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YENİ ARKEOLOJİK ÇALIŞMALARIN IŞIĞINDA AVRASYALI GÖÇEBE/SAVAŞÇI TOPLUMLARIN HAYATINDA EVCİL HAYVANLARIN ROLÜ

Yıl 2018, Sayı 22, 19 - 33, 01.01.2018

Öz

MÖ 4. binyılda kuzey Hazar denizi çevresinde ki düzlüklerde yerleşmiş olan göçebe hayvan yetiştiricisi insan grupları anlaşıldığı kadarı ile MÖ 2. bin yıldaki yaşanan çevresel felaketlerden kaçmak ve daha iyi otlaklar bulmak amacı ile uzun mesafeli göçler yapmak zorunda kalmışlardır. Bu göçlerin tarihi açıdan olağanüstü niteliktedirler vardır ve bir kaç yeniliği barındırırlar. Pastorik göçebeliğin genişlemesi ile, hayvan-insan etkileşiminde belli bazı değişiklikler olmaya başlamış ve hayvancılığın da gelişmesi ile ilgili kültürlerde ekonomik, sosyal ve klas sistemlerinin temelleri atımış dolayısı ile yeni sanat tarzları gözlenmeye başlamıştır. Hayatlarının göçebe karakteri göz önüne alındığında, Avrasyalı göçebe/savaşçı grupların kültürleri ile hala bazı cevaplanmamış sorular vardır. Bu çalışma, vak’a incelemelerine dayanarak, çevre şartlarının, faunanın ve hayvanların bu kültürlerin geçim sistemleri ve sanat başta olmak üzere sosyal düzen ve klas yapısı üzerinde ki etkilerini incelemeye çalışacaktır.

Kaynakça

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  • ALINEI, M., 2003. “Interdisciplinary and Linguistic Evidence for Palaeolithic Continuity of Indo-European, Uralic and Altaic Populations in Eurasia, with An Excursus on Slavic Ethnogenesis”, Expanded version of a paper read at the Conference Ancient Settlers in Europe, Kobarid, 29-30 May. Forthcoming in “Quaderni di Semantica” 26: 12-17.
  • AMANJOLOV, A., 2003. “Mektep.” History and Theory of Ancient Turkic Script, (Eds. Almaty, Areshian, G / K. I. Kafadarian / A, Simonian / G, Tiratsian / A. Kalantarian / E Kuzmina., 1977). “Archeologičeskije Issledovanija v Aschtarakskom i Nairiskom Raionach Armjanskoi SSR”. Vestnik Obščesvennikcha uk 4: 77-93.
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  • ARTAMONOV, M.I., 1972. Istoriia khazar, Gosudarstvennyĭ Ermitazh (Russia); Sankt-Peterburgskiĭ gosudarstvennyĭ universitet. Filologicheskiĭ fakulʹtet.
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  • BASHILOV, V. A./ YABLONSKY, L. T., 2000. “Some Current Problems Concerning the History of Early Iron Age Eurasian Steppe Nomadic Societies”, Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. Part I. Eurasian Archaeological Theory, Bar international series 890. Oxford: 9-12.
  • BENDREY, R., 2011. “Some Like It Hot: Environmental Determinism and The Pastoraleconomies Of the Later Prehistoric Eurasian Steppe”, Pastoralism Journal. Research, Policy and Practice, 1/8.
  • BLEYl, K. J., 2000. “Sintashta Burials and Their Western European Counterparts”, Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. Part III. Interpretations of Eurasian Archaeology. The Bronze Age. The Eurasian Steppes. BAR International Series 890. Oxford: 126-134.
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  • BOKOVENKO, N. A., 2000. “The Origins of Horse Riding and the Development of Ancient Central Asian Nomadic Riding Harnesses”, Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. Part IV. The Iron Age. Bar International Series 890: 304-310.
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  • BOURGEOIS, I./BOURGEOIS, J./CAMMAERT, L./ DECLEIR, H./LANGOHR, R. / MIKKELSEN, J. / HUELE, W Van., 1999. “Multidisciplinary Archaeological Research in the Sebÿstei Valley 1996-1997 (Kosh-Agash Region, Altai Republic)”, Eurasia Antiqua 5: 295-389
  • BRENTJES, B., 2000. “Hirsche und Andere Tiere in den Grabritualen der Armenischen Bronzezeit”, Iran and the Caucasus 3/4: 321-324
  • BOUROVA, N., 2005. “Horse Remains from the Arzhan-1 And Arzhan-2 Scythian Monuments”, Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia, Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences Vol. 42. Chapter 4. (Eds. M. Scott/A. Yu Alekseev/G. Zaitseva). Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: 323-332.
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THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

