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PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR

Yıl 2018, Sayı 22, 35 - 55, 01.01.2018

Öz

Karia bölgesinde son yıllarda sayısı artan kazı ve araştırmalar Geç Tunç Çağı’ndan Erken Demir Çağı’na geçiş süreci, Erken Demir Çağı mezar mimarisi, hediyeleri ve ölü gömme geleneği hakkında önemli veriler sağlamaktadır. Bu kültürel süreçlere ait taş tümülüsler ve mezar platformları, Leleg Yarımadası üzerindeki belli başlı mezar yapıları arasında yer alır. Bugünkü bilgilerimiz, dikdörtgen planlı mezar platformlarının MÖ 12. yüzyılın başlarından Arkaik Dönem’in içlerine kadar kullanıldıklarını göstermiştir. Doğal zemin üzerine inşa edilmiş platformlar, içleri taşlarla doldurulmuş taş duvarlarla sınırlanmışlardır. Bu taş dolgu içerisinde yer alan dörtgen tasarlanmış sandık/kutu mezarlar, yakma işleminden sonra toplanan kül ve kemiğin bırakıldığı küçük mimari birimlerdir. Pedasa ve Asarlık’ta kazısı yapılan MÖ 12. ve 11. yüzyıla tarihlenen platformlarda, sadece kremasyon gömü ile karşılaşılmıştır. Araştırılan örneklerden anlaşıldığı kadarıyla, platformların bazılarında merkezi konumda bir yerde urne amaçlı kullanılmış pithoslar ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Mezar Platformu 1’de, pithosun platformun merkezinde yer alması, bunların platformun inşa edilmesine sebep olan bireyin gömülmesi amacını taşıdığını düşündürmektedir. Ancak, Platform 2’de ortaya çıkarılmış olan pithosun platformun ilk gömüsü olmaması, bu yorumun her zaman geçerli olmadığını da gösterir. Platformların uzun kullanım süreci, inşa evrelerinde taş dolgu içerisine bırakılan seramiklerden oluşan adaklar ve taş dolgu içerisinde dağınık parçalar şeklinde gözlenen seramik buluntular, bu mezar tipini kullanan toplumun ölü kültü ve inacına verdiği önem ve aile mezarı olarak kullanılmalarıyla ilişkilidir. Pithoslarla ilişkili mezar buluntuları arasında yer alan kaseler MÖ geç 12. yüzyıldan 10. yüzyıl başlarına kadar Ege’de birçok yerde benzerleri bulunabilen tek kulplu kaselerin yerel Karialı temsilcileridir. İki boğumlu asimetrik yay fibulalar ise Karia bölgesinde oldukça sık karşılaşılan bir tipin üyesidirler. Mezar 1, buluntuları arasında yer alan bir küpeden dolayı bir kız çocuk/adolescent, Mezar 13 ise buluntuları arasında yer alan kılıç/kama parçasından dolayı muhtemelen bir erkek çocuk/ adolescent ile ilişkilidir. Pithosların urne amaçlı kullanılması, Demircihüyük örneklerinden bilindiği gibi, Orta Tunç Çağı Anadolu kültürlerinden itibaren izlenen, Geç Tunç Çağı’nda ise, kremasyon geleneğindeki artış ile Batı Anadolu’da Troia, Ulucak ve Girit’te Olous karşılaşılan bir uygulamadır. Karia urne pithosları Batı Anadolu ve karşı adalarda MÖ 10. yüzyıl ile sayıları artan urne geleneğinin, aslında kesinti olmadan devam eden bir Geç Tunç Çağı geleneği olduğunu da belgelemektedirler. Pedasa urne pithoslarının içerisinde yer aldığı platformlar, taş dolgu içerisinde yer alan mezarlarıyla, MÖ 12. yüzyıl Argos bölgesi tümülüsleri özellikle Chania tümülüsü ile benzerlik göstermektedir. Argos tümülüslerinde kremasyon artıkları urne içerisinde, Pedasa ve Asarlık’ta ise doğrudan sandık/kutu mezarlara bırakılmaktadır. Pedasa ve Asarlık mezarlarından ele geçen MÖ 12. yüzyıla tarihlenen buluntuların, Geç Hellas III C döneminin karakteristik özelliklerine sahip olması, bölgenin Egeli kimliğini, materyal kültürü ile belgelemektedir. Leleg Yarımadası platformları ve Argos tümülüsleri, çağdaş Ege kültürleri ile kıyaslandığında kremasyonun temel gömü şekli olması ve seramik buluntulardaki ortaklıkları ile benzer özellikleri tekrar etmektedirler. Verilerdeki bu ortaklık Ege göçleri, göçün yönü ve muhtemel kaynağı ile ilgili yeni bir tartışmayı beraberinde getirmiştir.

