Araştırma Makalesi
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Investigation of the Relationship between Pygmalion Effect and Sport-Specific Self-Efficacy in Cycling Athletes

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 6 Sayı: 1, 1 - 10, 29.03.2023

Öz

This study aims to examine the effects of positive expectations (pygmalion effect) created by coaches on the sport-specific self-efficacy of cycling athletes. The population of this study consists of 396 cycling athletes who participated in the 120-minute local mountain bike and 56th international presidential cycling race organized in Antalya province in 2021. To determine the research sample number, 203 cycling athletes were included in the sample as a result of the calculations made at a 95% confidence interval and a 5% error rate. In this study, the pygmalion attitude index was used to evaluate the pygmalion effect in cycling athletes, and the athlete self-efficacy scale was used to determine the self-efficacy of athletes. Before proceeding to the statistical analysis process of the research, the normality distribution results of the data were calculated. Assuming that the skewness and kurtosis values will vary between +2 and -2, the conclusion was that the data conforming to this value range is suitable for normal distribution. Parametric test techniques were used to evaluate the data conforming to normal distribution. Within the scope of the research, path analysis statistical evaluation was performed to evaluate the effect of pygmalion effect on athlete self-efficacy. As a result, it was determined that the pygmalion effect had a positive and significant effect on the athletes' self-efficacy (p<0.01). It can be said that coach expectation is a crucial predictor of athlete self-efficacy.

