PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI

Yıl 2019, Sayı 25, 11 - 26, 01.03.2019

Öz

Doğal cam olarak da bilinen Obsidiyen, kolaylıkla yongalanma niteliğinden dolayı ve keskin kenar elde edilmesi için Önasya’nıntarihöncesi toplumları tarafından kullanılmıştır. Öte yandan yatakları sınırlı olan bu hammaddenin kaynağından daha uzak bölgelerdeele geçmesi tarihöncesi uzak mesafeli değiş tokuş ve/veya ticareti ile ilgili önemli bilgiler sunmaktadır. Bu makalede eski ve yeni arkeolojik kazılardan elde edilen bilgilere dayanarak günümüz İran sınırları içinde ele geçen Anadolu kökenli obsidiyen buluntuları ışığında söz konusu iki bölge arasindki özelikle Neolitik Dönemde gorulen ilişkiler ele alınmiştir. Anadolu kökenli obsidiyen örnekleri Epi-Paleolitik dönemden itibaren Batı Zagroslar Yukarı Mezopotamya yerleşimlerinden bir kaçında mevcuttur. Günümüz İran sınırları içinde Anadolu kökenli en erken tarihli az sayıdaki obsidiyen buluntuya Orta-Batı İran’daki Çanak Çömleksiz Neolitik Döneme tarihlenen yerleşimlerde rastlanmıştır. En yoğun obsidiyen aktarımı Çanak Çömlekli Neolitik Dönemde gerçekleşmiştir. Özellikle MÖ 7500-5500 yılları aralığında tüm Batı İran bölgesinde yoğun bir obsidiyen dağıtım ağının olduğu ve dolayısıyla bu iki bölgenin birbiriyle teması ve iletişimi olduğunu düşünmekteyiz. Eldeki veriler Geç Neolitik Dönem’de Anadolu ile İran arasında obsidiyen dolaşımının yaygın olduğna işaret etmektedir. Neolitik yerleşimlerindeki obsidiyenler ağırlıklı olarak Bingöl ve Nemrut Dağ kökenli olmakla birlikte az sayıda Kafkasya yataklarından gelen örneklere de rastlanmaktadır. Anadolu kökenli obsidiyenler genellikle Neolitik Dönem yerleşmelerinde, Kafkasya kökenli obsidiyenler ise daha çok Kalkolitik ve Tunç Çağ yerleşmelerinde karşımıza çıkar.

