Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Tieion Akropolisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303, 383 - 422, 17.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.383

Öz

Tieion antik kenti, Karadeniz kıyısının batı kesiminde, Kimi antik çağ yazarları tarafından Bithynia ile Paphlagonia arasında sınır olarak kabul edilen Billaos nehrinin (Filyos) hemen yakınında yer almaktadır. Yerleşim, antik ve modern kaynaklar tarafından MÖ 7. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında, Tios adında Miletoslu bir rahibin önderliğinde kurulmuş bir Miletos kolonisi olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Tieion Akropolisinde kazılar sonucunda ortaya çıkarılan MÖ 7. ve 6. yüzyıllara tarihlendirilen İonia seramikleri, yerleşimin Miletos tarafından kurulduğunu doğrulamaktadır. Bununla birlikte önemli bir liman kenti olan Tieion, Karadeniz’in ticaret yolları üzerinde, balıkçılık, şarap üretimi ve tahıl yetiştiriciliğinin ön plana çıktığı bir yerdi. Antik limanın mendirekleri, akropolisteki tapınağı, hamamları, su kemerleri ve tiyatrosuyla Tieion, tipik bir Roma kenti görünümündedir. Yukarı şehir çevresinde son yıllarda yürütülen kazı çalışmalarında kentin kuruluş dönemlerine ait yapı kalıntılarına rastlanmıştır. Bu yapılar dikdörtgen ya da yuvarlak şekilde açılmış bir çukurun içinde iptidai şekilde inşa edilmiş konutlardan oluşmaktadır. Bu konutların içlerinde ve çevrelerinde yapılan çalışmalarda, MÖ 7. yüzyılın son çeyreğine tarihlendirilen, Miletos yapımı Orta Yaban Keçisi II evresi olarak tanımlanan seramik parçaları bulunmuştur. Bu seramik gurubu ile aynı tabakalarda yerel olarak üretilmiş Phryg menşeili koyu gri, siyah ve kahverengi astarlı seramikler de ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Akropoldeki P1 konutunda ise Grek Koloni Çağı tabakalarının hemen altında, olasılıkla Attika Geç Geometrik Dönemi’ne tarihlendirilen pişmiş toprak bir at heykelciği parçası ile karşılaşılmıştır. Bir diğer at figürini parçası da aynı konutta başka bir lokasyonda bulunmuştur ancak, bu ikinci örnek gerek kil yapısı gerekse de stil bakımından yerel üretim olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca bu figürinlerle birlikte çok sayıda yerel imalat çanak çömlek de ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Böylece, Güney Karadeniz’de Grek Koloni Çağı ve Koloni Çağı öncesine dair somut kanıtlar ilk defa elde edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akurgal, Ekrem, “Sinop Kazıları”, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 6.1, (1956), s. 47–61.
  • Akurgal, Ekrem-Budde Ludwig, Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Sinope, TTKY 14, Ankara 1956.
  • Arsenie, Lucian, “Ceramica lucratâ cu mâna la Tomis – stadiul actual al cercetârilor”, Pontica 33–34, (2000–2001), s. 283–298.
  • Atasoy, Sümer, “Zonguldak – Fiyos (Tios/Tieion/Tios/Tianos/Tieum) Kurtarma Kazısı”, (ed.) İ. Delemen, Prof. Dr. Haluk Abbasoğlu’na 65. Yaş Armağanı, istanbul 2008, s. 91–97.
  • Atasoy, Sümer, “Önsöz/ Forward”, (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara (2015), s. 1–13.
  • Atasoy, Sümer, “Tios Kentinin Siyasi Tarihi/ The Political History of Tios”, (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara (2015), s. 15–27.
  • Atasoy, Sümer-Erpehlivan, Hüseyin, “Tios’da Erken Yerleşmeye Ait Keramikler/ Ceramics from the Early Settlement at Tios”, (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara 2015, s. 202–217.
  • Atasoy, Sümer-Yıldırım, Şahin, “Filyos-Tios 2009 Yılı Kazısı”, KST XXXII/IV, 2011 (Ankara), s. 1-16.
  • Atasoy, Sümer-Yıldırım, Şahin (ed.), Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara 2015.
  • Avram, Alexandru, “Two Phrygian Gods between Phrygia and Dacia”, Colloquium Anatolicum 15, (2016), s. 70–83.
  • Bean, George, “Tios”, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Princeton (1979), s. 925.
  • Boardmann, John, “Early Greek Pottery on Black Sea Sites?”, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 10.3, (1991), s. 387-390.
  • Boardmann, John, The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, London 1999.
  • Bohen, Barbara, Die Geometrischen Pyxiden, Kerameikos 13, Berlin 1988.
  • Bohen, Barbara, “The Boeotian Origin of an Unusual Geometric Vase”, The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 20, (1992), s. 41–44.
  • Boysal, Yusuf, “Sinop’un En Eski Buluntuları ve Kolonizasyonu Hakkında”, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 8.2, (1958), s. 23–29.
  • Brixhe, Claude-Michel, Lejeune, Corpus des Inscriptions Paleo-Phrygiennes, Paris 1984.
  • Büyüksalih, İsmail-Akçın, Hakan-Sefercik, U. Güneş-Karakış, Serkan-Marangoz, A. Murat, “Batı Karadeniz Sahil Bölgesindeki Filyos Nehri ve Deltasındaki Değişimlerin Zamansal CBS ile İncelenmesi”, Ege Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri Çalıştayı, İzmir (2005), s. 1-8.
  • Coldstream, J. Nicolas, Geometric Greece: 900–700 BC, 2nd ed., London 2003.
  • Cook, R. Manuel, “Fikellura Pottery”, Annual of the British School at Athens 34, (1933-34), s. 1-99.