Kaynakça

  • Alampay, R. H., & Morgan, F. T. (2000). Evaluating external executive education at Dow Chemical: its impact and the Pygmalion effect. Human Resource Development International, 3(4), 489-498.
  • Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual review of psychology, 60, 421-449.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
  • Bayram, Ü. (2014). Turizm Sektörü Yönetici ve İşgörenleri Arasında Pygmalion Etkisi: Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama, Yayımlanmış Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Buning, M. M. (2008). Effect of Coach Expectations on Athletes' Motivation to Practice. Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University. Florida.
  • Chen, G., & Klimoski, R. J. (2003). The impact of expectations on newcomer performance in teams as mediated by work characteristics, social exchanges, and empowerment. Academy of management Journal, 46(5), 591-607.
  • Cipriani, G. P., & Makris, M. (2006). A model with self-fulfilling prophecies of longevity. Economics Letters, 91(1), 122-126.
  • Çakiroglu, T. (2021). The Role of Athletic Self-Efficacy and Athletic Perfectionism in Predicting Athletic Performance of Gazi University Student Athletes. Journal of Educational Issues, 7(2), 300-309.
  • Eden, D. (1990). Pygmalion without interpersonal contrast effects: Whole groups gain from raising manager expectations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(4), 394.
  • Eden, D., & Aviram, A. (1993). Self-efficacy training to speed reemployment: Helping people to help themselves. Journal of applied Psychology, 78(3), 352.
  • Eden, D., & Kinnar, J. (1991). Modeling Galatea: Boosting self-efficacy to increase volunteering. Journal of Applied psychology, 76(6), 770.
  • Eden, D., & Ravid, G. (1982). Pygmalion versus self-expectancy: Effects of instructor-and self-expectancy on trainee performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30(3), 351-364.
  • Eden, D., Geller, D., Gewirtz, A., Gordon-Terner, R., Inbar, I., Liberman, M., ... & Shalit, M. (2000). Implanting Pygmalion leadership style through workshop training: Seven field experiments. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), 171-210.
  • Feltz, D. L., Chase, M. A., Moritz, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (1999). A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of educational psychology, 91(4), 765.
  • George, D., & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step. A simple study guide and reference (10. Baskı). GEN, Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc, 10.
  • Gündüzalp, S., & Özan, M. B. (2019). The power of expectations in school management: Pygmalion effect. Journal of Education and Future, (15), 47-62.
  • Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin, 97(3), 363.
  • Horn, T. S. (1984). Expectancy effects in the interscholastic athletic setting: Methodological concerns. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 60-76.
  • Horn, T. S., Lox, C., & Labrador, F. (1998). The self-fulfilling prophecy theory: When coaches' expectations become reality. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied Sports Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance (3rd ed., pp. 74-91). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
  • Howard, L. W., Tang, T. L. P., & Jill Austin, M. (2015). Teaching critical thinking skills: Ability, motivation, intervention, and the Pygmalion effect. Journal of Business Ethics, 128, 133-147.
  • Jahan, F., & Mehrafzoon, D. (2019). Effectiveness of pygmalion effect-based education of teachers on the students’ self-efficacy and academic engagement. Iranian journal of Learning and Memory, 1(4), 17-22.
  • Jones, E. E. (1986). Interpreting interpersonal behavior: The effects of expectancies. Science, 234(4772), 41-46.
  • Karakowsky, L., Degama, N. & Mcbey, K. (2012). Facilitating the Pygmalion Effect: The Overlooked Role of Subordinate Perceptions of the Leader, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85 (4), 579-599.
  • Kılıç, S. (2012). Örnek büyüklüğü, güç kavramları ve örnek büyüklüğü hesaplaması . Journal of Mood Disorders , 2 (3) , 140-2 . DOI: 10.5455/jmood.20120921043306
  • Koçak, Ç. V. (2020). Athlete self-efficacy scale: Development and psychometric properties. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 1, 41-54.
  • Lachman, M. E., Neupert, S. D., & Agrigoroaei, S. (2011). The relevance of control beliefs for health and aging. In Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 175-190). Academic Press.
  • Miller, D. T., & Turnbull, W. (1986). Expectancies and interpersonal processes. Annual review of psychology, 37(1), 233-256.
  • Mushtaq, Y., & Khalidi, M. (2016). A study on pygmalion effect: a case of academic training in a military unit. Market Forces College of Management Sciences, 11(1), 35-48.
  • Myers, N. D., Vargas-Tonsing, T. M., & Feltz, D. L. (2005). Coaching ef-ficacy in intercollegiate coaches: Sources, coaching behavior, and team variables. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 129-143. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2003.10.007
  • Natanovich, G., & Eden, D. (2008). Pygmalion effects among outreach supervisors and tutors: Extending sex generalizability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1382.
  • Oral, B., & Çoban, A. (2020). Kuramdan uygulamaya eğitimde bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Rejeski, W., Darracott, C., & Hutslar, S. (1979). Pygmalion in youth sport: A field study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(4), 311-319.
  • Reynolds, D. (2007). Restraining Golem and harnessing Pygmalion in the classroom: A laboratory study of managerial expectations and task design. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(4), 475-483.
  • Schinke, R. and Tabakman, J. (2001). Reflective coaching interventions for athletic excellence. Athletic Insight, 3(1),1-12.
  • Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Barnett, N. P. (1995). Reduction of children's sport performance anxiety through social support and stress-reduction training for coaches. Journal of applied developmental psychology, 16(1), 125-142.
  • Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Curtis, B. (1979). Coach effectiveness training: A cognitive-behavioral approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1(1), 59–75.
  • Snyder, M., & Swann Jr, W. B. (1978). Behavioral confirmation in social interaction: From social perception to social reality. Journal of experimental social psychology, 14(2), 148-162.
  • Sonmez, V., & Gulduren-Alacapinar, F. (2019). Orneklendirilmis bilimsel arastirma yöntemleri. Memoir Publishing.
  • Szumski, G., & Karwowski, M. (2019). Exploring the Pygmalion effect: The role of teacher expectations, academic self-concept, and class context in students’ math achievement. Contemporary educational psychology, 59, 101787.
  • Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2004). The Pygmalion process and employee creativity. Journal of management, 30(3), 413-432.
  • Trouilloud, D. O., Sarrazin, P. G., Martinek, T. J., & Guillet, E. (2002). The influence of teacher expectations on student achievement in physical education classes: Pygmalion revisited. European journal of social psychology, 32(5), 591-607.
  • Wang, K., Bailey, E. R., & Jachimowicz, J. M. (2022). The Passionate Pygmalion Effect: Passionate employees attain better outcomes in part because of more preferential treatment by others. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 101, 104345.
  • Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of experimental social psychology, 10(2), 109-120.
  • Zanna, M. P., & Pack, S. J. (1975). On the self-fulfilling nature of apparent sex differences in behavior. Journal of experimental social psychology, 11(6), 583-591.

Bisiklet Sporcularında Pygmalion Etkisi ile Spora Özgü Öz Yeterlik İlişkisinin İncelenmesi

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 6 Sayı: 1, 1 - 10, 29.03.2023