Kaynakça

  • ABDI, K. 2004. “Obsidian in Iran from the Epipaleolithic Period to the Bronze Age’’, Persiens antike Pracht (Eds. T. Stoellner, R. Slotta - A. Vatandoust). Bochum Museum: 148-153.
  • ABE, M. / AZİZİ KHARANAGHİ, H. 2014 “A study on the Early Pottery Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage from Rahmatabad’’, Proceedings of the International Congress of Young Archaeologists (Eds. M. H. Azizi/ M. Khanipour/ R. Naseri) Tehran: 27- 40.
  • AGHA-ALIGOL, D./ LAMEHI-RACHTI, M./ OLIAIY, P./ SHOKOUHI, F./ FARMAHINI FARAHANI, M./ MORADI, M./ FARSHI JALALI, F. 2015. “Characterization of Iranian Obsidian Artifacts by PIXE and Multivariate Statistical Analysis’’, Geoarchaeology 30/3 : 261-270.
  • ALIZADEH, A. 2003. Excavation at the Prehistoric Mound of Chogha Bonut, Khuzestan, Iran. Chicago: The University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Publication, vol. 120.
  • BLACKMAN, M. J. 1984. “Provenance Studies of Middle Eastern Obsidian from Sites in Highland Iran’’, Archaeological Chemistry III. American Chemical Society Advances in Chemistry Series 205 (Eds. J. B. Lambert). Washington, D.C: 19-50.
  • BLACKMAN, M. J./ BADALIAN, R./ KIKODZE, Z./ KOHL, P. 1998. “Chemical Characterization of Caucasian Obsidian Geological Sources’’, L Obsidienne au Proche et Moyen Orient: Du Volcan a l’Outil (Eds. M. Cauvin/ A. Gourgaud/ B. Gratuze/ N. Arnaud/ G. Poupeau/ J. L. Poidevin/ C. Chataigner). BAR International Series, vol. 738. Archaeopress. Oxford: 205-231.
  • BRADLEY, R. 1971. “Trade Competition and Artefact Distribution’’, World Archaeology 2: 347-51.
  • CANN, J. R./ RENFREW, C. 1968. “The Characterization of Obsidian and its Application to the Mediterranean Region’’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 30. 111-133.
  • CAUVIN, M.-C./ C. CHATAIGNER. 1998. “Distribution de I’obsidienne dans les sites archéologiques du Proche et Moyen Orient’’, L’Obsidienne au Proche et Moyen Orient: du Volcan á I’Outil (Eds. M. Cauvin/ A. Gourgaud/ B. Gratuze/ N. Arnaud/ G. Poupeau/ J. L. Poidevin/ C. Chataigner). BAR International Series, vol. 738. Archaeopress. Oxford: 325-204.
  • CONARD, N./ RIEHL, S./ ZEIDI, M. 2013. “Revisiting Neolithisation in the Zagros Foothills: Excavations at Chogha Golan, Pre-Pottery Neolithic site in Ilam Province, Western Iran’’, The Neolithisation of Iran (Eds. R. Matthews/ H. Fazeli),. Oxford: 77-83.
  • DARABI, H./ GLASCOCK, D. 2013. “The source of obsidian artefacts found at East Chia Sabz, Western Iran,’’ Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3804-3809.
  • DIXON, J. E./ CANN, J. R./ RENFREW, C. 1968. “Obsidian and the Origins of Trade”, Scientific American, 218/3: 38-46.
  • FRAHM, E. 2010. “The Bronze-Age Obsidian Industry at Tell Mozan (Ancient Urkesh) Syria’’, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota.
  • FRIEDMAN, I./ TREMBOUR, F. W./ HUGHES, R. E. 1997. “Obsidian Hydration Dating’’, Chronometric Dating in Archaeology (Eds. R. Aitken/ M. Taylor) London: Advances in Archaeological and Museum Sciences, 2, New York: 297-321.
  • GHORABI, S./ GLASCOCK, M. D./ KHADEMI, F./ REZAIE, A./ FEIZKHAH, M. 2008. “A Geochemical Investigation of Obsidian Artifacts from Sites in North-Western Iran’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 39: 7-10.
  • GHORABI, S./ NADOOSHAN, F. K./ GLASCOCK, M. D. 2010. “Provenance of Obsidian Tools From Northwestern Iran Using XRAY Fluorescence Analysis and Neutron Activation Analysis’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 43: 14-26.
  • GLASCOCK, M. D./ BRASWELL, G. E./ COBEAN, R. H. 1998. “A Systematic Approach to Obsidian Source Characterization’’, Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory (Eds. M. S. Shackley) London: Advances in Archaeological and Museum Sciences, 3, New York: 15-65.
  • HODDER, I./ ORTON, C. 1976 Spatial analysis in archaeology: New studies in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • HOLE, F. 1977. Studies in the archaeological history of the Deh Luran Plain. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  • HOLE, F./ FLANNERY, K./ NEELY, J. 1969. Prehistory and Human Ecology on the Deh Luran Plain. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  • HOWE, B. 1983. “Karim Shahir’’, Prehistoric Archaeology along the Zagros Flanks (Eds. L. S. Braiwood/ R. J. Braiwood/ B. Howe/ C. Reed/ P. Watson) Chicago: University of Chicago: 23-154.
  • IBANEZ, J.J. / ORTEGA, D./ CAMPOS, D./ KHALIDI, L./ MÉNDEZ V. 2015. “Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange’’, Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12: 1-11.
  • KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F./ ABEDI, A./ GLASCOCK, M. D./ESKANDARI, N./ KHAZAEE, M. 2013. “Provenance of prehistoric obsidian artefacts from Kul Tepe, northwestern Iran using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis’’, Journal of Archaeological Science 40/4: 1956-1965.
  • KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F./ AYVATWAND, M./ DEGHANIFAR, H./ GLASCOCK, M. D./ PHILLIPS, S.C. 2010. “Report on the Chogabon site, a new source of obsidian artifacts in west-central Iran’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 42: 9-12.
  • KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F./ PHILLIPS, S.C./ SAFARI, M. 2007. “WDXRF Spectroscopy of Obsidian Tools in the NorthWest of Iran’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 37: 37.
  • KHAZAEE, M./ GLASCOCK, M./ MASJEDI, P./ KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F. 2014. “Sourcing the obsidian of prehistoric tools found in western Iran to southeastern Turkey: a case study for the sites of Eastern Chia Sabz and Chogha Ahovan’’, Anatolian Studies 64: 23 - 31.
  • LEAKEY, M.D. 1971. Olduvai Gorge, Vol. 3. Excavations in Bed I and II, 1960–1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • MATNEY, T., 2012. Cheshmeh Ali: A Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Village in Northern Iran. In: Annual Meetings of the Society of American Archaeology. Memphis, Tennessee. Available at: http://www3.uakron.edu/cheshmehali/overview. html.
  • NIKNAMI, K. A./ AMIRKHIZ, A./ GLASCOCK, M. 2010. “Provenance Studies of Chalcolithic Obsidian Artefacts From Near Lake Urmia, Northwestern Iran Using WDXRF Analysis’’, Archaeometry 52/1: 19–30.
  • ORTEGA, D./ IBANEZ, J.J./ KHALIDI, L./ MÉNDEZ, V./ CAMPOS, D./ TEIRA, L. 2014. “Towards a Multi-Agent-Based Modelling of Obsidian Exchange in the Neolithic Near East’’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21: 461-485.
  • PIPERNO, M./ COLLINA, C./ GALOTTI, R./ RAYNAL, J./ KIEFFER, G./ IE BOURDONNEE, F. X./ POUPEAU, G./ GERAADS, D. 2009. “Obsidian exploitation and utilization during the Oldowan at Melka Kunture (Ethiopia)’’, Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Oldowan (Eds. E. Hovers/ D.R. Braun) Springer, Berlin: 111-128.
  • PULLAR, J./ YELLIN, J./ PERLMAN, I., 1986. “Sources of obsidian from Tepe Abdul Hossein as determined by neutron activation analysis’’, Proceedings of the 24th International Archaeometry Symposium. Smithsonian Institution (Eds. J.S. Olin/ J. Blackman) Washington: 389- 402.
  • RENFREW, C. 1969. “The sources and supply of the Deh Luran obsidian’’, Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Deh Luran Plain. Memoir 1 (Eds. Hole, F/ Flannery, K.V/ Neely, J.A) University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor: 429-433.
  • RENFREW, C. / DIXON, J.E./ CANN, J.R., 1966. “Obsidian and early culture contact in the Near East’’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 32: 30-72.
  • RENFREW, C./ DIXON, J. E. 1977. “Obsidian in Western Asia: A Review’’, Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology (Eds. G. de G. Sieveking/ I.H. Longworth/K.E. Wilson) Boulder: 137- 150. RENFREW, C./ DIXON, J. E./ CANN, J. 1968. “Further Analysis of Near Eastern Obsidian,’’ Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34: 319-331.
  • STEVENSON, M./ MAZER, J. J./ SCHEETZ, B. E. 1998. “Laboratory Obsidian Hydration Rates: Theory, Method, and Application’’, Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory (Ed. M. Shackley) London: Advances in Archaeological and Museum Sciences Vol. 3, New York: 181-204.

