 292, 168-175.
  • Kaplan, G. (2013b). Van Gölü Geç Holosen Polenleri. Yerbilimleri (Bulletin of Turkish Earth Sciences), 34(1), 37-52.
  • Karaoğlu, Ö., Özdemir, Y., Tolluoğlu, A.Ü., Karabıyıkoğlu, M., Köse, O. & Froger, J. L. (2005). Stratigraphy of the volcanic products around Nemrut Caldera: implications for reconstruction of the caldera formation. Turkish Journal of Earth Science, 14,123–143.
  • Kılıç, N. K., Caner, H., Erginal, A. E., Ersin, S., Selim, H, H. & Kaya, H. (2018). Environmental changes based on multi-proxy analysis of core sediments in Lake Aktaş, Turkey: Preliminary results. Quaternary International, 486, 89-97.
  • Koçyiğit, A., Yılmaz, A., Adamia, S. & Kuloshvili, S. (2001). Neotectonics of east Anatolian plateau (Turkey) and lesser Caucasus: implication for transition from thrusting to strike-slip faulting. Geodinamica Acta, 14(1-3), 177-195.
  • Landmann, G., Reimer, A., Lemcke, G. & Kempe, S. (1996a). Dating Late Glacial abrupt climate changes in the 14, 570 years long continuous varve record of Lake Van/ Turkey. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 2, 107-118.
  • Landmann, G., Reimer, A. & Kempe, S. (1996b). Climatic induced lake level changes of Lake Van/Turkey during the transition Pleistocene/Holocene. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10(4), 797-808.
  • Landmann, G., Steinhauser, G., Sterba, J.H, Kempe, S. & Bichler, M. (2011). Geochemical fingerprints by activation analysis of tephra layers in Lake Van sediments, Turkey. Applied Radiation Isotopes, 69, 929-935.
  • Litt, T., Krastel, S., Sturm, M., Kipfer, R., Örcen, S., Heumann, G., Franz, S. O., Ülgen, U. B. & Niessen, F. (2009). ‘PALEOVAN’, International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP): site survey results and perspectives. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1555-1567.
  • Litt, T., Pickarski, N. & Heumann, G. (2014). A 600,000 Year Long Continental Pollen Record from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Quaternary Science Reviews, 104, 30-41.
  • Makaroğlu, Ö., Çağatay, M. N., Nowaczyk, N. R., Pesonen, L. J. & Orbay, N. (2018). Discrimination of Holocene tephra units in Lake Van using mineral magnetic analysis. Quaternary International, 486, 44–56.
  • Mayewski, P.A.; Rohling, E.E.; Stager, J.C., …, Steig, E. J. (2004). Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research, 62(3), 243-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2004.07.001
  • Migowski, C., Stein, M., Prasad, S., Negendank, J. & Agnon, A. (2006) Holocene climate variability and cultural evolution in the Near East from the Dead Sea sedimentary record. Quaternary Research, 66, 421-431.
  • Moore, P. D. & Webb, J. A. & Collinson, M. E. (1991). Pollen Analysis, second edition. Blackwell, Oxford UK.
  • Muradoğlu, F. ve Balta, F. (2010). Ahlat (Bitlis) Yöresinden Selekte Edilen Cevizlerin (Juglans regia L) Bazı Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri. YYÜ Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(1), 41-45.
  • Ocakoğlu, F., Kır, O., Yılmaz, İ. Ö., Açıkalın, S., Erayık, C., Tunoğlu, C. & Suzanne Leroy, S.A.G. (2013). Early to Mid-Holocene Lake level and temperature records from the terraces of Lake Sünnet in NW Turkey. Quaternay International, 369, 175-184.
  • Okuldaş, C. ve Üner, S. (2013). Alaköy Fayı’nın Jeomorfolojik Özellikleri ve Tektonik Etkinliği (Van Gölü Havzası – Doğu Anadolu). Bulletin of the Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University, 34(3), 161-176.
  • Ön, Z. B., & Özeren, M. S. (2019). Temperature and precipitation variability in eastern Anatolia: Results from independent component analysis of Lake Van sediment data spanning the last 250 kyr BP. Quaternary International, 514(2019) 119-129.
  • Ön, Z., Özeren, M., Akçer Ön, S. & Çağatay, M. (2017) Spectral Features of 250 kyr Long Lake Van Sediments: Milankovitch Cycles and Their Harmonics. Geological Bulletin of Turkey, 60(4) 471-488. https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.360604
  • Park, J., Park, J., Yi, S., Kim, J. C., Lee, E. & Jin, Q. (2018). The 8.2 ka cooling event in coastal East Asia: High-resolution polen evidence from southwestern Korea. Scientific Reports, 8, 12423.
  • Pickarski, N., Kwiecien, O., Djamali, M. & Litt, T. (2015). Vegetation and environmental changes during the last interglacial in eastern Anatolia (Turkey): a new high-resolution polen record from Lake Van. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 435, 145–158.
  • Ramezani, E., Mrotzek, A., Mohadjer, M. R. M., Kakroodi, A.A., Kroonenberg, B. S. & Joosten, H. (2016). Between the mountains and the sea: Late Holocene Caspian Sea level fluctuations and vegetation history of the lowland forests of northern Iran. Quaternary International, 408, 52-64.
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Erçek Gölü’nün Holosen Palinolojisi ve Polene Dayalı Paleoiklim Yapılandırması (Doğu Anadolu, Türkiye); Kısa Dönem İklim Salınımları ve Global Paleoiklim Değişimleri ile İlişkisi; E1 ve E10 Karotlarının Sonuçları