  • Cook, R. Manuel, “Ionia and Greece in the 8th and 7th Centuries B.C.”, JHS 66, (1946), s. 67-98.
  • Cook, R. Manuel, “The Wild Goat and Fikellura Styles: Some speculations”, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11.3, (1992), s. 255-266.
  • Cook, R. Manuel-Dupont, Pierre, East Greek Pottery, London and New York, 1998.
  • Crow, James-Hill, Stephen, “The Byzantine Fortifications of Amastris in Paphlagonia”, Anatolian Studies 45, (1995), s. 251-265.
  • Cummer, W. Willson, “Iron Age Pottery from Akalan”. Mitteilungen des Deutschen ArchäologischenInstituts, Abteilung İstanbul 26, (1976), s. 31-36.
  • Damyanov, Margarit, “On the Chronology of the Earliest Greek Metallurgy in Apollonia Pontica (Poster presented)”, The 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology-Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World, (22–26 May 2018), Cologne/Bonn, 2018.
  • Dimitriu, Suzaria, “Cartierul de locuinte din zona de vest a cetatii, inepoca arhaica Sapaturi 1955–1960”, (ed.) E. Conduraci, Histria 2, Bucharest (1960), s. 19-132.
  • Doonan, Owen-Vural, Hüseyin-Goldman, Andrew-Bauer, Alexander-Rempel, Jane-Sherratt, Suzan-Krotschek, Ulrike-Maranzana, Paolo-Sökmen, Emine, “Sinop Kalesi Archaeological Excavations, 2015–2016 Field Seasons”, (ed.) S. Steadman ve G. McMahon, The Archaeology of Anatolia: Recent Discoveries, vol. 2, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (2017), s. 178-199.
  • Dupont, Pierre, “Naturwissenschaftliche Bestimmung der Archaischen Keramik Milets”, (ed.) W. Müller-Wiener, Istanbuler Mitteilungen Beiheft 31, Tübingen (1986), s. 57-71.
  • Ekmen, Hamza-Mercan, Ahmet-Gülden Ekmen-Güney, Ali, “İnönü Mağarası 2017 Yılı Kazıları”, KST XXXX/II, Ankara (2019), s. 271-292.
  • Esen, İzzet, “Antik Tios/Tieion/Villaios (Filyos) Kenti”, Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi 2002 Yıllığı, Ankara (2003), s. 196-224.
  • Henrickson, Robert, “Continuity and Discontinuity in the Ceramic Tradition of Gordion during the Iron Age”. (ed.) D. French, ve A. Çilingiroğlu, Anatolian Iron Ages 3 (Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, 6–12 August 1990) (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph 16), London (1994), s. 95-129.
  • Henrickson, Robert, “The Local Potter’s Craft at Phrygian Gordion”, (ed.) L. Kealhofer, The Archaeology of Midas and the Phrygians: Recent Work at Gordion, Philadelphia (2005), s. 124-135.
  • Henrickson, Robert-Vandiver, Pamela-Blackman, James, “Lustrous Black Fine Ware at Gordion, Turkey: A Distinctive Sintered Slip Technology”, (ed.) P. B. Vandiver, M. Goodway, ve J. L. Mass, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI (Symposium held November 26–30, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 712), Warrendale, PA (2002), s. 391–400.
  • Hubertus, von Gall, Die Paphlagonischen Felsgräber: Eine Studie zur kleinasiatischen Kunstgeschichte, Tübingen, 1966.
  • Johnson, Peri, Landscapes of Achaemenid Paphlagonia, University of Pennsylvania, 2010.
  • Jones, A. H. Martin, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1983.
  • Jones, Richard, E., Greek and Cypriot Pottery, A Review of Scientific Studies, British School at Athens, Fitch Laboratory Occasional Paper 1, Athens, 1986.
  • Kealhofer, Lisa-Grave, Peter-Marsh, Ben-Steadman, Sharon-Gorny, L. Ronald- Summers, D. Geoffrey, “Patterns of Iron Age Interaction: Three sites in Yozgat Province”, Anatolian Studies 60, (2010), s. 71-92.
  • Kerschner, Michael-Mommsen, H.-Akurgal, Meral-Niemeier, W. Dietrich, Töpferzentren der Ostagais: Archaometrische und archaologische Untersuchungen zur Mykenischen, geometrischenund archaischen Keramik aus Fundorten in Westkleinasien, Ergänzungshefte zu den Jahresheften des Österreichischen Archaologischen Institutes in Wien 3, Vienna 2002.
  • Kerschner, Michael- Schlotzhauer, Udo, “A new Classification System for East Greek Potter”, Ancient West and East 4.1, (2005), s. 1-56.
  • Küçükali, Serhat, “Forecasting the river discharge, thermal and sediment load characteristics: A case study”, (ed.) M. S. Altınakar ve diğerleri, River Flow 2008 (Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, Çeşme, Izmir, Iurkey, 3–5 September 2008), Ankara (2008), s. 1975-1981.
  • Laflı, Ergün-Gülseren, K. Şahin, “Iron Age and Hellenistic Ceramics from Southwestern Paphlagonia”, Archaeology and Science 7, (2012), s. 9-166.
  • Laflı, Eergün-Gürselen K. Şahin-Patacı, Sami, “Iron Age Ceramics from Southwestern Paphlagonia”, Anatolia Antiqua 21, (2013), s. 33-68.
  • Manoledakis, Manolis,. “The Early Greek Presence in the Southern Black Sea”, (ed.) M. Manoledakis, G.R. Tsetskhladze ve Xydopoulos, Ioannis, Essays on the Archaeology and Ancient History of the Black Sea Littoral, (Colloquia Antiqua 18), Leuven/Paris/Bristol (2018), s. 173-241.