OBSIDIAN CIRCULATION BETWEEN ANATOLIA AND IRAN IN THE LIGHT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDING

Yıl 2019, Sayı 25, 11 - 26, 01.03.2019

Öz

Obsidian as a raw material has had several applications in the prehistoric Near Eastern communities. Due to the limited sources of obsidian, its existence in the areas far from the resources provides archaeologists significant information on obsidian trade and exchange in prehistoric societies. In this paper, obsidians obtained in Iran are investigated using data from new and previous archaeological excavations. Considering the wide range of obsidians found within the borders of Iran originating from Anatolia, this research has been conducted by taking different archaeological and geographical regions in Iran into account including Northwest, West, Southwest, South and the central plateau. Anatolian obsidians have been found in a few sites in western Zagros north Mesopotamia from the Epi-Paleolithic period. However, Anatolian obsidians have emerged the borders of modern Iran during the Early Neolithic period in a limited amount, and then reach their climax in the Late Neolithic period 7500-5500 BC . It seems as if in this interval a wide network of obsidian trade and probably other raw materials has been established in this region, demonstrating a long-distance trade of Anatolian communities with its neighbors, especially in western Iran. Considering all this information, an organized system of obsidian trade is assumed especially active in the Neolithic Period that encompassed most of the Ancient Near East. Most of the obsidians discovered in Iran have their origins in Eastern Anatolia, and a small part belongs to Caucasia. It seems as if obsidian with their origin in Anatolia had been significant mostly during the Neolithic Period, and obsidian originating from Caucasia have been significant mostly during later Periods

