Yıl 2017, Cilt 18 , Sayı 4, Sayfalar 321 - 327 2017-12-28

Doğu ladini (Picea orientalis) ve meşe (Quercus spp.) kabuklarının kimyasal bileşimi
Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks

Oktay GÖNÜLTAŞ [1] , Mualla BALABAN UÇAR [2]


Bu çalışmada, orman işletmelerinde kesim sonrası ortaya çıkan doğu ladini (Picea orientalis) kabukları ve ahşap levha endüstrisinde levha üretimi sonrası ortaya çıkan endüstriyel atık meşe (Qercus spp.) kabuklarının kimyasal bileşimi temel odun analizleri ve fenolik bileşik analiz metotlarıyla incelenmiştir. Kabuklarda kül tayini sonuçlarına göre Artvin ve Trabzon ladin örneklerinde % 4.31 ve % 3.99 kül bulunurken meşe kabuğunda % 10.02 gibi yüksek sonuç belirlenmiştir. Sıcak su çözünürlüğünün ladin örneklerinde meşeye göre daha yüksek olduğu ortaya konulmuştur. Artvin ladin, Trabzon ladin ve meşe kabuklarında kalıntı lignin sırasıyla % 19.53; % 20.61 ve % 18.49 olarak belirlenirken α-selüloz miktarı için % 37.28; % 37.92 ve % 41.59 değerleri elde edilmiştir. Toplam fenol tayini ve butanol HCl yöntemi sonuçlarına göre Artvin ladin kabuğu en yüksek değerlere sahiptir. Ladin ve meşe kabuğu örneklerinde hidrolize tanenler olan gallo tanen bulunurken ellag taneni içeriği belirlenememiştir.

In this study, the chemical composition of bark from oriental spruce (Picea orientalis), which occur as a result of logging production of forestry enterprises, and oak (Qercus spp.) bark, which are industrial waste of the wood panel industry after board production, were analyzed by wet chemical analysis of wood and analysis methods of phenolic compound. Ash content values of the barks obtained from Artvin and Trabzon area were 4.31% and 3.99%, respectively, while the oak bark samples were 10.02%. Hot water solubility of the spruce bark samples were higher than the oak bark samples. Residual lignin contents of Artvin spruce, Trabzon spruce, and oak were 19.53%, 20.61%, and 18.49%, while α-cellulose contents were 37.28%, 37.92%, and 41.59%, respectively. The results of the total phenol content and butanol-HCl assay showed that Artvin spruce barks had higher values than other bark samples. As hydrolysable tannins, there were gallo tannin in the samples of spruce and oak barks whereas ellagic tannin content has not been determined.