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 64 Sayı: 3, 253 - 266, 06.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.927117

Öz

Bu çalışma Erçek Gölü’nün (Doğu Anadolu, Türkiye) güney kesiminden alınan E1ve E10 sediment karotlarının palinolojik ve stratigrafik incelenmesini kapsamaktadır. Karot örnekleri farklı su derinliklerinden gravite karot örnekleyici kullanılarak alınmıştır. Karot örneklerinin litolojisi çoğunlukla laminalı ritmik sediman, masif ve tabakalı seviyeler ile E10 karotunda bulunan tefra seviyesi içermekte ve göl tabanının faylı oluşundan dolayı farklı zaman aralıklarını temsil etmektedir. Karot örneklerinin yaşlandırılması Van Gölü örneklerinin polen ve tefra seviyeleriyle korelasyonuna dayandırılarak belirlenmiştir. Palinolojik inceleme sonuçlarına göre, Erçek Gölü’nün, Grönlandiyen paleovejetasyonu Amaranthaceae familyası baskın halofitik vejetasyon ve yarı kurak paleoiklim koşulları ile temsil edilmektedir. Meghaliyen katı ise Poaceae familyası baskın step vejetasyonu ve antropojenik pollenlere göre artan insan etkisi ile karakterize edilmektedir. Erçek Gölü çevresinde Meghaliyen paleoiklimi Grönlandiyen’den daha nemlidir ve günümüze doğru gelindikçe maksimum yaprak döken Quercus yayılımı ile temsil edilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Alan, H., Bozkurt, E., Çaglan, D., Dirik, K., Özkaymak, Ç., Sözbilir, H. ve Topal, T. (2011). Report of Van Earthquakes (Tabanlı-Edremit). TMMOB Society of Geological Engineering, Publication, 110, Ankara.
  • Beug, H.J. (2004). Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung. Verlag dr. Friedrich Pfeil (München) Germany.
  • Behre, K.E. (1981). The interpretation of anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. Pollen et Spores, 23, 235-247.
  • Biltekin, D., Eriş, K. K., Çağatay, M. N., Akçer-Ön, S. & Akkoca, D. B. (2018). Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change in eastern Turkey: a multiproxy palaeoecological data of vegetation and lake-catchment changes. Journal of Quaternary Science, 33(5) 575-585. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3037
  • Çağatay, M. N., Öğretmen, N., Damcı, E., Stockhecke, M., Sancar, Ü., Eriş, K. K. & Özeren, S. (2014). Lake level and climate records of the last 90 ka from the Northern Basin of Lake Van, eastern Turkey. Quaternary Science Reviews, 104, 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.027
  • Dean, J. R., Jones M. D., Leng, M. J., Stephen R. Noble, S. R., Metcalfe, S. E., Sloane, H. J., Sahy, D., Eastwood, W. J. & Roberts, C. N. (2015). Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate over the late glacial and Holocene, reconstructed from the sediments of Nar Lake, central Turkey, using stable isotopes and carbonate mineralogy. Quaternary International, 124, 162-174.
  • Djamali, M., de Beaulieu, J-L., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Berberian, M., Miller, NF., Gandouin, E., Lahijani, H., Shah-Hosseini, M., Ponel, P., Salimian, M. & Guiter, F. (2009). A late Holocene pollen record from Lake Almalou in NW Iran: evidence for changing land-use in relation to some historical events during the last 3700 years. Journal Archaeological Science, 36, 1364–1375.
  • Ediger, V. S. (1986). Sieving techniques in palynological sample processing with special reference to the MRA system. Micropaleontology, 32(3), 256-270.
  • Eken, G., Bozdoğan, M., İsfendiyaroğlu, S., Kılıç, D.T. & Lise, Y. (editörler) (2006). Türkiye’nin Önemli Doğa Alanları. Doğa Derneği.
  • Erdtman, G. (1943). An Introduction to Pollen Analysis. Chronica Botanica, New York.
  • Eriş, K. K. (2013). Late Pleistocene Holocene sedimentary records of climate and lake-level changes in Lake Hazar, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Quaternay International, 302, 123-134.
  • Faegri, K. & Iversen, J. (1989). Textbook of Pollen Analysis, fourth ed. Wiley, New York.
  • Fiłoc M, Kupryjanowicz M, Szeroczyńska K, Suchora, & Rzodkiewicz, M. (2017). Environmental changes related to the 8.2 ka event and other climate fluctuations during the Middle Holocene: evidence from two dystrophic lakes in NE Poland. The Holocene, 27, 1550–1566. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683617702233
  • Hayrapetyan, N., Hakobyan, E., Kvavadze, E., Gabrielyan, I., Brunch A. A. (2018). Late Holocene environmental changes in the Lake Sevan basin–implications from palynological and carpological analyses of peatbog sediments from Tsovinar-1, Armenia. PRIDE-RCMNS conference Ecosystem isolation and connection: rise and demise of biota in the Pontocaspian-Caucasian region (48).
  • İpek, S. & Sarı, M. (1998). Erçek Gölü’nün Batimetrik Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi (Determination of the bathymetric features of Lake Erçek), (YDABÇAG–609-A). Project of Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey.
  • Kamar, G. (2018). Palynology of Lake Arin (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) deposits and its relation with water level change of Lake Van: Preliminary findings. Quaternary International, 486, 83-88.