Kaynakça

  • ABDI, K. 2004. “Obsidian in Iran from the Epipaleolithic Period to the Bronze Age’’, Persiens antike Pracht (Eds. T. Stoellner, R. Slotta - A. Vatandoust). Bochum Museum: 148-153.
  • ABE, M. / AZİZİ KHARANAGHİ, H. 2014 “A study on the Early Pottery Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage from Rahmatabad’’, Proceedings of the International Congress of Young Archaeologists (Eds. M. H. Azizi/ M. Khanipour/ R. Naseri) Tehran: 27- 40.
  • AGHA-ALIGOL, D./ LAMEHI-RACHTI, M./ OLIAIY, P./ SHOKOUHI, F./ FARMAHINI FARAHANI, M./ MORADI, M./ FARSHI JALALI, F. 2015. “Characterization of Iranian Obsidian Artifacts by PIXE and Multivariate Statistical Analysis’’, Geoarchaeology 30/3 : 261-270.
  • ALIZADEH, A. 2003. Excavation at the Prehistoric Mound of Chogha Bonut, Khuzestan, Iran. Chicago: The University of Chicago, Oriental Institute Publication, vol. 120.
  • BLACKMAN, M. J. 1984. “Provenance Studies of Middle Eastern Obsidian from Sites in Highland Iran’’, Archaeological Chemistry III. American Chemical Society Advances in Chemistry Series 205 (Eds. J. B. Lambert). Washington, D.C: 19-50.
  • BLACKMAN, M. J./ BADALIAN, R./ KIKODZE, Z./ KOHL, P. 1998. “Chemical Characterization of Caucasian Obsidian Geological Sources’’, L Obsidienne au Proche et Moyen Orient: Du Volcan a l’Outil (Eds. M. Cauvin/ A. Gourgaud/ B. Gratuze/ N. Arnaud/ G. Poupeau/ J. L. Poidevin/ C. Chataigner). BAR International Series, vol. 738. Archaeopress. Oxford: 205-231.
  • BRADLEY, R. 1971. “Trade Competition and Artefact Distribution’’, World Archaeology 2: 347-51.
  • CANN, J. R./ RENFREW, C. 1968. “The Characterization of Obsidian and its Application to the Mediterranean Region’’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 30. 111-133.
  • CAUVIN, M.-C./ C. CHATAIGNER. 1998. “Distribution de I’obsidienne dans les sites archéologiques du Proche et Moyen Orient’’, L’Obsidienne au Proche et Moyen Orient: du Volcan á I’Outil (Eds. M. Cauvin/ A. Gourgaud/ B. Gratuze/ N. Arnaud/ G. Poupeau/ J. L. Poidevin/ C. Chataigner). BAR International Series, vol. 738. Archaeopress. Oxford: 325-204.
  • CONARD, N./ RIEHL, S./ ZEIDI, M. 2013. “Revisiting Neolithisation in the Zagros Foothills: Excavations at Chogha Golan, Pre-Pottery Neolithic site in Ilam Province, Western Iran’’, The Neolithisation of Iran (Eds. R. Matthews/ H. Fazeli),. Oxford: 77-83.
  • DARABI, H./ GLASCOCK, D. 2013. “The source of obsidian artefacts found at East Chia Sabz, Western Iran,’’ Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3804-3809.
  • DIXON, J. E./ CANN, J. R./ RENFREW, C. 1968. “Obsidian and the Origins of Trade”, Scientific American, 218/3: 38-46.
  • FRAHM, E. 2010. “The Bronze-Age Obsidian Industry at Tell Mozan (Ancient Urkesh) Syria’’, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota.
  • FRIEDMAN, I./ TREMBOUR, F. W./ HUGHES, R. E. 1997. “Obsidian Hydration Dating’’, Chronometric Dating in Archaeology (Eds. R. Aitken/ M. Taylor) London: Advances in Archaeological and Museum Sciences, 2, New York: 297-321.
  • GHORABI, S./ GLASCOCK, M. D./ KHADEMI, F./ REZAIE, A./ FEIZKHAH, M. 2008. “A Geochemical Investigation of Obsidian Artifacts from Sites in North-Western Iran’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 39: 7-10.
  • GHORABI, S./ NADOOSHAN, F. K./ GLASCOCK, M. D. 2010. “Provenance of Obsidian Tools From Northwestern Iran Using XRAY Fluorescence Analysis and Neutron Activation Analysis’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 43: 14-26.
  • GLASCOCK, M. D./ BRASWELL, G. E./ COBEAN, R. H. 1998. “A Systematic Approach to Obsidian Source Characterization’’, Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory (Eds. M. S. Shackley) London: Advances in Archaeological and Museum Sciences, 3, New York: 15-65.
  • HODDER, I./ ORTON, C. 1976 Spatial analysis in archaeology: New studies in archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • HOLE, F. 1977. Studies in the archaeological history of the Deh Luran Plain. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  • HOLE, F./ FLANNERY, K./ NEELY, J. 1969. Prehistory and Human Ecology on the Deh Luran Plain. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  • HOWE, B. 1983. “Karim Shahir’’, Prehistoric Archaeology along the Zagros Flanks (Eds. L. S. Braiwood/ R. J. Braiwood/ B. Howe/ C. Reed/ P. Watson) Chicago: University of Chicago: 23-154.