  • Marchenko, Konstantin.Konstantinovich, Varvary v sostave naseleniya Berezani i Ol’vii, vo vtoroi polovine VI –pervoi polovine IV. do n.e.: po materialam lepnoi Keramiki, Leningrad 1988.
  • Marek, Christian, Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord-Galatia, Istanbuler Forschungen 39, Tübingen 1993.
  • Marek, Christian, Pontus et Bithynia: Die römischen Provinzen im Norden Kleinasiens, Mainz 2003.
  • Marek, Christian, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, Princeton/Oxford 2016.
  • Matthews, Roger-Glatz, Claudia, At empires’ edge; Project Paphlagonia, regional survey in North central Turkey, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London 2009.
  • Mitten, D. Gordon, “The Earliest Greek Sculptures in the Museum”, Boston Museum Bulletin, 339, (1967), s. 4-18.
  • Muscarella, O. White, “Phrygian or Lydian?”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 30, (1971), s. 49-63.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “Kuruluşundan Bizans Devri Sonuna Kadar Tios Antik Kenti/ The ancient city of Tios from its establishment till the end of the Byzantine Period”, Arkeoloji Sanat 128, (2008), s. 63-78.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, Küçükasya’nın Batı Karadeniz Kıyısında Bir Antik Kent: Tios (Tieion), Marmara University, (Ph. D Dissertation), İstanbul 2012.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “The History of Tieion/Tios (Eastern Bithynia) in the light of Inscriptions”, (ed.) Manoledakis, M. Exploring the Hospitable Sea (Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Black Sea in Antiquity held in in Thessaloniki, 21–23 September 2012), (BAR International Series 2498), Oxford (2013a), s. 147-164.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “Tios (Zonguldak–Filyos) Antik Kentinde Dinsel İnanışlar ve Kültler/ Religious Belief and Cults in Tios”, (ed.) Ş. Dönmez, Lux ex Ponto Euxino. Studies Presented in Honour of Sümer Atasoy, Ankara (2013b), s. 331-346.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “Bithynia-Paphlagonia Sınırından (Tios veya Hadrianopolis) Bir Yazıt Üzerine Düşünceler, Zeus Syrgastes/Syrgastios Kültü ve Agon’u”, (ed.) M. Arslan ve F. Baz, Arkeoloji, Tarih ve Epigrafi’nin Arasında: Prof. Dr. Vedat Çelgin’in 68. Doğum Günü Onuruna Makaleler, Istanbul (2018), s. 717- 740.
  • Öztürk, Bülent-Sönmez, F. İhsan, “Batı Karadeniz’de Bir Antik Kent Kazısı: Tios (Filyos)/ Tios (Filyos): Excavations at an ancient city on the western Black Sea Region of Turkey”, Arkeoloji Sanat 127, (2008), s. 133-146.
  • Panayotova, Krastina-Damyanov, Margarit-Stoyanova, Daniela-Bogdanova, Teodora, “Apollonia Pontica: The Archaic Temenos and Settlement on the Island of St. Kirik” (Poster presented), (ed.) J. M. Alvarez, T. Nogales ve I. Rod, Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, (Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology I Merida 13.-17. May 2013), 2014.
  • Robert, Louis, Études Anatoliennes: Recherches sur les inscriptions grecques de l’Asie Mineur, Paris 1937.
  • Ruge, Walther, “Tieion”, RE VI A.1, (1936), s. 856-862.
  • Sams, G. Kenneth, The Early Phrygian Pottery, Gordion Excavations 4.1–2; University Museum Monograph 79, Philadelphia 1994.
  • Schlotzhauer, Udo, “Ausgewählte Beispiele ostgriechischer Keramik aus Naukratis im Blickwinkel neuer Forschungen”, (ed.) U. Höckmann, ve D. Kreikenbom, Naukratis: Die Beziehungen zu Ostgriechenland, Ägypten und Zypern in archaischer Zeit (Akten der Table Ronde Mainz, November 1999), Möhnesee (2001), s. 111-125.
  • Sezgin, Yusuf, Arkaik Dönem İonia Üretimi Ticari Amphoralar, Istanbul, 2012.
  • Solovyov, L. Sergei, Ancient Berezan: The Architecture, History and Culture of the First Greek Colony in the Northern Black Sea, (ed.) J. Boardman ve G.R. Tsetskhladze, (Colloquia Pontica 4), Leiden/Boston/Cologne, 1999.
  • Stewart, S. Marie, Gordion After the Knot: Hellenistic Pottery and Culture, (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Cincinnati, Cincinati, 2010.
  • Summerer, Latife, “Indigenous Responses to Encounters with the Greeks in Northern Anatolia: The Reception of Architectural Terracottas in the Iron Age Settlements of the Halys Basin”. (ed.) P. G. Bilde ve J. H. Petersen, Meetings of Cultures in the Black Sea Region: Between Conflicts and Coexistence, (Black Sea Studies 8), Aarhus (2008), s. 263-286.
  • Summerer, Latife, “Influence of the Greek Pottery on the Late Archaic Architectural Terracottas from North Anatolia”. Il Mar Nero 6, (2009), s. 187- 202.
  • Tolstikov, P. Vladimir, “Pantikapej – Stolitsa Bospora”, (ed.) G. A Koshelenko, Ocherki Arkheologii Bospora, (1992), s. 45-99.
  • Тoncheva, Goranka, “Arhaichiya materiali ot Odesos”, Izvestiya na Arheologicheskiya Institut 30.1, (1967), s. 57-180.
  • Toteva, G. Dechkova, Local Cultures of Late Achaemenid Anatolia, (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Minnesota, 2007.
