Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers

Yıl 2020, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 306 - 343, 30.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.605786

Öz

This study aimed to examine the relationships between Muslim-Turkish children born in France and their French peers. 96 students aged 9-15 participated in the study. 60 of the students were girls, and 36 were boys. The drawings, interviews about the drawings and answers given to the open-ended questions were evaluated together. The data were analysed by the maxqda 2018 software. The study was designed with the research method of phenomenology and analysed by the induction method. The data were depicted in two main themes as tolerant and discriminatory relationships. Differences in terms of gender and age in these themes were examined. Girls made more friends with their French peers. The friendships with the peers increased from 9 years old to 10-12. However, this rate decreased at 13-15 years. Boys expressed that they were exposed to discriminatory attitudes and behaviours by their native friends more. There was an increase from 9 to 10-12 in perceived racial/ethnic exclusion. This decreased at 13-15 years of age. There was a continuous increase in perceived religious exclusion with increasing age

Kaynakça

  • References
  • Aboud, F. E. (1993). The Developmental Psychology of Racial Prejudice. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 30(3), 229–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/136346159303000303Aboud, F. E., Mendelson, M. J., & Purdy, K. T. (2003). Cross-race peer relations and friendship quality. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(2), 165–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000164Abraham, A. (1990). The projection of the inner group in drawing. Group Analysis, 23, 391–402.Abrams, D., Rutland, A., & Cameron, L. (2003). The Development of Subjective Group Dynamics: Children’s Judgments of Normative and Deviant In-Group and Out-Group Individuals. Child Development, 74(6), 1840–1856. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00641.xAgirdag, O., Van Houtte, M., & Van Avermaet, P. (2011). Ethnic school context and the national and sub-national identifications of pupils. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(2), 357–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2010.510198Alba, R. (1999). Immigration and the American Realities of Assimilation and Multiculturalism. Sociological Forum, 14(1), 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021632626811Alba, R. (2005). Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 20–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141987042000280003Aronowitz, M. (1992). Adjustment of Immigrant Children as a Function of Parental Attitudes to Change. International Migration Review, 26(1), 89. https://doi.org/10.2307/2546938Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation Attitudes in Plural Societies. Applied Psychology, 38(2), 185–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1989.tb01208.xBigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (1993). A Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Racial Stereotyping and Reconstructive Memory in Euro-American Children. Child Development, 64(5), 1507. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131549Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2007). Developmental Intergroup Theory: Explaining and Reducing Children’s Social Stereotyping and Prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 162–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00496.xBoulton, M. J. (1996). Partner Preferences of British Asian and White Girls and Boys on the Middle School Playground: Do They Vary As a Function of Activity? Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 11(1), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568549609594693Bourhis, R. Y., Moise, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senecal, S. (1997). Towards an Interactive Acculturation Model: A Social Psychological Approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075997400629Brechwald, W. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 166–179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00721.xBrown, R., & Zagefka, H. (2011). The Dynamics of Acculturation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 129–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385522-0.00003-2Brüß, J. (2005). Proud but isolated? Effects of in-group favouritism and acculturation preferences on inter-ethnic attitudes and contact between German, Turkish and resettler adolescents. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(1), 3–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000305663Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1950). Emotional Factors in Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children. The Journal of Negro Education, 19(3), 341–350. https://doi.org/10.2307/2966491Davey, A. G., & Mullin, P. N. (1982). Inter‐ethnic Friendship in British Primary Schools. Educational Research, 24(2), 83–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188820240201Davis, S. C., Leman, P. J., & Barrett, M. (2007). Children’s implicit and explicit ethnic group attitudes, ethnic group identification, and self-esteem. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(5), 514–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025407081461Enesco, I., Navarro, A., Paradela, I., & Guerrero, S. (2005). Stereotypes and beliefs about different ethnic groups in Spain. A study with Spanish and Latin American children living in Madrid. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 638–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.08.009Feddes, A. R., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children’s Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study: Direct and Extended Friendship Effects. Child Development, 80(2), 377–390. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01266.xFinkelstein, N. W., & Haskins, R. (1983). Kindergarten Children Prefer Same-Color Peers. Child Development, 54(2), 502–508. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129712Fishbein, H. D., & Imai, S. (1993). Preschoolers select playmates on the basis of gender and race. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 303–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(93)90012-kFlanagan, C. A., Syvertsen, A. K., Gill, S., Gallay, L. S., & Cumsille, P. (2009). Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(4), 500–518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9394-zFoner, N., & Alba, R. (2008). Immigrant Religion in the U.S. and Western Europe: Bridge or Barrier to Inclusion? International Migration Review, 42(2), 360–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00128.xGriffiths, J. A., & Nesdale, D. (2006). In-group and out-group attitudes of ethnic majority and minority children. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 735–749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.05.001Grütter, J., & Meyer, B. (2014). Intergroup friendship and children’s intentions for social exclusion in integrative classrooms: The moderating role of teachers’ diversity beliefs: Social exclusion in integrative classrooms. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(7), 481–494. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12240Hallinan, M. T., & Teixeira, R. A. (1987). Opportunities and Constraints: Black-White Differences in the Formation of Interracial Friendships. Child Development, 58(5), 1358–1371. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130627Hitti, A., Mulvey, K. L., & Killen, M. (2017). Minority and Majority Children’s Evaluations of Social Exclusion in Intergroup Contexts. In N. J. Cabrera & B. Leyendecker (Eds.), Handbook on Positive Development of Minority Children and Youth (pp. 281–293). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43645-6_17Jugert, P., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2011). Friendship Preferences Among German and Turkish Preadolescents: Friendship Preferences. Child Development, 82(3), 812–829. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01528.xKao, G., & Joyner, K. (2004). Do Race and Ethnicity Matter Among Friends? Activities among Interracial, Interethnic, and Intraethnic Adolescent Friends. The Sociological Quarterly, 45(3), 557–573. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2004.tb02303.xKawabata, Y., & Crick, N. R. (2008). The role of cross-racial/ethnic friendships in social adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 44(4), 1177–1183. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.4.1177Killen, M. (2007). Children’s Social and Moral Reasoning about Exclusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(1), 32–36. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20183154Kistner, J., Metzler, A., Gatlin, D., & Risi, S. (1993). Classroom racial proportions and children’s peer relations: Race and gender effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 446–452. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.446Kowalski, K. (2003). The Emergence of Ethnic and Racial Attitudes in Preschool-Aged Children. The Journal of Social Psychology, 143(6), 677–690. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540309600424LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L. K., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395–412. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395Lam, V. L., & Leman, P. J. (2003). The Influence of Gender and Ethnicity on Children’s Inferences About Toy Choice. Social Development, 12(2), 269–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00233Lambert, W. E., Mermigis, L., & Taylor, D. M. (1986). Greek Canadians’ attitudes toward own group and other Canadian ethnic groups: A test of the multiculturalism hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 18(1), 35–51. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079952Leman, P. J., Ben-Hmeda, M., Cox, J., Loucas, C., Seltzer-Eade, S., & Hine, B. (2013). Normativity and friendship choices among ethnic majority- and minority-group children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37(3), 202–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025413477315Leman, P. J., & Lam, V. L. (2008). The Influence of Race and Gender on Children’s Conversations and Playmate Choices. Child Development, 79(5), 1329–1343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01191.xLeman, P. J., Macedo, A. P., Bluschke, A., Hudson, L., Rawling, C., & Wright, H. (2011). The influence of gender and ethnicity on children’s peer collaborations. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 131–137. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151010x526344Leszczensky, L. (2013). Do national identification and interethnic friendships affect one another? A longitudinal test with adolescents of Turkish origin in Germany. Social Science Research, 42(3), 775–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.12.019Leszczensky, L., & Pink, S. (2015). Ethnic segregation of friendship networks in school: Testing a rational-choice argument of differences in ethnic homophily between classroom- and grade-level networks. Social Networks, 42, 18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.02.002Leszczensky, L., & Pink, S. (2016). Intra- and Inter-group Friendship Choices of Christian, Muslim, and Non-religious Youth in Germany. European Sociological Review, 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcw049Leszczensky, L., Stark, T. H., Flache, A., & Munniksma, A. (2016). Disentangling the relation between young immigrants’ host country identification and their friendships with natives. Social Networks, 44, 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.08.001Lopez, A. B., Huynh, V. W., & Fuligni, A. J. (2011). A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity and Participation During Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity. Child Development, 82(4), 1297–1309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01609.xMaliepaard, M., Lubbers, M., & Gijsberts, M. (2010). Generational differences in ethnic and religious attachment and their interrelation. A study among Muslim minorities in the Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(3), 451–472. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870903318169Malti, T., Killen, M., & Gasser, L. (2011). Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions About Exclusion in Switzerland. Child Development, 697–711. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01705.xMcGlothlin, H., & Killen, M. (2005). Children’s perceptions of intergroup and intragroup similarity and the role of social experience. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 680–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.08.008McLaren, L. M. (2003). Anti-Immigrant Prejudice in Europe: Contact, Threat Perception, and Preferences for the Exclusion of Migrants. Social Forces, 81(3), 909–936. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2003.0038Meeus, W. (2011). The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 75–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00716.xMouw, T., & Entwisle, B. (2006). Residential Segregation and Interracial Friendship in Schools. American Journal of Sociology, 112(2), 394–441. https://doi.org/10.1086/506415Munniksma, A., Verkuyten, M., Flache, A., Stark, T. H., & Veenstra, R. (2015). Friendships and outgroup attitudes among ethnic minority youth: The mediating role of ethnic and host society identification. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 44, 88–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.12.002Murphy, A., & Laugharne, J. (2013). Children’s perceptions of national identity in Wales. Education 3-13, 41(2), 188–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2011.567196Nesdale, D., & Brown, K. (2004). Children’s attitudes towards an atypical member of an ethnic in-group. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(4), 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000018Nesdale, D., Maass, A., Griffiths, J., & Durkin, K. (2003). Effects of in-group and out-group ethnicity on children’s attitudes towards members of the in-group and out-group. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21(2), 177–192. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151003765264039Nier, J. A., Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Banker, B. S., Ward, C. M., & Rust, M. C. (2001). Changing Interracial Evaluations and Behavior: The Effects of a Common Group Identity. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4(4), 299–316. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430201004004001Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity Among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents. Child Development, 77(5), 1403–1415. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00943.xPark, Y., & Killen, M. (2010). When is peer rejection justifiable? Children’s understanding across two cultures. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 290–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2009.10.004Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531–554. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016059Patterson, M. M., & Bigler, R. S. (2006). Preschool Children’s Attention to Environmental Messages About Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias. Child Development, 77(4), 847–860. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00906.xPettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751Pfeifer, J. H., Ruble, D. N., Bachman, M. A., Alvarez, J. M., Cameron, J. A., & Fuligni, A. J. (2007). Social identities and intergroup bias in immigrant and nonimmigrant children. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 496–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.496Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of Ethnic Identity Development in Minority Group Adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1–2), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431689091004Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 499–514. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499Phinney, J. S., Ferguson, D. L., & Tate, J. D. (1997). Intergroup Attitudes among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Causal Model. Child Development, 68(5), 955–969. https://doi.org/10.2307/1132044Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and its Variants. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530(1), 74–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716293530001006Ramsey, P. G. (1991). The salience of race in young children growing up in an all-White community. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 28–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.83.1.28Ramsey, P. G., & Myers, L. C. (1990). Salience of race in young children’s cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to social environments. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11(1), 49–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(90)90031-EReitz, A. K., Asendorpf, J. B., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2015). When do immigrant adolescents feel personally discriminated against? Longitudinal effects of peer preference. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39(3), 197–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414567008Romero, A. J., & Roberts, R. E. (1998). Perception of discrimination and ethnocultural variables in a diverse group of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 21(6), 641–656. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1998.0185Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of Discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino Adolescents in an Urban High School. Youth & Society, 35(4), 420–451. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X03261479Sabatier, C. (2008). Ethnic and national identity among second-generation immigrant adolescents in France: The role of social context and family. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 185–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.08.001Schaafsma, J., Nezlek, J. B., Krejtz, I., & Safron, M. (2010). Ethnocultural identification and naturally occurring interethnic social interactions: Muslim minorities in Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 1010–1028. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.699Schofield, J. W. (1981). The development of children’s friendships. In S. A. Asher & J. M. Gottman (Eds.), Complimentary and conflicting identities: İmages of inretaction in an interracial school (pp. 53–90). New York: Cambridge University Press.Seul, J. R. (1999). `Ours is the Way of God’: Religion, Identity, And Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 36(5), 553–569. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343399036005004Shih, T. A. (1998). Finding the Niche: Friendship Formation of Immigrant Adolescents. Youth & Society, 30(2), 209–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X98030002004Smith, A., & Schneider, B. H. (2000). The inter-ethnic friendships of adolescent students: A Canadian study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(2), 247–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00034-6Smith, S., Maas, I., & van Tubergen, F. (2014). Ethnic ingroup friendships in schools: Testing the by-product hypothesis in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. Social Networks, 39, 33–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2014.04.003Spiegler, O., Güngör, D., & Leyendecker, B. (2016). Muslim Immigrant Parents’ Social Status Moderates the Link Between Religious Parenting and Children’s Identification with the Heritage and Host Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(9), 1159–1177. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116665170Stark, T. H., Flache, A., & Veenstra, R. (2013). Generalization of Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Individuals to Outgroup Attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(5), 608–622. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213480890Stevens, G. W. J. M., Pels, T. V. M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & Crijnen, A. A. M. (2004). Patterns of Psychological Acculturation in Adult and Adolescent Moroccan Immigrants Living in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(6), 689–704. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022104270111Strabac, Z., & Listhaug, O. (2008). Anti-Muslim prejudice in Europe: A multilevel analysis of survey data from 30 countries. Social Science Research, 37(1), 268–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.02.004Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. M. (1993). Family psychology and cultural diversity: Opportunities for theory, research, and application. American Psychologist, 48(4), 400–407. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.4.400Ting-Toomey, S. (1981). Ethnic identity and close friendship in Chinese-American college students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 5(4), 383–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(81)90049-3Turner, K. L., & Brown, C. S. (2007). The Centrality of Gender and Ethnic Identities across Individuals and Contexts. Social Development, 16(4), 700–719. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00403.xvan der Straten Waillet, N., & Roskam, I. (2012a). Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 173(2), 208–220. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2011.600356van der Straten Waillet, N., & Roskam, I. (2012b). Religious Discrimination in Childhood and Adolescence. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 34(2), 215–242. https://doi.org/10.1163/15736121-12341240Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Prins, K. S., & Buunk, B. P. (1998). Attitudes of minority and majority members towards adaptation of immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28(6), 995–1013. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(1998110)28:6<995::AID-EJSP908>3.0.CO;2-8Vaughan, G. M. (1978). Social change and intergroup preferences in New Zealand. European Journal of Social Psychology, 8(3), 297–314. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420080304Velasco González, K., Verkuyten, M., Weesie, J., & Poppe, E. (2008). Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing integrated threat theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(4), 667–685. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466608X284443Verkuyten, M. (2007). Ethnic In-Group Favoritism Among Minority and Majority Groups: Testing the Self-Esteem Hypothesis Among Preadolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(3), 486–500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00170.xVerkuyten, M., & Kinket, B. (2000). Social Distances in a Multi Ethnic Society: The Ethnic Hierarchy among Dutch Preadolescents. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(1), 75. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695882Verkuyten, M., & Martinovic, B. (2012). Immigrants’ National Identification: Meanings, Determinants, and Consequences: National Identification of Immigrants. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 82–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01036.xVerkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2002). Racist victimization among children in The Netherlands: The effect of ethnic group and school. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(2), 310–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870120109502Verkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2010). Religious Group Relations Among Christian, Muslim and Nonreligious Early Adolescents in the Netherlands. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(1), 27–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431609342984Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Sierksma, J. (2014). Majority Children’s Evaluation of Acculturation Preferences of Immigrant and Emigrant Peers. Child Development, 85(1), 176–191. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12111Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Stevens, G. (2012). Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study Among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and Their Parents: Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission. Child Development, 83(5), 1577–1590. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01794.xVermeij, L., van Duijn, M. A. J., & Baerveldt, C. (2009). Ethnic segregation in context: Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates. Social Networks, 31(4), 230–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2009.06.002Vervoort, M. H. M., Scholte, R. H. J., & Scheepers, P. L. H. (2011). Ethnic composition of school classes, majority–minority friendships, and adolescents’ intergroup attitudes in the Netherlands. Journal of Adolescence, 34(2), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.05.005Windzio, M., & Wingens, M. (2014). Religion, friendship networks and home visits of immigrant and native children. Acta Sociologica, 57(1), 59–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699313481226Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The Influence of Ethnic Discrimination and Ethnic Identification on African American adolescents’ School and Socioemotional Adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1197–1232. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106012Zagefka, H., Tip, L. K., González, R., Brown, R., & Cinnirella, M. (2012). Predictors of majority members’ acculturation preferences: Experimental evidence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(3), 654–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.006

Türk-Fransız Çocuklar ve Fransız Akranları Arasındaki Arkadaşlık İlişkileri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 306 - 343, 30.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.605786

Öz

Bu çalışmada Fransa'da doğan Müslüman-Türk çocukları ile Fransız akranları arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Çalışmaya 9-15 yaş arasında 96 öğrenci katılmıştır. Öğrencilerin 60'ı kız, 36'sı erkektir. Öğrencilerin çizimleri, çizimlerle ilgili görüşmeler ve açık uçlu sorulara verilen yanıtlar birlikte değerlendirilmiştir. Veriler MAXQDA 2018 yazılımı ile analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma, nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden fenomenolojik araştırma yöntemi ile desenlenmiş ve tümevarım yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Veriler, hoşgörülü ve ayrımcı ilişkiler olarak iki ana temada tasvir edilmiştir. Bu temalarda cinsiyet ve yaş açısından farklılıklar incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın bulgularına göre, kız çocukların Fransız akranlarını daha çok arkadaş edindikleri görülmüştür. Akranlarıyla olan dostluklar 9 yaşından 10-12 yaş aralığına doğru yükseldi. Ancak bu oran 13-15 yaşlarında azalmıştır. Erkek çocuklar, kız çocuklara nazaran, Fransız akranları tarafından ayrımcı tutum ve davranışlara daha çok maruz kaldıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Algılanan ırksal / etnik dışlanmada 9 yaşından 10-12 yaş aralığına doğru bir artış olmuş; bu artış 13-15 yaş aralığında azalmıştır. Artan yaşla birlikte algılanan dini dışlanmada sürekli bir artış olmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • References