  • IBANEZ, J.J. / ORTEGA, D./ CAMPOS, D./ KHALIDI, L./ MÉNDEZ V. 2015. “Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange’’, Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12: 1-11.
  • KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F./ ABEDI, A./ GLASCOCK, M. D./ESKANDARI, N./ KHAZAEE, M. 2013. “Provenance of prehistoric obsidian artefacts from Kul Tepe, northwestern Iran using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis’’, Journal of Archaeological Science 40/4: 1956-1965.
  • KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F./ AYVATWAND, M./ DEGHANIFAR, H./ GLASCOCK, M. D./ PHILLIPS, S.C. 2010. “Report on the Chogabon site, a new source of obsidian artifacts in west-central Iran’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 42: 9-12.
  • KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F./ PHILLIPS, S.C./ SAFARI, M. 2007. “WDXRF Spectroscopy of Obsidian Tools in the NorthWest of Iran’’, International Association of Obsidian Studies Bulletin (IAOS Bulletin) 37: 37.
  • KHAZAEE, M./ GLASCOCK, M./ MASJEDI, P./ KHADEMI NADOSHAN, F. 2014. “Sourcing the obsidian of prehistoric tools found in western Iran to southeastern Turkey: a case study for the sites of Eastern Chia Sabz and Chogha Ahovan’’, Anatolian Studies 64: 23 - 31.
  • LEAKEY, M.D. 1971. Olduvai Gorge, Vol. 3. Excavations in Bed I and II, 1960–1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • MATNEY, T., 2012. Cheshmeh Ali: A Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Village in Northern Iran. In: Annual Meetings of the Society of American Archaeology. Memphis, Tennessee. Available at: http://www3.uakron.edu/cheshmehali/overview. html.
  • NIKNAMI, K. A./ AMIRKHIZ, A./ GLASCOCK, M. 2010. “Provenance Studies of Chalcolithic Obsidian Artefacts From Near Lake Urmia, Northwestern Iran Using WDXRF Analysis’’, Archaeometry 52/1: 19–30.
  • ORTEGA, D./ IBANEZ, J.J./ KHALIDI, L./ MÉNDEZ, V./ CAMPOS, D./ TEIRA, L. 2014. “Towards a Multi-Agent-Based Modelling of Obsidian Exchange in the Neolithic Near East’’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21: 461-485.
  • PIPERNO, M./ COLLINA, C./ GALOTTI, R./ RAYNAL, J./ KIEFFER, G./ IE BOURDONNEE, F. X./ POUPEAU, G./ GERAADS, D. 2009. “Obsidian exploitation and utilization during the Oldowan at Melka Kunture (Ethiopia)’’, Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Oldowan (Eds. E. Hovers/ D.R. Braun) Springer, Berlin: 111-128.
  • PULLAR, J./ YELLIN, J./ PERLMAN, I., 1986. “Sources of obsidian from Tepe Abdul Hossein as determined by neutron activation analysis’’, Proceedings of the 24th International Archaeometry Symposium. Smithsonian Institution (Eds. J.S. Olin/ J. Blackman) Washington: 389- 402.
  • RENFREW, C. 1969. “The sources and supply of the Deh Luran obsidian’’, Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Deh Luran Plain. Memoir 1 (Eds. Hole, F/ Flannery, K.V/ Neely, J.A) University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor: 429-433.
  • RENFREW, C. / DIXON, J.E./ CANN, J.R., 1966. “Obsidian and early culture contact in the Near East’’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 32: 30-72.
  • RENFREW, C./ DIXON, J. E. 1977. “Obsidian in Western Asia: A Review’’, Problems in Economic and Social Archaeology (Eds. G. de G. Sieveking/ I.H. Longworth/K.E. Wilson) Boulder: 137- 150. RENFREW, C./ DIXON, J. E./ CANN, J. 1968. “Further Analysis of Near Eastern Obsidian,’’ Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34: 319-331.
  • STEVENSON, M./ MAZER, J. J./ SCHEETZ, B. E. 1998. “Laboratory Obsidian Hydration Rates: Theory, Method, and Application’’, Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory (Ed. M. Shackley) London: Advances in Archaeological and Museum Sciences Vol. 3, New York: 181-204.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Bayram AGHALARİ Bu kişi benim
Araştırmacı