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PEDASA PLATFORM-GRAVES AND PITHOS URNS FROM THE BEGINNING OF EARLY IRON AGE

Yıl 2018, Sayı 22, 35 - 55, 01.01.2018

Öz

Recent archaeological research and excavations undertaken at Caria provide significant information regarding the transitional stage from Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age as well as funerary architecture, burial customs and offerings of Early Iron Age. Throughout this cultural process, stone tumuli and platform-graves appear to be the major grave structures in Lelegian peninsula. Considering current information, we can safely say that rectangular platform-graves were in use starting from the beginning of 12th Century BC towards the mid-Archaic period. Platform-graves constructed on ground were encircled by a framing enclosure filled with rubble. Burial cists were small rectangular units embedded in rubble containing clusters of cremated remains. Excavated Pedasa and Asarlık platform-graves dating back to 12th and 11th centuries BC contain solely cremation burials. It seems that in some platform-graves there is a centrally placed pithos used as an urn. The arrangement of platformgrave 1 with a centrally positioned single pithos urn suggests that the structure was actually built for the deceased whose cremated remains were placed in it. However, it is not always the case since the pithos urn in platform grave 2 is not the earliest burial in the platform. Long term usage of the platform graves, ceramic grave goods placed in the rubble fill during the construction phase and ceramic sherds scattered in the fill must be the reflections of burial traditions of the community using the platform graves as family graves with strong signs of importance paid to grave cult and ancestor veneration. Among the grave goods are ceramic bowls; Carian examples of single handled bowls which is a typical form in the Aegean from late 12th to the beginning of 10th centuries BC. Asymmetrical arched fibulae with two tubular beads are among the typical fibula form common in Caria. Grave 1 must be related to an adolescent/female with its earring and grave 13 must belong to an adolescent/male with its sword/dagger. The use of pithos as cremation urn appears in Middle Bronze Age Anatolian cultures such as Demircihüyük examples. It can also be followed in Western Anatolia Troia, Ulucak and Crete Olous along with the increase of cremation in the Late Bronze Age. Carian pithos urns attest that cremation urn practice was actually a continuous Late Bronze Age tradition without any interruption with increasing numbers observed in Western Anatolia and nearby islands starting from 10th century BC. Pedasa platform-graves containing pithos urns show close resemblance to Argos tumuli from 12th century BC, specifically Chania tumulus in regard to its arrangement with graves placed in a rubble fill. In Argos tumuli cremated remains were placed in an urn whereas in Pedasa and Asarlık they were deposited at burial cists. It is clear that the region has a strong Aegean identity in terms of material culture as Pedasa finds from 12th century BC reflect characteristic features of Late Helladic III C period. The platform-graves of Lelegian peninsula and Argos tumuli show close resemblance in terms of cremation being the main burial type and common features in ceramic finds compared to contemporary Aegean cultuRes. These similar patterns might bring new discussions on the possible routes and sources on mobility in the Aegean.

Kaynakça

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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Bekir ÖZER Bu kişi benim
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Arkeoloji Bölümü, Kötekli, Muğla

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Ocak 2018
Gönderilme Tarihi
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt , Sayı 22

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { tubaar925515, journal = {TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8566}, eissn = {2667-5005}, address = {TÜBA - TÜRKİYE BİLİMLER AKADEMİSİ Piyade Sokak No: 27 Çankaya 06690 ANKARA}, publisher = {Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi}, year = {2018}, number = {22}, pages = {35 - 55}, title = {PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR}, key = {cite}, author = {Özer, Bekir} }
APA Özer, B. (2018). PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi , (22) , 35-55 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/61842/925515
MLA Özer, B. "PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR" . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi (2018 ): 35-55 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/61842/925515>
Chicago Özer, B. "PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi (2018 ): 35-55
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR AU - BekirÖzer Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 35 EP - 55 VL - IS - 22 SN - 1301-8566-2667-5005 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2023 ER -
EndNote %0 TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR %A Bekir Özer %T PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR %D 2018 %J TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi %P 1301-8566-2667-5005 %V %N 22 %R %U
ISNAD Özer, Bekir . "PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi / 22 (Ocak 2018): 35-55 .
AMA Özer B. PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR. TÜBA-AR. 2018; (22): 35-55.
Vancouver Özer B. PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR. TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi. 2018; (22): 35-55.
IEEE B. Özer , "PEDASA’DAN ERKEN DEMİR ÇAĞ BAŞLARINA AİT MEZAR PLATFORMLARI VE URNE PİTHOSLAR", TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi, sayı. 22, ss. 35-55, Oca. 2018

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