  • Aydın, S., Üstün, F., 2007. Tanenler kimyasal yapıları, farmakolojik etkileri, analiz yöntemleri. İstanbul Üniv. Vet. Fak. Dergisi, 33(1): 21-31.
  • Balaban, M., Uçar, G., 2001. Extractives and structural components in wood and bark of endemic oak Quercus vulcanica Boiss. Holzforschung, 55(5): 478-486.
  • Balaban, M., 2002. NaClO2 delignifikasyonunda sıcaklık değişimlerinin etkisi, İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, Seri A, Cilt 52, Sayı:2, 39-50.
  • Balaban Ucar, M., Ucar, G., 2011. Characterization of methanol extracts from Quercus hartwissiana wood and bark. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 47, 5.
  • Bate-Smith, E.C., 1972. Detection and determination of ellagitannins. Phytochemistry, 11: 1153-1156.
  • Baytop, T., 1999. Türkiye’de Bitkiler ile Tedavi. Nobel Tıp Kitapevi, 2. Baskı, İstanbul, Türkiye, 975-420-021-1.
  • Binotto, A.P., Murphy, W.K., Cutter, B.E., 1971. X-ray diffraction studies of cellulose from bark and wood. Wood Fiber, 3: 179-181.
  • Branca, C., Iannace, A., Blasi, C.D., 2007. Devolatilization and combustion kinetics of Quercus cerris bark. Energy & Fuels, 21:1078-1084.
  • Demetçi, E.Y., 1982. Ağaç kabuklarından yararlanma olanakları. Ormancılık Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, 28 (55): 37-56.
  • Dönmez, İ.E., Dönmez, Ş., 2013. Ağaç kabuğunun yapısı ve yararlanma imkânları. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 14: 156-162.
  • Dutkuner, İ., Koparan, İ., 2016. Kızılçam ve Karaçam kabuk miktarı ve kullanım olanakları. Electronic Journal of Vocational Colleges, 2. Uluslararası Multidisipliner Avrasya Kongresi Özel Sayısı, 1-10. Feng, S., Cheng, S., Yuan, Z., Leitch, M., Xu, C.C., 2013. Valorization of bark for chemicals and materials: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26: 560-578.
  • Fengel, D., Wegener, G., 1984. Wood Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin New York, 3-11-008481-3.
  • Fradinho, D.M., Pascoal Neto, D., Evtuguin, D., Jorge, F.C., Irle, M.A., Gil, M.H., Pedrosa Jesús, J., 2002. Chemical characterization of bark and of alkaline bark extracts from maritime pine grown in Portugal. Industrial Crops and Products, 16: 23-32.
  • Frihart, C., 2000. Biobased Adhesives and Non-Convential Bonding. Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA.
  • Garcia-Perez, M.E., Royer, M., Herbette, G., Desjardins, Y., Pouliot, R., Stevanovic, T., 2012. Picea mariana bark: A new source of trans-resveratrol and other bioactive polyphenols. Food Chemistry, 135: 1173–1182.
  • Gönültaş, O., Balaban Uçar, M., 2012. Fıstıkçamı (Pinus pinea) kabuğunun tanen bileşimi. KSÜ Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, Özel Sayı: 80-84.
  • Govindarajan, V.S., Mathew, A.G., 1965. Anthocyanidins from leucoanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry, 4: 985-988.
  • Hafizoglu, H., Reunanen, M., 1994. Composition of oleoresins from bark and cones of Abies nordmanniana and Picea orientalis. Holzforschung, 48: 7-11.
  • Hafizoglu, H., Usta, M., Bilgin, Ö., 1997. Wood and bark composition of Picea orientalis (L.) Link. Holzforschung, 51: 114-118.
  • Hafizoglu, H., Holmbom, B., Reunanen, M., 2002. Chemical composition of lipophilic constituents of barks from Pinus nigra, Abies bornmülleriana, and Castanea sativa. Holzforschung, 56: 257-260.
  • Hafizoglu, H., Usta, M., 2005. Chemical composition of coniferous wood species occurring in Turkey. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 63: 83–85.
  • Harkin, J.M., Rowe, J.W., 1971. Bark and its possible uses, Research Note FPL-RN-091, USDA Forest Products Labrotory, Madison, WI.
  • Hon, D.N.S., Shiraishi, N., 2001. Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry. Second Edition, Revised and Expended, CRC Press, Marcel Dekker, New York, 978-0824700249.
  • Inoue, K.H., Hagerman, A.E., 1988. Gallotannin determination with rhodamine. Anal. Biochemistry, 169: 363-369.
  • Jayme, G., 1942. Preparation of holocellulose and cellulose with sodium chlorite. Cellulosechemie. 20: 43-49.
  • Kain, G., Barbu, M.C., Richter, K., Plank, B., Tondi, G., Petutschnigg, A., 2015. Use of tree bark as insulation material. Forest Products Journal, 65:(3-4). Kantay, R., Köse, C., 2006. Türkiye'de kabuk konusunda bugüne kadar yapılan çalışmalar ve değerlendirme. Journal of the Faculty of Forestry Istanbul University, 56(1): 1-16.
  • Kofujita, H., Ettyu, K., Ota, M., 1999. Characterization of the major components in bark from five japanese tree species for chemical utilization. Wood Science and Technology, 33: 223-228.
  • Kurt, R., Mengeloğlu, F., 2006. Potential utilization of bark residues in Turkey. 1st International Non-wood Forest Products Sympossium, 1-4 November, Trabzon.
  • Martin, R.E., Gray, G.R., 1971. pH of southern pine barks. Forest Product Journal, 21, (3), 49-52.
  • Maenpaa, L.H, Laakso, T., Sarjala, T., Wahala, K., Saranpaa, P., 2013. Variation of stilbene glucosides in bark extracts obtained from roots and stumps of Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Trees-structure and Function, 27(1): 131-139.
  • Miranda, I., Gominho, Mirra, I., Pereira, H., 2012. Chemical characterization of barks from Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris after fractioning into different particle sizes. Industrial Crops and Products, 36: 395-400.
  • Pasztory, Z., Mohacsine, I.R., Gorbacheva, G., Börcsök, Z., 2016. The utilization of tree bark. BioResources, 11(3): 7859-7888.
  • Runkel, R.O.H., Wilke, K.D., 1951. Zur Kenntnis des thermoplastischen Verhaltens von Holz. II. Mittl. Holz Roh-Werkstoff, 9: 260-270.
  • Özdemir, H., 2010. Bark tannins from commercially important Turkish conifer trees and their use as adhesive in fiberboard. Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Natural Science, Istanbul University, 154p., İstanbul.
  • Scalbert, A., Haslam, E., 1987. Polyphenols and chemical defence of the leaves of Quercus robur. Phytochemistry, 26: 3191-3195.
  • Scalbert, A., Monties, B., Janin, G., 1989. Tannins in wood: Comparison of different estimation methods. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 37:1324-1329.
  • Sjostrom, E., 1981. Wood Chemistry : Fundamentals and Applications. Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 9780126474800.
  • Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdicphosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 16: 144-158.
  • Şen, A., Miranda, I., Santos, S., Graça, J., Pereira, H., 2010. The chemical composition of cork and phloem in the rhytidome of Quercus cerris bark. Industrial Crops and Products, 31(2): 417-422.
  • Tappi, 1983. Tappi T-203 cm-99: Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cellulose in pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia.
  • Tappi, 1985. Tappi UM-250: Acid-soluble lignin in wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia.
  • Tappi, 1992. Tappi T-204 om-88: Solvent extractives of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, Vol 1.
  • Tappi, 1992. Tappi T-207 om-88: Water solubility of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, Vol 1.
  • Tappi, 1992. Tappi T-211 om- 85: Ash in wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, Vol 1.
  • Tappi, 1992. Tappi T-212 om-88: One percent sodium hydroxide solubity of wood and pulp, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, Vol 1.
  • Tappi, 1992. Tappi T-257 cm-85: Sampling and preparing wood for analysis, TAPPI Test Methods, Tappi Press, Atlanta Georgia, Vol 1.
  • Timell, T.E., 1961. Isolation of polysaccharides from the bark of gymnosperms. Swensk Papperstid. 64, 651-661.
  • Umezawa, T., 2001. Chemistry of Extractives, In Wood and Cellulosic Chemistry, pp. 914. Edited by D. N.-S. Hon & N. Shiraishi. New York-Basel: Marcel Dekker.
  • Vazquez, G., Fontenla, E., Santos, J., Freire, M.S., Alverez, J.G., Antorrena, G., 2008. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of chesnut (Castanea sativa) sheel and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globus) bark extracts. Industrial Crops and Products, 28: 279-285.
  • Wise, L.E., Murphy, M., D’addieco, A.A., 1946. Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and beaning on summative wood analysis and studies on the hemicellulose. Pap. Trade J., 122 (2): 35-43.
  • Yemele, M.C.N., Koubaa, A., Cloutier, A., Soulounganga, P., Wolcott, M., 2010. Effect of bark fiber content and size on the mechanical properties of bark/HDPE composites. Composite: Part A, 41: 131-137.
Konular Fen, Mühendislik
Bölüm Orijinal Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Yazar: Oktay GÖNÜLTAŞ
Kurum: BURSA TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Mualla BALABAN UÇAR
Kurum: İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 28 Aralık 2017