  • Aboud, F. E. (1993). The Developmental Psychology of Racial Prejudice. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 30(3), 229–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/136346159303000303Aboud, F. E., Mendelson, M. J., & Purdy, K. T. (2003). Cross-race peer relations and friendship quality. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(2), 165–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000164Abraham, A. (1990). The projection of the inner group in drawing. Group Analysis, 23, 391–402.Abrams, D., Rutland, A., & Cameron, L. (2003). The Development of Subjective Group Dynamics: Children’s Judgments of Normative and Deviant In-Group and Out-Group Individuals. Child Development, 74(6), 1840–1856. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00641.xAgirdag, O., Van Houtte, M., & Van Avermaet, P. (2011). Ethnic school context and the national and sub-national identifications of pupils. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(2), 357–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2010.510198Alba, R. (1999). Immigration and the American Realities of Assimilation and Multiculturalism. Sociological Forum, 14(1), 3–25. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021632626811Alba, R. (2005). Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 20–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141987042000280003Aronowitz, M. (1992). Adjustment of Immigrant Children as a Function of Parental Attitudes to Change. International Migration Review, 26(1), 89. https://doi.org/10.2307/2546938Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation Attitudes in Plural Societies. Applied Psychology, 38(2), 185–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1989.tb01208.xBigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (1993). A Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Racial Stereotyping and Reconstructive Memory in Euro-American Children. Child Development, 64(5), 1507. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131549Bigler, R. S., & Liben, L. S. (2007). Developmental Intergroup Theory: Explaining and Reducing Children’s Social Stereotyping and Prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3), 162–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00496.xBoulton, M. J. (1996). Partner Preferences of British Asian and White Girls and Boys on the Middle School Playground: Do They Vary As a Function of Activity? Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 11(1), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568549609594693Bourhis, R. Y., Moise, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senecal, S. (1997). Towards an Interactive Acculturation Model: A Social Psychological Approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075997400629Brechwald, W. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 166–179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00721.xBrown, R., & Zagefka, H. (2011). The Dynamics of Acculturation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 129–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385522-0.00003-2Brüß, J. (2005). Proud but isolated? Effects of in-group favouritism and acculturation preferences on inter-ethnic attitudes and contact between German, Turkish and resettler adolescents. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(1), 3–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000305663Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1950). Emotional Factors in Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children. The Journal of Negro Education, 19(3), 341–350. https://doi.org/10.2307/2966491Davey, A. G., & Mullin, P. N. (1982). Inter‐ethnic Friendship in British Primary Schools. Educational Research, 24(2), 83–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188820240201Davis, S. C., Leman, P. J., & Barrett, M. (2007). Children’s implicit and explicit ethnic group attitudes, ethnic group identification, and self-esteem. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31(5), 514–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025407081461Enesco, I., Navarro, A., Paradela, I., & Guerrero, S. (2005). Stereotypes and beliefs about different ethnic groups in Spain. A study with Spanish and Latin American children living in Madrid. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 638–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.08.009Feddes, A. R., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children’s Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study: Direct and Extended Friendship Effects. Child Development, 80(2), 377–390. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01266.xFinkelstein, N. W., & Haskins, R. (1983). Kindergarten Children Prefer Same-Color Peers. Child Development, 54(2), 502–508. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129712Fishbein, H. D., & Imai, S. (1993). Preschoolers select playmates on the basis of gender and race. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 303–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(93)90012-kFlanagan, C. A., Syvertsen, A. K., Gill, S., Gallay, L. S., & Cumsille, P. (2009). Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(4), 500–518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9394-zFoner, N., & Alba, R. (2008). Immigrant Religion in the U.S. and Western Europe: Bridge or Barrier to Inclusion? International Migration Review, 42(2), 360–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00128.xGriffiths, J. A., & Nesdale, D. (2006). In-group and out-group attitudes of ethnic majority and minority children. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 735–749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2006.05.001Grütter, J., & Meyer, B. (2014). Intergroup friendship and children’s intentions for social exclusion in integrative classrooms: The moderating role of teachers’ diversity beliefs: Social exclusion in integrative classrooms. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(7), 481–494. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12240Hallinan, M. T., & Teixeira, R. A. (1987). Opportunities and Constraints: Black-White Differences in the Formation of Interracial Friendships. Child Development, 58(5), 1358–1371. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130627Hitti, A., Mulvey, K. L., & Killen, M. (2017). Minority and Majority Children’s Evaluations of Social Exclusion in Intergroup Contexts. In N. J. Cabrera & B. Leyendecker (Eds.), Handbook on Positive Development of Minority Children and Youth (pp. 281–293). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43645-6_17Jugert, P., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2011). Friendship Preferences Among German and Turkish Preadolescents: Friendship Preferences. Child Development, 82(3), 812–829. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01528.xKao, G., & Joyner, K. (2004). Do Race and Ethnicity Matter Among Friends? Activities among Interracial, Interethnic, and Intraethnic Adolescent Friends. The Sociological Quarterly, 45(3), 557–573. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2004.tb02303.xKawabata, Y., & Crick, N. R. (2008). The role of cross-racial/ethnic friendships in social adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 44(4), 1177–1183. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.4.1177Killen, M. (2007). Children’s Social and Moral Reasoning about Exclusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(1), 32–36. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20183154Kistner, J., Metzler, A., Gatlin, D., & Risi, S. (1993). Classroom racial proportions and children’s peer relations: Race and gender effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 446–452. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.446Kowalski, K. (2003). The Emergence of Ethnic and Racial Attitudes in Preschool-Aged Children. The Journal of Social Psychology, 143(6), 677–690. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540309600424LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L. K., & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395–412. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395Lam, V. L., & Leman, P. J. (2003). The Influence of Gender and Ethnicity on Children’s Inferences About Toy Choice. Social Development, 12(2), 269–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00233Lambert, W. E., Mermigis, L., & Taylor, D. M. (1986). Greek Canadians’ attitudes toward own group and other Canadian ethnic groups: A test of the multiculturalism hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 18(1), 35–51. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079952Leman, P. J., Ben-Hmeda, M., Cox, J., Loucas, C., Seltzer-Eade, S., & Hine, B. (2013). Normativity and friendship choices among ethnic majority- and minority-group children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37(3), 202–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025413477315Leman, P. J., & Lam, V. L. (2008). The Influence of Race and Gender on Children’s Conversations and Playmate Choices. Child Development, 79(5), 1329–1343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01191.xLeman, P. J., Macedo, A. P., Bluschke, A., Hudson, L., Rawling, C., & Wright, H. (2011). The influence of gender and ethnicity on children’s peer collaborations. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 131–137. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151010x526344Leszczensky, L. (2013). Do national identification and interethnic friendships affect one another? A longitudinal test with adolescents of Turkish origin in Germany. Social Science Research, 42(3), 775–788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.12.019Leszczensky, L., & Pink, S. (2015). Ethnic segregation of friendship networks in school: Testing a rational-choice argument of differences in ethnic homophily between classroom- and grade-level networks. Social Networks, 42, 18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.02.002Leszczensky, L., & Pink, S. (2016). Intra- and Inter-group Friendship Choices of Christian, Muslim, and Non-religious Youth in Germany. European Sociological Review, 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcw049Leszczensky, L., Stark, T. H., Flache, A., & Munniksma, A. (2016). Disentangling the relation between young immigrants’ host country identification and their friendships with natives. Social Networks, 44, 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2015.08.001Lopez, A. B., Huynh, V. W., & Fuligni, A. J. (2011). A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity and Participation During Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity. Child Development, 82(4), 1297–1309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01609.xMaliepaard, M., Lubbers, M., & Gijsberts, M. (2010). Generational differences in ethnic and religious attachment and their interrelation. A study among Muslim minorities in the Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(3), 451–472. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870903318169Malti, T., Killen, M., & Gasser, L. (2011). Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions About Exclusion in Switzerland. Child Development, 697–711. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01705.xMcGlothlin, H., & Killen, M. (2005). Children’s perceptions of intergroup and intragroup similarity and the role of social experience. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 680–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2005.08.008McLaren, L. M. (2003). Anti-Immigrant Prejudice in Europe: Contact, Threat Perception, and Preferences for the Exclusion of Migrants. Social Forces, 81(3), 909–936. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2003.0038Meeus, W. (2011). The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 75–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00716.xMouw, T., & Entwisle, B. (2006). Residential Segregation and Interracial Friendship in Schools. American Journal of Sociology, 112(2), 394–441. https://doi.org/10.1086/506415Munniksma, A., Verkuyten, M., Flache, A., Stark, T. H., & Veenstra, R. (2015). Friendships and outgroup attitudes among ethnic minority youth: The mediating role of ethnic and host society identification. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 44, 88–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.12.002Murphy, A., & Laugharne, J. (2013). Children’s perceptions of national identity in Wales. Education 3-13, 41(2), 188–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2011.567196Nesdale, D., & Brown, K. (2004). Children’s attitudes towards an atypical member of an ethnic in-group. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(4), 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000018Nesdale, D., Maass, A., Griffiths, J., & Durkin, K. (2003). Effects of in-group and out-group ethnicity on children’s attitudes towards members of the in-group and out-group. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21(2), 177–192. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151003765264039Nier, J. A., Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Banker, B. S., Ward, C. M., & Rust, M. C. (2001). Changing Interracial Evaluations and Behavior: The Effects of a Common Group Identity. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4(4), 299–316. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430201004004001Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity Among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents. Child Development, 77(5), 1403–1415. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00943.xPark, Y., & Killen, M. (2010). When is peer rejection justifiable? Children’s understanding across two cultures. Cognitive Development, 25(3), 290–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2009.10.004Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531–554. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016059Patterson, M. M., & Bigler, R. S. (2006). Preschool Children’s Attention to Environmental Messages About Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias. Child Development, 77(4), 847–860. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00906.xPettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751Pfeifer, J. H., Ruble, D. N., Bachman, M. A., Alvarez, J. M., Cameron, J. A., & Fuligni, A. J. (2007). Social identities and intergroup bias in immigrant and nonimmigrant children. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 496–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.496Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of Ethnic Identity Development in Minority Group Adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1–2), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431689091004Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 499–514. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499Phinney, J. S., Ferguson, D. L., & Tate, J. D. (1997). Intergroup Attitudes among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Causal Model. Child Development, 68(5), 955–969. https://doi.org/10.2307/1132044Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and its Variants. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530(1), 74–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716293530001006Ramsey, P. G. (1991). The salience of race in young children growing up in an all-White community. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 28–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.83.1.28Ramsey, P. G., & Myers, L. C. (1990). Salience of race in young children’s cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to social environments. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11(1), 49–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(90)90031-EReitz, A. K., Asendorpf, J. B., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2015). When do immigrant adolescents feel personally discriminated against? Longitudinal effects of peer preference. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39(3), 197–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414567008Romero, A. J., & Roberts, R. E. (1998). Perception of discrimination and ethnocultural variables in a diverse group of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 21(6), 641–656. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1998.0185Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of Discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino Adolescents in an Urban High School. Youth & Society, 35(4), 420–451. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X03261479Sabatier, C. (2008). Ethnic and national identity among second-generation immigrant adolescents in France: The role of social context and family. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 185–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.08.001Schaafsma, J., Nezlek, J. B., Krejtz, I., & Safron, M. (2010). Ethnocultural identification and naturally occurring interethnic social interactions: Muslim minorities in Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40(6), 1010–1028. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.699Schofield, J. W. (1981). The development of children’s friendships. In S. A. Asher & J. M. Gottman (Eds.), Complimentary and conflicting identities: İmages of inretaction in an interracial school (pp. 53–90). New York: Cambridge University Press.Seul, J. R. (1999). `Ours is the Way of God’: Religion, Identity, And Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 36(5), 553–569. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343399036005004Shih, T. A. (1998). Finding the Niche: Friendship Formation of Immigrant Adolescents. Youth & Society, 30(2), 209–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X98030002004Smith, A., & Schneider, B. H. (2000). The inter-ethnic friendships of adolescent students: A Canadian study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24(2), 247–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00034-6Smith, S., Maas, I., & van Tubergen, F. (2014). Ethnic ingroup friendships in schools: Testing the by-product hypothesis in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. Social Networks, 39, 33–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2014.04.003Spiegler, O., Güngör, D., & Leyendecker, B. (2016). Muslim Immigrant Parents’ Social Status Moderates the Link Between Religious Parenting and Children’s Identification with the Heritage and Host Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(9), 1159–1177. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022116665170Stark, T. H., Flache, A., & Veenstra, R. (2013). Generalization of Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Individuals to Outgroup Attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(5), 608–622. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213480890Stevens, G. W. J. M., Pels, T. V. M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & Crijnen, A. A. M. (2004). Patterns of Psychological Acculturation in Adult and Adolescent Moroccan Immigrants Living in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(6), 689–704. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022104270111Strabac, Z., & Listhaug, O. (2008). Anti-Muslim prejudice in Europe: A multilevel analysis of survey data from 30 countries. Social Science Research, 37(1), 268–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.02.004Szapocznik, J., & Kurtines, W. M. (1993). Family psychology and cultural diversity: Opportunities for theory, research, and application. American Psychologist, 48(4), 400–407. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.4.400Ting-Toomey, S. (1981). Ethnic identity and close friendship in Chinese-American college students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 5(4), 383–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(81)90049-3Turner, K. L., & Brown, C. S. (2007). The Centrality of Gender and Ethnic Identities across Individuals and Contexts. Social Development, 16(4), 700–719. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00403.xvan der Straten Waillet, N., & Roskam, I. (2012a). Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 173(2), 208–220. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2011.600356van der Straten Waillet, N., & Roskam, I. (2012b). Religious Discrimination in Childhood and Adolescence. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 34(2), 215–242. https://doi.org/10.1163/15736121-12341240Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Prins, K. S., & Buunk, B. P. (1998). Attitudes of minority and majority members towards adaptation of immigrants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28(6), 995–1013. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0992(1998110)28:6<995::AID-EJSP908>3.0.CO;2-8Vaughan, G. M. (1978). Social change and intergroup preferences in New Zealand. European Journal of Social Psychology, 8(3), 297–314. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420080304Velasco González, K., Verkuyten, M., Weesie, J., & Poppe, E. (2008). Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing integrated threat theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(4), 667–685. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466608X284443Verkuyten, M. (2007). Ethnic In-Group Favoritism Among Minority and Majority Groups: Testing the Self-Esteem Hypothesis Among Preadolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(3), 486–500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00170.xVerkuyten, M., & Kinket, B. (2000). Social Distances in a Multi Ethnic Society: The Ethnic Hierarchy among Dutch Preadolescents. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(1), 75. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695882Verkuyten, M., & Martinovic, B. (2012). Immigrants’ National Identification: Meanings, Determinants, and Consequences: National Identification of Immigrants. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 82–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01036.xVerkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2002). Racist victimization among children in The Netherlands: The effect of ethnic group and school. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(2), 310–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870120109502Verkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2010). Religious Group Relations Among Christian, Muslim and Nonreligious Early Adolescents in the Netherlands. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(1), 27–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431609342984Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Sierksma, J. (2014). Majority Children’s Evaluation of Acculturation Preferences of Immigrant and Emigrant Peers. Child Development, 85(1), 176–191. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12111Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Stevens, G. (2012). Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study Among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and Their Parents: Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission. Child Development, 83(5), 1577–1590. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01794.xVermeij, L., van Duijn, M. A. J., & Baerveldt, C. (2009). Ethnic segregation in context: Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates. Social Networks, 31(4), 230–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2009.06.002Vervoort, M. H. M., Scholte, R. H. J., & Scheepers, P. L. H. (2011). Ethnic composition of school classes, majority–minority friendships, and adolescents’ intergroup attitudes in the Netherlands. Journal of Adolescence, 34(2), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.05.005Windzio, M., & Wingens, M. (2014). Religion, friendship networks and home visits of immigrant and native children. Acta Sociologica, 57(1), 59–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001699313481226Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The Influence of Ethnic Discrimination and Ethnic Identification on African American adolescents’ School and Socioemotional Adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1197–1232. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106012Zagefka, H., Tip, L. K., González, R., Brown, R., & Cinnirella, M. (2012). Predictors of majority members’ acculturation preferences: Experimental evidence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(3), 654–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.006

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Yasemin GÜLEÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)

0000-0001-8843-3270
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 16 Ağustos 2019
Kabul Tarihi 29 Nisan 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 11, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tojqi605786, journal = {Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry}, eissn = {1309-6591}, address = {}, publisher = {Abdullah KUZU}, year = {2020}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {306 - 343}, doi = {10.17569/tojqi.605786}, title = {Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers}, key = {cite}, author = {Güleç, Yasemin} }
APA Güleç, Y. (2020). Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers . Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry , 11 (2) , 306-343 . DOI: 10.17569/tojqi.605786
MLA Güleç, Y. "Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers" . Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 11 (2020 ): 306-343 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tojqi/issue/54063/605786>
Chicago Güleç, Y. "Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers". Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 11 (2020 ): 306-343
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Türk-Fransız Çocuklar ve Fransız Akranları Arasındaki Arkadaşlık İlişkileri AU - YaseminGüleç Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.17569/tojqi.605786 DO - 10.17569/tojqi.605786 T2 - Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 306 EP - 343 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - -1309-6591 M3 - doi: 10.17569/tojqi.605786 UR - https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.605786 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers %A Yasemin Güleç %T Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers %D 2020 %J Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry %P -1309-6591 %V 11 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17569/tojqi.605786 %U 10.17569/tojqi.605786
ISNAD Güleç, Yasemin . "Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers". Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 11 / 2 (Nisan 2020): 306-343 . https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.605786
AMA Güleç Y. Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers. TOJQI. 2020; 11(2): 306-343.
Vancouver Güleç Y. Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry. 2020; 11(2): 306-343.
IEEE Y. Güleç , "Friendship Relationships between Turkish-French Children and Their French Peers", Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, c. 11, sayı. 2, ss. 306-343, Nis. 2020, doi:10.17569/tojqi.605786