  • Treister, Y. Μikhail, “Excavations at Pantikapaion, Capital of the Kingdom of Bosporus. Old Finds, Recent Results and some New Observations”, (ed.) A. J. Todd–D. Komini-Dialeti–D. Hatzivassihou, Greek Archaeologywithout Frontiers, Athens 2002, s. 151-172.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “Greek Penetration of the Black Sea”, (ed.), G. R. Tsetskhladze ve F. De Angelis, The Archaeology of Greek Colonisation: Essays Dedicated to Sir John Boardman, (Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 40), Oxford (1994), s. 111-135.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Stages, Models, and Native Population” (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze, The Greek Colonisation of The Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology, (Historia Einzelschriften 121), Stuttgart (1998), s. 9-68.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “Note on semi-pithouses and handmade pottery from Gordion”, (ed.) A. Avram ve M. Babes, Civilisation grecque et cultures antiques périphériques: Hommage à Petre Alexandrescu à son 70e anniversaire, Bucharest (2000), s. 165-170.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “On the Earliest Greek Colonial Architecture in the Pontus”, (ed.) C. J. Tuplin, Pontus and the Outside World. Studies in Black Sea History, Historiography and Archaeology, (Colloquia Pontica 9), Leiden/Boston (2004), s. 225-278.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, Karadeniz’in Tarih ve Arkeolojisi Üzerine: Arkaik ve Klasik Dönemlerde Karadeniz’de Ticaret: Bazı Gözlemler; İskit ile Thrak Kral ve Seçkin Mezarlarını Kim İnşa Etti?; Anayurtları Dışındaki İonialılar, Istanbul, 2005a.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “Early Iron Age Societies of the Black Sea region and Anatolia: Some Observations”, (ed.) G. Darbyshire ve A. Çilingiroğlu, Anatolian Iron Ages 5 (Proceedings of the Fifth Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, 6–10 August 2001) (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 31), London (2005b), s. 211-216.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “The Scythians: Three Essays” (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze, The Black Sea, Greece, Anatolia and Europe in the First Millennium BC (Colloquia Antiqua 1), Leuven/Paris/Walpole, MA (2011), s. 95-139.
  • Vachtina, J. Marina, “Archaic Buildings of Porthmion”, (ed.) P.G. Bilde, J. M. Højte ve V. F. Stolba, The Cauldron of Ariantas: Studies presented to A.N. Ščeglov on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday (Black Sea Studies 1), Aarhus (2003), s. 37-54.
  • Vassileva, Maya, “The Rock-Cut Monuments of Phrygia, Paphlagonia and Thrace: A Comparative Overview”. (ed.) G.R. Tsetskhladze, The Black Sea, Paphlagonia,Pontus and Phrygia in Antiquity: Aspects of Archaeology and Ancient History (BAR International Series 2432), Oxford (2012), s. 243-252.
  • Vassileva, Maya, “Phrygia and the southern Black Sea littoral”, (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze, A. Avram ve J. F. Hargrave, The Danubian Lands Between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas (7th Century BC–10th Century AD) (Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities, Belgrade, 17–21 September 2013), Oxford (2015), s.91-96.
  • Voight, M. Mary, “Excavations in Gordion 1988-1989; the Yassihöyük Stratigraphic Sequence”, (ed.) D. H. French, ve A. Çilingiroğlu, Anatolian Iron Ages 3 (Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, 6–12 August 1990) (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph 16), London (1994), s. 265-293.
  • Voyatzis, Mary, “Votive riders seated side-saddle at early Greek sanctuaries”, Annual of the British School at Athens 87, (1992), s. 259-279.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Tios Roma Tiyatrosu/ The Roman Theater of Tios”. (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara (2015), s. 271-295.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Tios-Tieion: Söylenecek Çok Önemli Bir Şeyi Olmayan Kent”, Trakya Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi , 7/14, (2017a), s. 206-242.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Tios-Tieion 2015 Yılı Kazı Çalışmaları”, KST XXXVIII/I, Ankara (2017b), s. 465-478.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Gökbel Köyü Hamas Kıranı Tümülüsü”, Hitit Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, S. 2, (2018), s. 1295-1319.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “A Great Tumulus from Paphlagonia”, (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze ve S. Atasoy, Settlements and Necropoleis of the Black Sea and its Hinterland in Antiquity (Selected Papers from the Third International Conference ‘The Black Sea in Antiquity and Tekkeköy: An Ancient Settlement on the Southern Black Sea Coast’, 27–29 October 2017, Tekkeköy, Samsun), Oxford (2019), s.226-43.
  • Young, Rodney, Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh-Century Well in the Agora, (Hesperia Suppl. 2), Athens, 1939.
  • Young, Rodney, “Old Phrygian Inscriptions from Gordion: Toward a History of the Phrygian Alphabet”, Hesperia 38, (1969), s. 252-296.
  • Zolotarev, I. Miron, “Ранние этапы градостроительствав Херсонесе Таврическом” (Early stages of city building in Taurian Chersonessos), Chersonesskijsbornik 9, (1998), s. 26-35.

The Acropolis of Tieion

Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303, 383 - 422, 17.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.383

Öz

The ancient city of Tieion is located on the western region of the Southern Black Sea littoral, next to the Billaos river (Filyos) which was considered as the border between Bithynia and Paphlagonia. It is known as a Milesean colony, which was founded in the second half of the seventh century BC. It is believed that this colony was founded by a priest called Tios in the 7th century BC. Ionian pottery, excavated on the acropolis of Tieion, dated to the 7th/6th Century BC confirms the written sources that Miletus was the founder of the city. As a harbour city Tieion was situated on the sea route of the Black Sea trading with fish, wine and grain. Tieion looks like a typical Roman city with the breakwater of the ancient harbor, the temple in the acropolis, baths, aqueducts and theater. As a result of the recent archaeological excavations carried out in the vicinity of the acropolis, the ruins of various buildings belonging to the foundation periods of the city were encountered. These structures which were formed by the underground pits that have meshed stone masonry within, constitutes round, oval and rectangular forms. During the studies conducted in and around these structures; the Middle Wild Goat II style ceramics which dating to the last quarter of the 7th century BC and the local productions in dark gray, black and brown wares some of which handmade were also uncovered. Therewithal in the archaeological strata located just below the colonial levels, the terracotta horse figurine fragments dated to the Late Geometric Period and a large amount of local pottery samples were obtained. Thus, the concrete evidences on Greek Colonization of the Southern Black Sea have been acquired.