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tjf328494, journal = {Turkish Journal of Forestry}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-3898}, address = {}, publisher = {Isparta Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {18}, pages = {321 - 327}, doi = {10.18182/tjf.328494}, title = {Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks}, key = {cite}, author = {Gönültaş, Oktay and Balaban Uçar, Mualla} }
APA Gönültaş, O , Balaban Uçar, M . (2017). Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks. Turkish Journal of Forestry , 18 (4) , 321-327 . DOI: 10.18182/tjf.328494
MLA Gönültaş, O , Balaban Uçar, M . "Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks". Turkish Journal of Forestry 18 (2017 ): 321-327 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tjf/issue/33479/328494>
Chicago Gönültaş, O , Balaban Uçar, M . "Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks". Turkish Journal of Forestry 18 (2017 ): 321-327
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks AU - Oktay Gönültaş , Mualla Balaban Uçar Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.18182/tjf.328494 DO - 10.18182/tjf.328494 T2 - Turkish Journal of Forestry JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 321 EP - 327 VL - 18 IS - 4 SN - -2149-3898 M3 - doi: 10.18182/tjf.328494 UR - https://doi.org/10.18182/tjf.328494 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Türkiye Ormancılık Dergisi Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks %A Oktay Gönültaş , Mualla Balaban Uçar %T Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks %D 2017 %J Turkish Journal of Forestry %P -2149-3898 %V 18 %N 4 %R doi: 10.18182/tjf.328494 %U 10.18182/tjf.328494
ISNAD Gönültaş, Oktay , Balaban Uçar, Mualla . "Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks". Turkish Journal of Forestry 18 / 4 (Aralık 2017): 321-327 . https://doi.org/10.18182/tjf.328494
AMA Gönültaş O , Balaban Uçar M . Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 2017; 18(4): 321-327.
Vancouver Gönültaş O , Balaban Uçar M . Chemical composition of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and oak (Quercus spp.) barks. Turkish Journal of Forestry. 2017; 18(4): 327-321.