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı antrenörler tarafından oluşturulan olumlu beklentilerin (pygmalion etkisinin) bisiklet sporcularının spora özgü öz yeterlikleri üzerine etkilerini incelemektir. Bu araştırmanın evrenini 2021 yılında Antalya ilinde düzenlenmiş olan 120 dakika yerel dağ bisikleti ve yarışına 56.uluslararası cumhurbaşkanlığı bisiklet yarışına katılan toplam 396 bisiklet sporcusu oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma örneklem sayısının belirlenmesi için % 95 güven aralığında %5 hata oranı üzerinden yapılan hesaplamalar sonucunda 203 bisiklet sporcusu araştırmanın örneklemine dahil edilmiştir. Bu araştırmada bisiklet sporcularında pygmalion etkisinin değerlendirilmesi için pygmalion tutum indeksi, sporcuların öz yeterlik durumlarının tespit edilmesi için ise sporcu öz yeterliği ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın istatistiki analiz sürecine geçmeden önce verilere ilişkin normallik dağılımı sonuçları hesaplanmıştır. Çarpıklık ve basıklık değerlerinin +2 ile -2 arasında değişim göstereceği varsayılarak bu değer aralığına uyum gösteren verilerin normal dağılıma uygun oldukları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Normal dağılıma uygunluk gösteren verilerin değerlendirilmesi için parametrik olan test teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında pygmalion etkisinin sporcu öz yeterliği üzerindeki etkisinin değerlendirilmesi için yol analizi istatistiki değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır. Sonuç olarak; pygmalion etkisinin sporcuların öz yeterlik durumları pozitif derecede anlamlı bir etkinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir (p<0,01). Antrenör beklentisinin sporcu öz yeterliği üzerinde önemli bir yordayıcı olduğu söylenebilir.