Kaynakça

  • Akurgal, Ekrem, “Sinop Kazıları”, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 6.1, (1956), s. 47–61.
  • Akurgal, Ekrem-Budde Ludwig, Vorläufiger Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Sinope, TTKY 14, Ankara 1956.
  • Arsenie, Lucian, “Ceramica lucratâ cu mâna la Tomis – stadiul actual al cercetârilor”, Pontica 33–34, (2000–2001), s. 283–298.
  • Atasoy, Sümer, “Zonguldak – Fiyos (Tios/Tieion/Tios/Tianos/Tieum) Kurtarma Kazısı”, (ed.) İ. Delemen, Prof. Dr. Haluk Abbasoğlu’na 65. Yaş Armağanı, istanbul 2008, s. 91–97.
  • Atasoy, Sümer, “Önsöz/ Forward”, (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara (2015), s. 1–13.
  • Atasoy, Sümer, “Tios Kentinin Siyasi Tarihi/ The Political History of Tios”, (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara (2015), s. 15–27.
  • Atasoy, Sümer-Erpehlivan, Hüseyin, “Tios’da Erken Yerleşmeye Ait Keramikler/ Ceramics from the Early Settlement at Tios”, (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara 2015, s. 202–217.
  • Atasoy, Sümer-Yıldırım, Şahin, “Filyos-Tios 2009 Yılı Kazısı”, KST XXXII/IV, 2011 (Ankara), s. 1-16.
  • Atasoy, Sümer-Yıldırım, Şahin (ed.), Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara 2015.
  • Avram, Alexandru, “Two Phrygian Gods between Phrygia and Dacia”, Colloquium Anatolicum 15, (2016), s. 70–83.
  • Bean, George, “Tios”, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Princeton (1979), s. 925.
  • Boardmann, John, “Early Greek Pottery on Black Sea Sites?”, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 10.3, (1991), s. 387-390.
  • Boardmann, John, The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, London 1999.
  • Bohen, Barbara, Die Geometrischen Pyxiden, Kerameikos 13, Berlin 1988.
  • Bohen, Barbara, “The Boeotian Origin of an Unusual Geometric Vase”, The J. Paul Getty Museum Journal 20, (1992), s. 41–44.
  • Boysal, Yusuf, “Sinop’un En Eski Buluntuları ve Kolonizasyonu Hakkında”, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 8.2, (1958), s. 23–29.
  • Brixhe, Claude-Michel, Lejeune, Corpus des Inscriptions Paleo-Phrygiennes, Paris 1984.
  • Büyüksalih, İsmail-Akçın, Hakan-Sefercik, U. Güneş-Karakış, Serkan-Marangoz, A. Murat, “Batı Karadeniz Sahil Bölgesindeki Filyos Nehri ve Deltasındaki Değişimlerin Zamansal CBS ile İncelenmesi”, Ege Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri Çalıştayı, İzmir (2005), s. 1-8.
  • Coldstream, J. Nicolas, Geometric Greece: 900–700 BC, 2nd ed., London 2003.
  • Cook, R. Manuel, “Fikellura Pottery”, Annual of the British School at Athens 34, (1933-34), s. 1-99.
  • Cook, R. Manuel, “Ionia and Greece in the 8th and 7th Centuries B.C.”, JHS 66, (1946), s. 67-98.
  • Cook, R. Manuel, “The Wild Goat and Fikellura Styles: Some speculations”, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11.3, (1992), s. 255-266.
  • Cook, R. Manuel-Dupont, Pierre, East Greek Pottery, London and New York, 1998.
  • Crow, James-Hill, Stephen, “The Byzantine Fortifications of Amastris in Paphlagonia”, Anatolian Studies 45, (1995), s. 251-265.
  • Cummer, W. Willson, “Iron Age Pottery from Akalan”. Mitteilungen des Deutschen ArchäologischenInstituts, Abteilung İstanbul 26, (1976), s. 31-36.
  • Damyanov, Margarit, “On the Chronology of the Earliest Greek Metallurgy in Apollonia Pontica (Poster presented)”, The 19th International Congress of Classical Archaeology-Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World, (22–26 May 2018), Cologne/Bonn, 2018.
  • Dimitriu, Suzaria, “Cartierul de locuinte din zona de vest a cetatii, inepoca arhaica Sapaturi 1955–1960”, (ed.) E. Conduraci, Histria 2, Bucharest (1960), s. 19-132.
  • Doonan, Owen-Vural, Hüseyin-Goldman, Andrew-Bauer, Alexander-Rempel, Jane-Sherratt, Suzan-Krotschek, Ulrike-Maranzana, Paolo-Sökmen, Emine, “Sinop Kalesi Archaeological Excavations, 2015–2016 Field Seasons”, (ed.) S. Steadman ve G. McMahon, The Archaeology of Anatolia: Recent Discoveries, vol. 2, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (2017), s. 178-199.
  • Dupont, Pierre, “Naturwissenschaftliche Bestimmung der Archaischen Keramik Milets”, (ed.) W. Müller-Wiener, Istanbuler Mitteilungen Beiheft 31, Tübingen (1986), s. 57-71.