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Mart 2019
Gönderilme Tarihi
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt , Sayı 25

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { tubaar925537, journal = {TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8566}, eissn = {2667-5005}, address = {TÜBA - TÜRKİYE BİLİMLER AKADEMİSİ Piyade Sokak No: 27 Çankaya 06690 ANKARA}, publisher = {Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi}, year = {2019}, number = {25}, pages = {11 - 26}, title = {ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI}, key = {cite}, author = {Aghalari, Bayram} }
APA Aghalari, B. (2019). ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi , (25) , 11-26 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/61846/925537
MLA Aghalari, B. "ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI" . TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi (2019 ): 11-26 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tubaar/issue/61846/925537>
Chicago Aghalari, B. "ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi (2019 ): 11-26
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI AU - BayramAghalari Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 11 EP - 26 VL - IS - 25 SN - 1301-8566-2667-5005 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2023 ER -
EndNote %0 TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI %A Bayram Aghalari %T ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI %D 2019 %J TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi %P 1301-8566-2667-5005 %V %N 25 %R %U
ISNAD Aghalari, Bayram . "ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI". TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi / 25 (Mart 2019): 11-26 .
AMA Aghalari B. ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI. TÜBA-AR. 2019; (25): 11-26.
Vancouver Aghalari B. ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI. TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi. 2019; (25): 11-26.
IEEE B. Aghalari , "ARKEOLOJİK VERİLERİN IŞIĞINDA ANADOLU - İRAN ARASINDA OBSİDİYEN DOLAŞIMI", TÜBA-AR Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi, sayı. 25, ss. 11-26, Mar. 2019

Bu sistemin içeriği ve TÜBA-AR'da yayınlanan tüm makaleler "Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0" altında lisanslanmıştır.

by-nc-nd.png