  • Kaplan, G. (2010). Van Gölü Kuzey Havzası’nın Geç Holosen Palinolojisi [Yayımlanmamış Doktora tezi]. Yüzüncü Yıl University.
  • Kaplan, G., Örçen, S. (2011). Late Holocene Paleoflora of Lake Van Northern Basin. Bulletin of the Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University, 32(2) 139-150.
  • Kaplan, G. (2013a). Palynological analysis of the Late Pleistocene terrace deposits of Lake Van, eastern Turkey: Reconstruction of paleovegetation and paleoclimate. Quaternary International, 292, 168-175.
  • Kaplan, G. (2013b). Van Gölü Geç Holosen Polenleri. Yerbilimleri (Bulletin of Turkish Earth Sciences), 34(1), 37-52.
  • Karaoğlu, Ö., Özdemir, Y., Tolluoğlu, A.Ü., Karabıyıkoğlu, M., Köse, O. & Froger, J. L. (2005). Stratigraphy of the volcanic products around Nemrut Caldera: implications for reconstruction of the caldera formation. Turkish Journal of Earth Science, 14,123–143.
  • Kılıç, N. K., Caner, H., Erginal, A. E., Ersin, S., Selim, H, H. & Kaya, H. (2018). Environmental changes based on multi-proxy analysis of core sediments in Lake Aktaş, Turkey: Preliminary results. Quaternary International, 486, 89-97.
  • Koçyiğit, A., Yılmaz, A., Adamia, S. & Kuloshvili, S. (2001). Neotectonics of east Anatolian plateau (Turkey) and lesser Caucasus: implication for transition from thrusting to strike-slip faulting. Geodinamica Acta, 14(1-3), 177-195.
  • Landmann, G., Reimer, A., Lemcke, G. & Kempe, S. (1996a). Dating Late Glacial abrupt climate changes in the 14, 570 years long continuous varve record of Lake Van/ Turkey. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 2, 107-118.
  • Landmann, G., Reimer, A. & Kempe, S. (1996b). Climatic induced lake level changes of Lake Van/Turkey during the transition Pleistocene/Holocene. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10(4), 797-808.
  • Landmann, G., Steinhauser, G., Sterba, J.H, Kempe, S. & Bichler, M. (2011). Geochemical fingerprints by activation analysis of tephra layers in Lake Van sediments, Turkey. Applied Radiation Isotopes, 69, 929-935.
  • Litt, T., Krastel, S., Sturm, M., Kipfer, R., Örcen, S., Heumann, G., Franz, S. O., Ülgen, U. B. & Niessen, F. (2009). ‘PALEOVAN’, International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP): site survey results and perspectives. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1555-1567.
  • Litt, T., Pickarski, N. & Heumann, G. (2014). A 600,000 Year Long Continental Pollen Record from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Quaternary Science Reviews, 104, 30-41.
  • Makaroğlu, Ö., Çağatay, M. N., Nowaczyk, N. R., Pesonen, L. J. & Orbay, N. (2018). Discrimination of Holocene tephra units in Lake Van using mineral magnetic analysis. Quaternary International, 486, 44–56.
  • Mayewski, P.A.; Rohling, E.E.; Stager, J.C., …, Steig, E. J. (2004). Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research, 62(3), 243-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2004.07.001
  • Migowski, C., Stein, M., Prasad, S., Negendank, J. & Agnon, A. (2006) Holocene climate variability and cultural evolution in the Near East from the Dead Sea sedimentary record. Quaternary Research, 66, 421-431.
  • Moore, P. D. & Webb, J. A. & Collinson, M. E. (1991). Pollen Analysis, second edition. Blackwell, Oxford UK.
  • Muradoğlu, F. ve Balta, F. (2010). Ahlat (Bitlis) Yöresinden Selekte Edilen Cevizlerin (Juglans regia L) Bazı Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri. YYÜ Journal of Agricultural Science, 20(1), 41-45.
  • Ocakoğlu, F., Kır, O., Yılmaz, İ. Ö., Açıkalın, S., Erayık, C., Tunoğlu, C. & Suzanne Leroy, S.A.G. (2013). Early to Mid-Holocene Lake level and temperature records from the terraces of Lake Sünnet in NW Turkey. Quaternay International, 369, 175-184.
  • Okuldaş, C. ve Üner, S. (2013). Alaköy Fayı’nın Jeomorfolojik Özellikleri ve Tektonik Etkinliği (Van Gölü Havzası – Doğu Anadolu). Bulletin of the Earth Sciences Application and Research Centre of Hacettepe University, 34(3), 161-176.
  • Ön, Z. B., & Özeren, M. S. (2019). Temperature and precipitation variability in eastern Anatolia: Results from independent component analysis of Lake Van sediment data spanning the last 250 kyr BP. Quaternary International, 514(2019) 119-129.
  • Ön, Z., Özeren, M., Akçer Ön, S. & Çağatay, M. (2017) Spectral Features of 250 kyr Long Lake Van Sediments: Milankovitch Cycles and Their Harmonics. Geological Bulletin of Turkey, 60(4) 471-488. https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.360604
  • Park, J., Park, J., Yi, S., Kim, J. C., Lee, E. & Jin, Q. (2018). The 8.2 ka cooling event in coastal East Asia: High-resolution polen evidence from southwestern Korea. Scientific Reports, 8, 12423.
  • Pickarski, N., Kwiecien, O., Djamali, M. & Litt, T. (2015). Vegetation and environmental changes during the last interglacial in eastern Anatolia (Turkey): a new high-resolution polen record from Lake Van. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 435, 145–158.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Genel Jeoloji, Paleontoloji
Bölüm Makaleler - Articles
Yazarlar