  • Ekmen, Hamza-Mercan, Ahmet-Gülden Ekmen-Güney, Ali, “İnönü Mağarası 2017 Yılı Kazıları”, KST XXXX/II, Ankara (2019), s. 271-292.
  • Esen, İzzet, “Antik Tios/Tieion/Villaios (Filyos) Kenti”, Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi 2002 Yıllığı, Ankara (2003), s. 196-224.
  • Henrickson, Robert, “Continuity and Discontinuity in the Ceramic Tradition of Gordion during the Iron Age”. (ed.) D. French, ve A. Çilingiroğlu, Anatolian Iron Ages 3 (Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, 6–12 August 1990) (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph 16), London (1994), s. 95-129.
  • Henrickson, Robert, “The Local Potter’s Craft at Phrygian Gordion”, (ed.) L. Kealhofer, The Archaeology of Midas and the Phrygians: Recent Work at Gordion, Philadelphia (2005), s. 124-135.
  • Henrickson, Robert-Vandiver, Pamela-Blackman, James, “Lustrous Black Fine Ware at Gordion, Turkey: A Distinctive Sintered Slip Technology”, (ed.) P. B. Vandiver, M. Goodway, ve J. L. Mass, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI (Symposium held November 26–30, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 712), Warrendale, PA (2002), s. 391–400.
  • Hubertus, von Gall, Die Paphlagonischen Felsgräber: Eine Studie zur kleinasiatischen Kunstgeschichte, Tübingen, 1966.
  • Johnson, Peri, Landscapes of Achaemenid Paphlagonia, University of Pennsylvania, 2010.
  • Jones, A. H. Martin, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1983.
  • Jones, Richard, E., Greek and Cypriot Pottery, A Review of Scientific Studies, British School at Athens, Fitch Laboratory Occasional Paper 1, Athens, 1986.
  • Kealhofer, Lisa-Grave, Peter-Marsh, Ben-Steadman, Sharon-Gorny, L. Ronald- Summers, D. Geoffrey, “Patterns of Iron Age Interaction: Three sites in Yozgat Province”, Anatolian Studies 60, (2010), s. 71-92.
  • Kerschner, Michael-Mommsen, H.-Akurgal, Meral-Niemeier, W. Dietrich, Töpferzentren der Ostagais: Archaometrische und archaologische Untersuchungen zur Mykenischen, geometrischenund archaischen Keramik aus Fundorten in Westkleinasien, Ergänzungshefte zu den Jahresheften des Österreichischen Archaologischen Institutes in Wien 3, Vienna 2002.
  • Kerschner, Michael- Schlotzhauer, Udo, “A new Classification System for East Greek Potter”, Ancient West and East 4.1, (2005), s. 1-56.
  • Küçükali, Serhat, “Forecasting the river discharge, thermal and sediment load characteristics: A case study”, (ed.) M. S. Altınakar ve diğerleri, River Flow 2008 (Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, Çeşme, Izmir, Iurkey, 3–5 September 2008), Ankara (2008), s. 1975-1981.
  • Laflı, Ergün-Gülseren, K. Şahin, “Iron Age and Hellenistic Ceramics from Southwestern Paphlagonia”, Archaeology and Science 7, (2012), s. 9-166.
  • Laflı, Eergün-Gürselen K. Şahin-Patacı, Sami, “Iron Age Ceramics from Southwestern Paphlagonia”, Anatolia Antiqua 21, (2013), s. 33-68.
  • Manoledakis, Manolis,. “The Early Greek Presence in the Southern Black Sea”, (ed.) M. Manoledakis, G.R. Tsetskhladze ve Xydopoulos, Ioannis, Essays on the Archaeology and Ancient History of the Black Sea Littoral, (Colloquia Antiqua 18), Leuven/Paris/Bristol (2018), s. 173-241.
  • Marchenko, Konstantin.Konstantinovich, Varvary v sostave naseleniya Berezani i Ol’vii, vo vtoroi polovine VI –pervoi polovine IV. do n.e.: po materialam lepnoi Keramiki, Leningrad 1988.
  • Marek, Christian, Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord-Galatia, Istanbuler Forschungen 39, Tübingen 1993.
  • Marek, Christian, Pontus et Bithynia: Die römischen Provinzen im Norden Kleinasiens, Mainz 2003.
  • Marek, Christian, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, Princeton/Oxford 2016.
  • Matthews, Roger-Glatz, Claudia, At empires’ edge; Project Paphlagonia, regional survey in North central Turkey, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London 2009.
  • Mitten, D. Gordon, “The Earliest Greek Sculptures in the Museum”, Boston Museum Bulletin, 339, (1967), s. 4-18.
  • Muscarella, O. White, “Phrygian or Lydian?”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 30, (1971), s. 49-63.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “Kuruluşundan Bizans Devri Sonuna Kadar Tios Antik Kenti/ The ancient city of Tios from its establishment till the end of the Byzantine Period”, Arkeoloji Sanat 128, (2008), s. 63-78.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, Küçükasya’nın Batı Karadeniz Kıyısında Bir Antik Kent: Tios (Tieion), Marmara University, (Ph. D Dissertation), İstanbul 2012.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “The History of Tieion/Tios (Eastern Bithynia) in the light of Inscriptions”, (ed.) Manoledakis, M. Exploring the Hospitable Sea (Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Black Sea in Antiquity held in in Thessaloniki, 21–23 September 2012), (BAR International Series 2498), Oxford (2013a), s. 147-164.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “Tios (Zonguldak–Filyos) Antik Kentinde Dinsel İnanışlar ve Kültler/ Religious Belief and Cults in Tios”, (ed.) Ş. Dönmez, Lux ex Ponto Euxino. Studies Presented in Honour of Sümer Atasoy, Ankara (2013b), s. 331-346.