Kaynakça

  • Alampay, R. H., & Morgan, F. T. (2000). Evaluating external executive education at Dow Chemical: its impact and the Pygmalion effect. Human Resource Development International, 3(4), 489-498.
  • Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual review of psychology, 60, 421-449.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
  • Bayram, Ü. (2014). Turizm Sektörü Yönetici ve İşgörenleri Arasında Pygmalion Etkisi: Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama, Yayımlanmış Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Buning, M. M. (2008). Effect of Coach Expectations on Athletes' Motivation to Practice. Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University. Florida.
  • Chen, G., & Klimoski, R. J. (2003). The impact of expectations on newcomer performance in teams as mediated by work characteristics, social exchanges, and empowerment. Academy of management Journal, 46(5), 591-607.
  • Cipriani, G. P., & Makris, M. (2006). A model with self-fulfilling prophecies of longevity. Economics Letters, 91(1), 122-126.
  • Çakiroglu, T. (2021). The Role of Athletic Self-Efficacy and Athletic Perfectionism in Predicting Athletic Performance of Gazi University Student Athletes. Journal of Educational Issues, 7(2), 300-309.
  • Eden, D. (1990). Pygmalion without interpersonal contrast effects: Whole groups gain from raising manager expectations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(4), 394.
  • Eden, D., & Aviram, A. (1993). Self-efficacy training to speed reemployment: Helping people to help themselves. Journal of applied Psychology, 78(3), 352.
  • Eden, D., & Kinnar, J. (1991). Modeling Galatea: Boosting self-efficacy to increase volunteering. Journal of Applied psychology, 76(6), 770.
  • Eden, D., & Ravid, G. (1982). Pygmalion versus self-expectancy: Effects of instructor-and self-expectancy on trainee performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30(3), 351-364.
  • Eden, D., Geller, D., Gewirtz, A., Gordon-Terner, R., Inbar, I., Liberman, M., ... & Shalit, M. (2000). Implanting Pygmalion leadership style through workshop training: Seven field experiments. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(2), 171-210.
  • Feltz, D. L., Chase, M. A., Moritz, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (1999). A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of educational psychology, 91(4), 765.
  • George, D., & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step. A simple study guide and reference (10. Baskı). GEN, Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc, 10.
  • Gündüzalp, S., & Özan, M. B. (2019). The power of expectations in school management: Pygmalion effect. Journal of Education and Future, (15), 47-62.
  • Harris, M. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1985). Mediation of interpersonal expectancy effects: 31 meta-analyses. Psychological bulletin, 97(3), 363.
  • Horn, T. S. (1984). Expectancy effects in the interscholastic athletic setting: Methodological concerns. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 60-76.
  • Horn, T. S., Lox, C., & Labrador, F. (1998). The self-fulfilling prophecy theory: When coaches' expectations become reality. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied Sports Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance (3rd ed., pp. 74-91). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
  • Howard, L. W., Tang, T. L. P., & Jill Austin, M. (2015). Teaching critical thinking skills: Ability, motivation, intervention, and the Pygmalion effect. Journal of Business Ethics, 128, 133-147.
  • Jahan, F., & Mehrafzoon, D. (2019). Effectiveness of pygmalion effect-based education of teachers on the students’ self-efficacy and academic engagement. Iranian journal of Learning and Memory, 1(4), 17-22.
  • Jones, E. E. (1986). Interpreting interpersonal behavior: The effects of expectancies. Science, 234(4772), 41-46.
  • Karakowsky, L., Degama, N. & Mcbey, K. (2012). Facilitating the Pygmalion Effect: The Overlooked Role of Subordinate Perceptions of the Leader, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85 (4), 579-599.
  • Kılıç, S. (2012). Örnek büyüklüğü, güç kavramları ve örnek büyüklüğü hesaplaması . Journal of Mood Disorders , 2 (3) , 140-2 . DOI: 10.5455/jmood.20120921043306
  • Koçak, Ç. V. (2020). Athlete self-efficacy scale: Development and psychometric properties. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 1, 41-54.
  • Lachman, M. E., Neupert, S. D., & Agrigoroaei, S. (2011). The relevance of control beliefs for health and aging. In Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 175-190). Academic Press.
  • Miller, D. T., & Turnbull, W. (1986). Expectancies and interpersonal processes. Annual review of psychology, 37(1), 233-256.
  • Mushtaq, Y., & Khalidi, M. (2016). A study on pygmalion effect: a case of academic training in a military unit. Market Forces College of Management Sciences, 11(1), 35-48.
  • Myers, N. D., Vargas-Tonsing, T. M., & Feltz, D. L. (2005). Coaching ef-ficacy in intercollegiate coaches: Sources, coaching behavior, and team variables. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 129-143. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2003.10.007
  • Natanovich, G., & Eden, D. (2008). Pygmalion effects among outreach supervisors and tutors: Extending sex generalizability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1382.
  • Oral, B., & Çoban, A. (2020). Kuramdan uygulamaya eğitimde bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Rejeski, W., Darracott, C., & Hutslar, S. (1979). Pygmalion in youth sport: A field study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(4), 311-319.
  • Reynolds, D. (2007). Restraining Golem and harnessing Pygmalion in the classroom: A laboratory study of managerial expectations and task design. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(4), 475-483.
  • Schinke, R. and Tabakman, J. (2001). Reflective coaching interventions for athletic excellence. Athletic Insight, 3(1),1-12.
  • Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Barnett, N. P. (1995). Reduction of children's sport performance anxiety through social support and stress-reduction training for coaches. Journal of applied developmental psychology, 16(1), 125-142.
  • Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Curtis, B. (1979). Coach effectiveness training: A cognitive-behavioral approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sport coaches. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1(1), 59–75.
  • Snyder, M., & Swann Jr, W. B. (1978). Behavioral confirmation in social interaction: From social perception to social reality. Journal of experimental social psychology, 14(2), 148-162.
  • Sonmez, V., & Gulduren-Alacapinar, F. (2019). Orneklendirilmis bilimsel arastirma yöntemleri. Memoir Publishing.
  • Szumski, G., & Karwowski, M. (2019). Exploring the Pygmalion effect: The role of teacher expectations, academic self-concept, and class context in students’ math achievement. Contemporary educational psychology, 59, 101787.
  • Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2004). The Pygmalion process and employee creativity. Journal of management, 30(3), 413-432.
  • Trouilloud, D. O., Sarrazin, P. G., Martinek, T. J., & Guillet, E. (2002). The influence of teacher expectations on student achievement in physical education classes: Pygmalion revisited. European journal of social psychology, 32(5), 591-607.
  • Wang, K., Bailey, E. R., & Jachimowicz, J. M. (2022). The Passionate Pygmalion Effect: Passionate employees attain better outcomes in part because of more preferential treatment by others. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 101, 104345.
  • Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of experimental social psychology, 10(2), 109-120.
  • Zanna, M. P., & Pack, S. J. (1975). On the self-fulfilling nature of apparent sex differences in behavior. Journal of experimental social psychology, 11(6), 583-591.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Hekimliği
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Bilal DİNCER
BURDUR MEHMET AKİF ERSOY ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SOSYAL BİLİMLER ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0003-4842-3793
Türkiye


Ahmet Yavuz KARAFİL
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi
0000-0002-1910-4673
Türkiye

Erken Görünüm Tarihi 28 Mart 2023
Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Mart 2023
Kabul Tarihi 6 Mart 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 6 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA
DİNCER, B., & KARAFİL, A. Y. (2023). Bisiklet Sporcularında Pygmalion Etkisi ile Spora Özgü Öz Yeterlik İlişkisinin İncelenmesi. Türk Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(1), 1-10.

TÜBİTAK-ULAKBİM DERGİPARK AKADEMİK bünyesinde kurulan Türk Spor Bilimleri Dergisi Doçentlik başvurusu Ulusal Makale b maddesi kapsamındadır.