Güldem KAMAR 0000-0003-4712-5997

Proje Numarası MİM-B-075
Yayımlanma Tarihi 6 Ağustos 2021
Gönderilme Tarihi 24 Nisan 2021
Kabul Tarihi 5 Temmuz 2021
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021 Cilt: 64 Sayı: 3

Kaynak Göster

APA KAMAR, G. (2021). Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, 64(3), 253-266. https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.927117
AMA KAMAR G. Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10. Türkiye Jeol. Bül. Haziran 2021;64(3):253-266. doi:10.25288/tjb.927117
Chicago KAMAR, Güldem. “Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and Their Relation With Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10”. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 64, sy. 3 (Haziran 2021): 253-66. https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.927117.
EndNote KAMAR G (01 Haziran 2021) Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 64 3 253–266.
IEEE G. KAMAR, “Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10”, Türkiye Jeol. Bül., c. 64, sy. 3, ss. 253–266, 2021, doi: 10.25288/tjb.927117.
ISNAD KAMAR, Güldem. “Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and Their Relation With Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10”. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 64/3 (Haziran 2021), 253-266. https://doi.org/10.25288/tjb.927117.
JAMA KAMAR G. Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10. Türkiye Jeol. Bül. 2021;64:253–266.
MLA KAMAR, Güldem. “Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and Their Relation With Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10”. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni, c. 64, sy. 3, 2021, ss. 253-66, doi:10.25288/tjb.927117.
Vancouver KAMAR G. Holocene Palynology and Pollen-Based Palaeoclimate Reconstruction of Lake Erçek (Eastern Anatolia); Short-Term Climatic Fluctuations and their Relation with Global Palaeoclimatic Change; Results of Cores E1 and E10. Türkiye Jeol. Bül. 2021;64(3):253-66.

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