  • Öztürk, Bülent, “Bithynia-Paphlagonia Sınırından (Tios veya Hadrianopolis) Bir Yazıt Üzerine Düşünceler, Zeus Syrgastes/Syrgastios Kültü ve Agon’u”, (ed.) M. Arslan ve F. Baz, Arkeoloji, Tarih ve Epigrafi’nin Arasında: Prof. Dr. Vedat Çelgin’in 68. Doğum Günü Onuruna Makaleler, Istanbul (2018), s. 717- 740.
  • Öztürk, Bülent-Sönmez, F. İhsan, “Batı Karadeniz’de Bir Antik Kent Kazısı: Tios (Filyos)/ Tios (Filyos): Excavations at an ancient city on the western Black Sea Region of Turkey”, Arkeoloji Sanat 127, (2008), s. 133-146.
  • Panayotova, Krastina-Damyanov, Margarit-Stoyanova, Daniela-Bogdanova, Teodora, “Apollonia Pontica: The Archaic Temenos and Settlement on the Island of St. Kirik” (Poster presented), (ed.) J. M. Alvarez, T. Nogales ve I. Rod, Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, (Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Classical Archaeology I Merida 13.-17. May 2013), 2014.
  • Robert, Louis, Études Anatoliennes: Recherches sur les inscriptions grecques de l’Asie Mineur, Paris 1937.
  • Ruge, Walther, “Tieion”, RE VI A.1, (1936), s. 856-862.
  • Sams, G. Kenneth, The Early Phrygian Pottery, Gordion Excavations 4.1–2; University Museum Monograph 79, Philadelphia 1994.
  • Schlotzhauer, Udo, “Ausgewählte Beispiele ostgriechischer Keramik aus Naukratis im Blickwinkel neuer Forschungen”, (ed.) U. Höckmann, ve D. Kreikenbom, Naukratis: Die Beziehungen zu Ostgriechenland, Ägypten und Zypern in archaischer Zeit (Akten der Table Ronde Mainz, November 1999), Möhnesee (2001), s. 111-125.
  • Sezgin, Yusuf, Arkaik Dönem İonia Üretimi Ticari Amphoralar, Istanbul, 2012.
  • Solovyov, L. Sergei, Ancient Berezan: The Architecture, History and Culture of the First Greek Colony in the Northern Black Sea, (ed.) J. Boardman ve G.R. Tsetskhladze, (Colloquia Pontica 4), Leiden/Boston/Cologne, 1999.
  • Stewart, S. Marie, Gordion After the Knot: Hellenistic Pottery and Culture, (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Cincinnati, Cincinati, 2010.
  • Summerer, Latife, “Indigenous Responses to Encounters with the Greeks in Northern Anatolia: The Reception of Architectural Terracottas in the Iron Age Settlements of the Halys Basin”. (ed.) P. G. Bilde ve J. H. Petersen, Meetings of Cultures in the Black Sea Region: Between Conflicts and Coexistence, (Black Sea Studies 8), Aarhus (2008), s. 263-286.
  • Summerer, Latife, “Influence of the Greek Pottery on the Late Archaic Architectural Terracottas from North Anatolia”. Il Mar Nero 6, (2009), s. 187- 202.
  • Tolstikov, P. Vladimir, “Pantikapej – Stolitsa Bospora”, (ed.) G. A Koshelenko, Ocherki Arkheologii Bospora, (1992), s. 45-99.
  • Тoncheva, Goranka, “Arhaichiya materiali ot Odesos”, Izvestiya na Arheologicheskiya Institut 30.1, (1967), s. 57-180.
  • Toteva, G. Dechkova, Local Cultures of Late Achaemenid Anatolia, (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Minnesota, 2007.
  • Treister, Y. Μikhail, “Excavations at Pantikapaion, Capital of the Kingdom of Bosporus. Old Finds, Recent Results and some New Observations”, (ed.) A. J. Todd–D. Komini-Dialeti–D. Hatzivassihou, Greek Archaeologywithout Frontiers, Athens 2002, s. 151-172.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “Greek Penetration of the Black Sea”, (ed.), G. R. Tsetskhladze ve F. De Angelis, The Archaeology of Greek Colonisation: Essays Dedicated to Sir John Boardman, (Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 40), Oxford (1994), s. 111-135.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Stages, Models, and Native Population” (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze, The Greek Colonisation of The Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology, (Historia Einzelschriften 121), Stuttgart (1998), s. 9-68.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “Note on semi-pithouses and handmade pottery from Gordion”, (ed.) A. Avram ve M. Babes, Civilisation grecque et cultures antiques périphériques: Hommage à Petre Alexandrescu à son 70e anniversaire, Bucharest (2000), s. 165-170.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “On the Earliest Greek Colonial Architecture in the Pontus”, (ed.) C. J. Tuplin, Pontus and the Outside World. Studies in Black Sea History, Historiography and Archaeology, (Colloquia Pontica 9), Leiden/Boston (2004), s. 225-278.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, Karadeniz’in Tarih ve Arkeolojisi Üzerine: Arkaik ve Klasik Dönemlerde Karadeniz’de Ticaret: Bazı Gözlemler; İskit ile Thrak Kral ve Seçkin Mezarlarını Kim İnşa Etti?; Anayurtları Dışındaki İonialılar, Istanbul, 2005a.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “Early Iron Age Societies of the Black Sea region and Anatolia: Some Observations”, (ed.) G. Darbyshire ve A. Çilingiroğlu, Anatolian Iron Ages 5 (Proceedings of the Fifth Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, 6–10 August 2001) (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 31), London (2005b), s. 211-216.
  • Tsetskhladze, R. Gocha, “The Scythians: Three Essays” (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze, The Black Sea, Greece, Anatolia and Europe in the First Millennium BC (Colloquia Antiqua 1), Leuven/Paris/Walpole, MA (2011), s. 95-139.