Yıl 2018, Sayı 22, 19 - 33, 01.01.2018

Öz

A mobile group of stockbreeders who in the 4th millennium BC inhabited the steppes of northern Caspian Sea was apparently forced to undertake far-distance migrations in search of better pastures by the environmental crises of the 2nd millennium BC. These migrations had tremendously significant historical implications and brought about several innovations. With the expansion of nomadic pastoralism, new form of human-animal interaction in virtue of particular physical and behavioral characteristics and capabilities of livestock was developed and began to lay the basis for economic, social and class systems as well as art style of the respective communities. Given the nomadic character of their life, there still remain several questions about the culture of the Eurasian nomadic warrior groups, and the present work, building on case studies, attempts to examine the impacts of the environment and fauna diversity on and the role of animals in the subsistence system and the art as well as the social systems and classes of these groups

Kaynakça

  • AKISHEV, K. A., 2001. “Issyk script and runic writing”, Ancient Türkic civilization: monuments of writing. Almaty: 389-395.
  • ALINEI, M., 2003. “Interdisciplinary and Linguistic Evidence for Palaeolithic Continuity of Indo-European, Uralic and Altaic Populations in Eurasia, with An Excursus on Slavic Ethnogenesis”, Expanded version of a paper read at the Conference Ancient Settlers in Europe, Kobarid, 29-30 May. Forthcoming in “Quaderni di Semantica” 26: 12-17.
  • AMANJOLOV, A., 2003. “Mektep.” History and Theory of Ancient Turkic Script, (Eds. Almaty, Areshian, G / K. I. Kafadarian / A, Simonian / G, Tiratsian / A. Kalantarian / E Kuzmina., 1977). “Archeologičeskije Issledovanija v Aschtarakskom i Nairiskom Raionach Armjanskoi SSR”. Vestnik Obščesvennikcha uk 4: 77-93.
  • ARESHİAN, G/K, KAFADARİAN/ A, SİMONİAN/ G, TİRATSİAN/A, KALANTARİAN, 1977. “ArkheologicheskieIssledovaniya v Ashtarakskom i Nairiskom Raionakh Armyanskoi SSR’’. Vestnik Obshchesvennikh Nauk 4: 77–93
  • ARTAMONOV, M.I., 1966. Sokrovishcha Skifskikh Kurganov v Sobranii Gosudarstvennogo Érmitazha Praha. Leningrad.
  • ARTAMONOV, M.I., 1969. The Splendor of Scythian Art: New York.
  • ARTAMONOV, M.I., 1972. Istoriia khazar, Gosudarstvennyĭ Ermitazh (Russia); Sankt-Peterburgskiĭ gosudarstvennyĭ universitet. Filologicheskiĭ fakulʹtet.
  • ASKO, P., 2012. “The Problem of Samoyed Origins in the Light of Archaeology: On the Formation and Dispersal of East Uralic (Proto-Ugro-Samoyed)”, Per urales ad Orientem: iter polyphonicum multilingue: festskrift tillägnad Juha Janhunen på hans sextioårsdag den 12 februari 2012/ ed. by T.Hyytiäinen et al.Helsinki:Suomalais-ugrilainen Seura, 2012.-xxvii, 542 p.: ill. (Suomalais-ugrilaisen Seuran toimituksia Mémoires de la Société finnoougrienne; 264)
  • BALAKINA, G. G./VASILIEV, V. G./KARPOVA, E. V./ MAMATYUK, V/MOLECULAR, H., 2006. “Spectroscopic Investigations of the Red Dye Obtained from an Ancient Pazyryk Textile”, Dyes Pigments 71: 54-60.
  • BASHILOV, V. A./ YABLONSKY, L. T., 2000. “Some Current Problems Concerning the History of Early Iron Age Eurasian Steppe Nomadic Societies”, Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. Part I. Eurasian Archaeological Theory, Bar international series 890. Oxford: 9-12.
  • BENDREY, R., 2011. “Some Like It Hot: Environmental Determinism and The Pastoraleconomies Of the Later Prehistoric Eurasian Steppe”, Pastoralism Journal. Research, Policy and Practice, 1/8.
  • BLEYl, K. J., 2000. “Sintashta Burials and Their Western European Counterparts”, Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. Part III. Interpretations of Eurasian Archaeology. The Bronze Age. The Eurasian Steppes. BAR International Series 890. Oxford: 126-134.
  • BÖHMER, H./ THOMPSON, J., 1991. “The Pazyryk Carpet: A Technical Discussion”, SOURCE: Notes in the History of Art (Ars Brevis Foundation) 10/4: 30–36. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  • BÖKÖNYİ, S., 1974. History of Domestic Mammals in Centeral And Eastern Europe. Translated by LiLi Halapy, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest.
  • BOKOVENKO, N. I., 1996. “Asian Influence on European Scythia”, Ancient Civilisataion from Scythia to Siberia, 3/1: 97-119
  • BOKOVENKO, N. A., 2000. “The Origins of Horse Riding and the Development of Ancient Central Asian Nomadic Riding Harnesses”, Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. Part IV. The Iron Age. Bar International Series 890: 304-310.
  • BOKOVENKO, N. A., 2005. “Migration of Early Nomads of the Eurasian Steppe in A Context of Climatic Changes”, Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia, Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences – Vol. 42, Chapter 3, Edited by Marian Scott and AndreyYu Alekseev and Ganna Zaitseva, Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: 21-33.
  • BOURGEOIS, I./BOURGEOIS, J./CAMMAERT, L./ DECLEIR, H./LANGOHR, R. / MIKKELSEN, J. / HUELE, W Van., 1999. “Multidisciplinary Archaeological Research in the Sebÿstei Valley 1996-1997 (Kosh-Agash Region, Altai Republic)”, Eurasia Antiqua 5: 295-389
  • BRENTJES, B., 2000. “Hirsche und Andere Tiere in den Grabritualen der Armenischen Bronzezeit”, Iran and the Caucasus 3/4: 321-324
  • BOUROVA, N., 2005. “Horse Remains from the Arzhan-1 And Arzhan-2 Scythian Monuments”, Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia, Series IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences Vol. 42. Chapter 4. (Eds. M. Scott/A. Yu Alekseev/G. Zaitseva). Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: 323-332.
  • ČUGUNOV, K./ PARZINGER, H./ NAGLER, A., 2003. “Der skythische Fürstengrabhügel von Aržan 2 in Tuva”. Vorbericht der russisch-deutschen Ausgrabungen 2000- 2002. Eurasia Antiqua 9: 113–162.
  • CHOCHOROWSKI, J., 2000. “Problems of the Chronology of the Great Ryzhanovka Kurgan”, Geochronometria 19: 41-46
  • CHERNETSOV, THUS. V N., 1973. Argues for an Ugric substrate among the Andronovo tribes and a specific Indo-Iranian identity for the Alakul tribe. Stokolos
  • CHILDE, V.G., 1926. The Aryans: A study of Indo-European origins. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
  • ÇILINGIROĞLU. A., 1994. Urartu Tarihi. Bornova
  • DALLEY, S., 1991. “Ancient Assyrian Textiles and the Origins of Carpet Design”, Iran XXIX: 117-135.
  • DAVID, W.A., 2007. The Horse, the Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes, Shaped the Modern World.
  • DEVEDZHIAN, S, G., 1981. Lori-Berd I. Izdatel’stvo AN Armyanskoj SSR. Yerevan
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Farshid Farshid IRAVANİ GHADİM Bu kişi benim
Department of Archaeology Faculty of Conservation Art University of Isfahan