  • Vachtina, J. Marina, “Archaic Buildings of Porthmion”, (ed.) P.G. Bilde, J. M. Højte ve V. F. Stolba, The Cauldron of Ariantas: Studies presented to A.N. Ščeglov on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday (Black Sea Studies 1), Aarhus (2003), s. 37-54.
  • Vassileva, Maya, “The Rock-Cut Monuments of Phrygia, Paphlagonia and Thrace: A Comparative Overview”. (ed.) G.R. Tsetskhladze, The Black Sea, Paphlagonia,Pontus and Phrygia in Antiquity: Aspects of Archaeology and Ancient History (BAR International Series 2432), Oxford (2012), s. 243-252.
  • Vassileva, Maya, “Phrygia and the southern Black Sea littoral”, (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze, A. Avram ve J. F. Hargrave, The Danubian Lands Between the Black, Aegean and Adriatic Seas (7th Century BC–10th Century AD) (Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities, Belgrade, 17–21 September 2013), Oxford (2015), s.91-96.
  • Voight, M. Mary, “Excavations in Gordion 1988-1989; the Yassihöyük Stratigraphic Sequence”, (ed.) D. H. French, ve A. Çilingiroğlu, Anatolian Iron Ages 3 (Proceedings of the Third Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, 6–12 August 1990) (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph 16), London (1994), s. 265-293.
  • Voyatzis, Mary, “Votive riders seated side-saddle at early Greek sanctuaries”, Annual of the British School at Athens 87, (1992), s. 259-279.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Tios Roma Tiyatrosu/ The Roman Theater of Tios”. (ed.) S. Atasoy ve Ş. Yıldırım, Tios-Filyos Arkeolojik Kazı Projesi. Zonguldak’ta Bir Antik Kent TIOS, Ankara (2015), s. 271-295.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Tios-Tieion: Söylenecek Çok Önemli Bir Şeyi Olmayan Kent”, Trakya Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi , 7/14, (2017a), s. 206-242.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Tios-Tieion 2015 Yılı Kazı Çalışmaları”, KST XXXVIII/I, Ankara (2017b), s. 465-478.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “Gökbel Köyü Hamas Kıranı Tümülüsü”, Hitit Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, S. 2, (2018), s. 1295-1319.
  • Yıldırım, Şahin, “A Great Tumulus from Paphlagonia”, (ed.) G. R. Tsetskhladze ve S. Atasoy, Settlements and Necropoleis of the Black Sea and its Hinterland in Antiquity (Selected Papers from the Third International Conference ‘The Black Sea in Antiquity and Tekkeköy: An Ancient Settlement on the Southern Black Sea Coast’, 27–29 October 2017, Tekkeköy, Samsun), Oxford (2019), s.226-43.
  • Young, Rodney, Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh-Century Well in the Agora, (Hesperia Suppl. 2), Athens, 1939.
  • Young, Rodney, “Old Phrygian Inscriptions from Gordion: Toward a History of the Phrygian Alphabet”, Hesperia 38, (1969), s. 252-296.
  • Zolotarev, I. Miron, “Ранние этапы градостроительствав Херсонесе Таврическом” (Early stages of city building in Taurian Chersonessos), Chersonesskijsbornik 9, (1998), s. 26-35.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Arkeoloji, Tarih
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Şahin YILDIRIM Bu kişi benim
Bartın Üniversitesi, Arkeoloji Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Müdürlüğü
0000-0002-5887-075X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 85, Sayı 303

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ttkbelleten983652, journal = {BELLETEN}, issn = {0041-4255}, eissn = {2791-6472}, address = {Türk Tarih Kurumu, Bilimsel Çalışmalar Müdürlüğü, Kızılay Sokak, No:1, Sıhhiye/ANKARA}, publisher = {Türk Tarih Kurumu}, year = {2021}, volume = {85}, number = {303}, pages = {383 - 422}, doi = {10.37879/belleten.2021.383}, title = {Tieion Akropolisi}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldırım, Şahin} }
APA Yıldırım, Ş. (2021). Tieion Akropolisi . BELLETEN , 85 (303) , 383-422 . DOI: 10.37879/belleten.2021.383
MLA Yıldırım, Ş. "Tieion Akropolisi" . BELLETEN 85 (2021 ): 383-422 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ttkbelleten/issue/64511/983652>
Chicago Yıldırım, Ş. "Tieion Akropolisi". BELLETEN 85 (2021 ): 383-422
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Tieion Akropolisi AU - ŞahinYıldırım Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.383 DO - 10.37879/belleten.2021.383 T2 - BELLETEN JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 383 EP - 422 VL - 85 IS - 303 SN - 0041-4255-2791-6472 M3 - doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.383 UR - https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.383 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 BELLETEN Tieion Akropolisi %A Şahin Yıldırım %T Tieion Akropolisi %D 2021 %J BELLETEN %P 0041-4255-2791-6472 %V 85 %N 303 %R doi: 10.37879/belleten.2021.383 %U 10.37879/belleten.2021.383
ISNAD Yıldırım, Şahin . "Tieion Akropolisi". BELLETEN 85 / 303 (Ağustos 2021): 383-422 . https://doi.org/10.37879/belleten.2021.383
AMA Yıldırım Ş. Tieion Akropolisi. TTK BELLETEN. 2021; 85(303): 383-422.
Vancouver Yıldırım Ş. Tieion Akropolisi. BELLETEN. 2021; 85(303): 383-422.
IEEE Ş. Yıldırım , "Tieion Akropolisi", BELLETEN, c. 85, sayı. 303, ss. 383-422, Ağu. 2021, doi:10.37879/belleten.2021.383