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ocak 2018
Gönderilme Tarihi
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt , Sayı 22

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { tubaar925512, journal = {TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8566}, eissn = {2667-5005}, address = {TÜBA - TÜRKİYE BİLİMLER AKADEMİSİ Piyade Sokak No: 27 Çankaya 06690 ANKARA}, publisher = {Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi}, year = {2018}, number = {22}, pages = {19 - 33}, title = {THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE}, key = {cite}, author = {Iravani Ghadim, Farshid Farshid} }
APA Iravani Ghadim, F. F. (2018). THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi , (22) , 19-33 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/61842/925512
MLA Iravani Ghadim, F. F. "THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE" . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi (2018 ): 19-33 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/61842/925512>
Chicago Iravani Ghadim, F. F. "THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi (2018 ): 19-33
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - YENİ ARKEOLOJİK ÇALIŞMALARIN IŞIĞINDA AVRASYALI GÖÇEBE/SAVAŞÇI TOPLUMLARIN HAYATINDA EVCİL HAYVANLARIN ROLÜ AU - Farshid FarshidIravani Ghadim Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 19 EP - 33 VL - IS - 22 SN - 1301-8566-2667-5005 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2023 ER -
EndNote %0 TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE %A Farshid Farshid Iravani Ghadim %T THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE %D 2018 %J TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi %P 1301-8566-2667-5005 %V %N 22 %R %U
ISNAD Iravani Ghadim, Farshid Farshid . "THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi / 22 (Ocak 2018): 19-33 .
AMA Iravani Ghadim F. F. THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE. TÜBA-AR. 2018; (22): 19-33.
Vancouver Iravani Ghadim F. F. THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE. TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi. 2018; (22): 19-33.
IEEE F. F. Iravani Ghadim , "THE ROLE OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN THE LIFE OF EURASIAN NOMADIC WARRIOR GROUPS IN LIGHT OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE", TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi, sayı. 22, ss. 19-33, Oca. 2018

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